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Conventional Methods of Organizing and Retrieving Information


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Conventional Methods of Organizing and Retrieving Information

  1. 1. Conventional Methods of Organizing and Retrieving Information<br />LORD ALLEN M. HERNANDEZ<br />LIS 26 Instructor , BLIS<br />College of Education, Silliman University<br />
  2. 2. Library Tools<br />Early libraries concentrated on the physical arrangement of books on shelves in order. As the number of books increase, however, additional organization was necessary to make the content of the library collection more accessible.<br />Development of subject classification schemes, the card catalog and other tools.<br />Tools : Keystone of the structure for control of the library collection and are the basic finding aids.<br />
  3. 3. Library Tools<br />The Catalog<br />Serves as the library’s main index to the printed contents of its collection by indicating what material the library holds and where it may be found.<br />Forms : Card or Book<br />
  4. 4. Library Tools<br />Subject Heading System consists of the selection of words or phrases as main headings and the use of additional words and phrases as subdivisions.<br />Subject Headings --&gt; Alphabetical order<br />Sub-divisions --&gt; Alphabetical order<br />
  5. 5. Library Tools<br />CHEMISTRY<br />Analytical<br />Inorganic<br />Organic<br />Physical<br />
  6. 6. Library Tools<br />Drawback of the Subject Heading System<br />User will not always agree with the indexer’s choice – the semantics of the heading may change with time, and the concepts underlying the indexer’s choice may themselves change. <br />
  7. 7. Library Tools<br />
  8. 8. Library Tools<br />
  9. 9. Library Tools<br />Shelf list – is an internal library catalog generally available only to librarians.<br /><ul><li>Consists of one entry for every item in the collection and is arranged in a sequence which duplicates the order of the books on the shelves.
  10. 10. Can be referred to as “inventory catalog”
  11. 11. “Class catalog” – Cards are arranged by class number.</li></li></ul><li>Library Tools<br />Classification - logical system for the arrangement of knowledge. <br /> - Grouping together like things according to common quality or characteristic. <br />
  12. 12. Library Tools<br />The Classification Scheme<br />Classification is designed to organize books on shelves in a manner most conducive to their use. Many books and ideas are related either by subject or by some accidental property of the things beings classified. Thus books can be separated by such characteristics as language, alphabet, form, or date.<br />
  13. 13. Library Tools<br />
  14. 14. Library Tools<br />Dewey Decimal Classification<br />1876 – Melvil Dewey<br />The oldest of the modern bibliographical scheme.<br />Has nine main classes with an additional one for General Works<br />
  15. 15. Library Tools<br />Individual classes are represented by decimal integers.<br />Extensions, additions, and finer subdivisions are indicated by digits to the right of the decimal point. <br />
  16. 16. Library Tools<br />Library of Congress Classification<br />Created by Library of Congress in the late 1890s<br />Categories using letters instead of Arabic numerals<br />Utilized the best features of existing subject classification plans ;<br />Designed to satisfy the classification needs of the actual contents of the Library of Congress’ book collection rather than to meet a theoretical situation.<br />Continuing development<br />
  17. 17. Library Tools<br />Library of Congress Classification Main Classes<br />
  18. 18. Library Tools<br />
  19. 19. Library Tools<br />Universal Decimal Classification (UDC)<br />Developed by Paul Otlet and Henry La Fontaine<br />Initial purpose: design a universal classification scheme for bibliography.<br />Uses general principles of classification similar to Dewey’s but employs special symbols + / : <br />+ unite<br />/ subjects run in sequences<br />: employ relationships<br />
  20. 20. The Problems<br />Content Analysis<br />Impermanence – labeling of information at one point in time may later be imprecise and out of context.<br />Continuous Revision<br />Content of Books<br />Long and confusing notation – makes communication difficult.<br />
  21. 21. The Problems<br />“Changing order of knowledge makes that static perfection of any classification scheme impossible.”<br />- Kelley, Grace Osgood “The Classification of Books”-<br />The need, the interest, the material – all will change with time.<br />Any fixed classification scheme will be outdated <br />