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Bibliotheca Digitalis Summer School: Bibliographic data – Definition, Structure and Problems (XVIth-XVIIth Centuries) - Patrick Latour


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Bibliotheca Digitalis. Reconstitution of Early Modern Cultural Networks. From Primary Source to Data.
DARIAH / Biblissima Summer School, 4-8 July 2017, Le Mans, France.
3rd day, July 6th – Establishing Bibliographic Data.

Overview of Primary sources of Bibliographic Data.
Patrick Latour – Library curator, Bibliothèque Mazarine.

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Bibliotheca Digitalis Summer School: Bibliographic data – Definition, Structure and Problems (XVIth-XVIIth Centuries) - Patrick Latour

  1. 1. Bibliotheca Digitalis Reconstitution of Early Modern Cultural Networks From Primary Source to Data DARIAH / Biblissima Summer School Le Mans, 4-8 July 2017 Bibliographic data – Definition, Structure and Problems (XVIth-XVIIth Centuries) 3rd day, July 6th – Establishing Bibliographic Data Patrick Latour Library curator, Bibliothèque Mazarine
  2. 2. Bibliographic data Definition, Structure and Problems SUMMER SCHOOL – BIBLIOTHECA DIGITALIS Patrick Latour
  3. 3. Bibliographic Description A few questions…
  4. 4. What ? • Informations about a special material object : a book • physical characteristics (support, format, dimensions, extent, etc.) • date of production • place of production • persons and corporate entities involved in the physical production (printers, booksellers etc.) • Information about an editorial project : a work • content of the book (title, subject, etc.) • persons or corporate entities involved in the intellectual production of books (authors, translators etc.) • informations intended to distinguish between variants (edition/impression/issue/state, language, etc.) • Informations about a specific copy • copy characteristics (binding, former book owner(s), binding, annotations, etc.) • localisation (links to catalogues of the libraries where the book is held today with shelfmark, inventory number, etc.)
  5. 5. Why ? • Identify and distinguish among similar resources ; locate specific copies. • Relate variants of a same work, works from a same author (or a same printer), etc. • Compile data (entities involved, date, format, etc.) which can be exploited, linked, re-used, etc. • Necessity of normalization, interoperability, etc. (référentiels, liens, etc.)
  6. 6. Who and how ? • Various communities • Booksellers • Librarians • Scholars • Bibliographers and others • Many tools closely related • normative (rules, norms, etc.) • technical (standards, protocols, models, etc.) • informative (catalogs, databases, systems of references, etc.)
  7. 7. roughly… Scholars, bibliographers and librarians both describe books but • it isn’t exactly the same object : for scholars, it’s a reference, for bibliographers it’s an ideal copy and for the librarian a specific copy • it isn’t for the same purpose : for scholars, the most important thing is to reference an idea or a quotation while, for bibliographers it’s to identify work / editions (and distinguish it from variants) and for librarian it’s to describe an object, part of his collection
  8. 8. Bibliographic Description A brief history…
  9. 9. Middle Ages • Catalogue is – first – a management tool • inventory • « summary » of a collection • Works (identified by title and, possibly, sometimes, author) take precedence over all. Some of them are absolute references in their field like Bible, Corpus juris civilis or canonicis and have their own internal references system. There is rare reference to a specific copy. • Informations are very succint (in most cases only title, sometimes with specific characteristic like binding or decoration…) • Classification isn’t alphabetical but topographical and/or thematic.
  10. 10. Until 17th • No rules for bibliographic description • Manuscripts and printed books are described together and in the same way • Only a few bibliographic data • author • title • date • extent • possibly a few physical characteristics (format, binding…) Still no « real » librarians but scholars and scientists begin to draw up bibliographies in their fields and, because of increasing of print production, try to distinguish editions and variants.
  11. 11. 17th – 18th • Better consideration of informations about physical production (printer, place, etc.). • Care in the books sales catalogs to describe specific-copy informations • Progressive adoption of « models » or principles for the struturation and presentation of the bibliographic data (Bodleian catalog, parisian booksellers system, Mazarine catalog by Desmarais, Bibliographie instructive ou Traité des livres rares by De Bure, etc.) • Libraries catalogs are oftently used as bibliographies (for exemple Courtanvaux or Paulmy)
  12. 12. Focus Naudé : scholar, bibliographer and librarian • Gabriel Naudé (1600-1653), librarian for President de Mesme, write his Advis pour dresser une bibliotheque in 1627. Two years later, he become librarian for Cardinal Guidi di Bagno at Rome (and in 1641 librarian for Cardinal Francesco Barberini). From 1643 to 1649, librarian for Cardinal Mazarin, he build up for him the biggest library at this time (estimated at 40,000 volumes) from a smaller collection of which he drawn up the catalog (Bibliothecæ Cordesianæ catalogus). • Naudé is also a scholar who write essays and bibliographies (Bibliographia Politica, Bibliographia Militaris, etc.)
  13. 13. Advis pour dresser une bibliotheque, presenté à Monseigneur le President de Mesme par G. Naudé P., seconde edition reveue, corrigée & augmentée, Paris, Rollet Le Duc, 1644
  14. 14. Bibliothecæ Cordesianæ catalogus. Cum indice titulorum. Paris, Antoine Vitré pour Laurent Saunier, 1643
  15. 15. Bodleian library catalog
  16. 16. 19th • France • 1791 : « Instruction pour procéder à la confection du catalogue de chacune des bibliothèques sur lesquelles les directoires ont dû ou doivent incessamment apposer des scellés » • Models or rules by the National Library (Léopold Delisle) : manuscripts (1884), incunabula (1886), printed books (Catalogue général des livres imprimés de la Bibliothèque nationale) • World • 1841: Panizzi’s rules for a « full and accurate catalog » • 1876 : Cutter’s Rules for a printed dictionary catalog At the same time, development of bibliographies (Hahn’s Repertorium bibliographicum, 1826-1836 ; Brunet ; Quérard, etc.)
  17. 17. Catalog like a bibliography… The Catalogue général des imprimés de la Bibliothèque nationale
  18. 18. 20th : rules, norms and standards Principes de Paris 1961 Points d’accès ISBD 1971- Description bibliographique Formats MARC 1969- Notices informatisées Normes nationales AFNOR AACR / RDA RAK Etc. Unimarc (1978) Marc 21 (1997) Etc.
  19. 19. ISBD (International Standard Bibliographic Description) It is a set of rules produced by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) from 1971 to create a bibliographic description in a standard, human-readable form, that could be used to exchange records internationally. especially for use in a bibliography or a library catalog. This is the standard that determines the data elements to be recorded or transcribed in a specific sequence as the basis of the description of the resource being catalogued, whatever its support or type. From ISBD(G), there are seven different ISBD according the type : • monographs: ISBD(M) ; • serials : ISBD(S) then (CR) for continuing resources ; • cartographic materials : ISBD(CM) ; • Printed music : ISBD(PM) ; • Non-book materials : ISBD(NBM) ; • older monographic publications : ISBD(A) • electronic resources : ISBD(CF) puis (ER) The reference version is ISBD International standard bibliographic description: consolidated edition (2011).
  20. 20. Cataloguing rules and bibliographic description close and different • Material object vs intellectual object • Cataloguing rules are a tool for libraries : they’re suited to identify and completly describe a book as a physical object, a specific copy, part of a collection. • Cataloguing rules are often too complete and complex for a simple bibliographical description : scholars aren’t librarians… So…
  21. 21. ISO 690 • ISO (reference version : ISO 690 : 2010) is the international norm which gives guidelines for the preparation of bibliographic references. • « It is applicable to bibliographic references and citations to all kinds of information resources, including but not limited to monographs, serials, contributions, patents, cartographic materials, electronic information resources (including computer software and databases), music, recorded sound, prints, photographs, graphic and audiovisual works, and moving images. » • ISO 690 specifies the elements to be included in references to published documents, and the order in which the elements of the reference should be stated.
  22. 22. Elements of the reference and order • name(s) of creator(s) • Title • Type of medium • Edition • Information about publication (place, publisher and printer) • Date • Series title • Numerotation within the item • Standard number • Availability, access or location information • Additional general information
  23. 23. Be careful ! • ISO 690 isn’t a standard for description of ancient bibliographic data but it’s a good basis to understand/come close to their structuration.
  24. 24. Bibliographic Description Elements, structuration, problems
  25. 25. Remember… • The data used in a reference should, if possible, be taken from the cited information resource itself. • Any element in a non-Roman alphabet may be transliterated or romanized in accordance with the appropriate International Standard. • Generally accepted bibliographic or usual terms should be preserved abbreviated
  26. 26. Main problem : lost, hidden and implicit informations • Structuration of the source (by format, by date, etc.) • Ellipsis to avoid repetition (ibidem, eodem, etc.) • Factorization (especially « recueils » in libraries catalog) • Language And above all lack of information ! For example…
  27. 27. And then what ?
  28. 28. Most common form (Creator) + Title+ Place of publication + Printer / Publisher + Date + (Format) + (Medium) + (Extent) + (Binding or Note or other physical characteristics)
  29. 29. Creator(s) • Problems : creator absent, hidden or masqued by the « first » creator ; pseudonym or form in other language • « To facilitate identification of a particular information resource, or because of relevance to the purpose of the citation, the name of any editor, translator or other person who has collaborated in the production of that resource may be added after the title with an indication of the role, so placed in the reference that the relation between that role and the whole or part of the information resource is clear. » « If a new edition, abridgement or updated version of an information resource is produced by a new creator, the name of the first creator should be used if it appears as a creator in the source ».
  30. 30. Title • Problems : ambiguous, incorrect various or shortened title ; translated title ; no title but only creator (citation) For example…
  31. 31. Pseudo -Cyrillus, Speculum sapientiae, [Paris] : Georg Mittelhus, [between 1494 and 1500] ([about 1497], 8°
  32. 32. Medium • Rare…
  33. 33. Edition Rarely present … but sometimes found by inference (mention of translator, editor, etc. ; indication in title ; format ; etc.)
  34. 34. Information about publication • Problems : form of the place (language) ; shared edition ; hidden publisher or printer
  35. 35. Date • Problems : multiple dates (date of publication, manufacture, distribution, etc.) ; form of the date (date from a special calendar system or other than the Christian Era) ; no date (manuscripts and incunabula) ; sometimes found by inference (“gothique”)
  36. 36. Additional general information • Format • Language • Extent • Specific-copy characteristics • Binding • Former owner marks • Condition
  37. 37. Identification Availability, access or location information & Standard number • If it’s possible to locate the specific copy described in the source, it’s necessary to indicate (text) library and shelfmark or to make a link (text or URI with OPAC). • If a bibliographic description exist in a database or in a ancient bibliography, it must be interesting to link (text, standard number or URI) it.