CAUSATIVE FACTORS FOR DROPOUT AMONG MIDDLE CLASS
MUSLIM FAMILIES: A STUDY FROM KOTHAWA.

A
Dissertation Submitted
To
MSW P...
A
Study of

CAUSATIVE FACTORS FOR DROPOUT AMONG MIDDLE
CLASS
MUSLIM FAMILIES: A STUDY FROM KOTHAWA.

Submitted To:
Veer Na...
Declaration
I declare that the Dissertation entitled “Causative factors for
dropout among middle class Muslim families: A ...
Acknowledgement

My first and most heartily gratitude goes to the almighty ALLAH who blesses to all for his
divine through...
Index
Sr.No

Topic

Page
no
I

*

Acknowledgment
III-IV

*

List of Tables & Charts

1

Introduction

1-33

2

Review of l...
LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS

6
LIST OF TABLES AND CHART
Table no Content

Page no

1

Family

66

2

Occupation

67

3

Income

68

4

Family Income

69
...
17

Child’s activity after dropping out the education

82

18

Type of job

83

19

Wish to go to school

84

20

If yes, ...
INTRODUCTION

9
Introduction
The Problem
The basic objective of India’s development, according to the Planning Commission, is to provide
m...
the Constitution. Subsequently in 2002 education as a fundamental right was endorsed through
the 86th amendment to the Con...
(95%), followed by Muslims (65%). In 1999-00 Muslims had the lowest enrolment rate among
all communities, except SCs/STs a...
economic development and social change. Together, these pointed to three closely related
objectives: (1) the pursuit of we...
Middle Class Family
The 'middle class' is an over-used expression and difficult to pin down, since it is defined not just
...
going for Technical, Higher education is very less because of their financial problems and large
families. Most of the Mus...
Bihar at 81.5%. However, Gujarat’s dropout rate has shown a tad improvement since 2005-06,
when 60.27% students had droppe...
13,81,88,240 and it clearly tells about the need for proper care about the growing Muslim
Minority in India.
8. The Muslim...
•

The very purpose of education is to enhance the quality of life and life management
systems. Also to increase the liter...
•

It is our Prime Objective to run the Institution on totally virtuous highly disciplined lines
without giving scope for ...
The information obtained on theological education is significantly different. Though almost all
the respondents want theol...
compulsory education that the parents send their children .The reasons given for primary
education are indicated in table ...
thinking is that when boys are educated, they would be in a position to bring progress and
prosperity to the whole family....
for girls is sometimes accepted as a very important instrument for development, Muslims are
generally traditional and ther...
habits. Newspapers, magazines, books, radio and movies are the five habits connected with
learning, as ascertained from th...
(3)Separate schools for girls:
The respondents were very particular that girls’ education suffers beyond lower primary sta...
tuition was realized by a little more than 50% parents. These are the people who were interested
in pulling up their child...
raised with the respondents, a very disappointing note was struck. “Who is there to help us, Sir?
Who is interested in us?...
self responsible for this. Laziness is a major reason. Muslims do not get up quite early in the
morning and attend to thei...
respondents were highly critical of rich Muslims as well as the Muslim leadership. they could
profusely quote a few instan...
programmes. Jamaat-e-Islami is generally disliked as its ideology is anti-secular. People equate it
as a counter part of t...
Descri
iptive Ar
reas of Un
niverse:

Surat is a port & met
tropolitan ci in the Ind
ity
dian state of Gujarat and adminis...
Sex ratio: 764/1000 males
Literacy: 82.5%%

Geography
Surat is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapti river (dammi...
Recently the diamond industry has been struck very hard due to the slowdown in the US
economy. The exports have fallen sha...
college for commerce, arts or science degrees. Generally, engineering degree courses take four
years, while medicine takes...
versions. The 'Textile Directory of Surat' (5th. edition) comprising business information of
textile traders and industry ...
Research Methodology:
1) Universe of the study:The universe of this study is Kothwa village which is 10 km far away from K...
divided the population into these two division which are below and above the age of 22 years
and made the list of them who...
educated people to fill the questionnaire by themselves and in this method flexibility is
permitted in deciding the answer...
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

39
Review of Literature
Reviews of work on Muslims have pointed to the paucity of work on Muslims since
Independence (I. Ahma...
keeping in view Max Weber’s proposition that a major factor in the development of capitalism in
the West was religion. Min...
and that one could find in those societies a number of practices that went beyond the ‘five
pillars’. Women’s rituals, the...
theoretical question regarding the extent to which caste could be said to exist among Muslims in
India, and the explanatio...
which cannot be easily classed as one or another. Two points can be noted in this connection.
The first is regarding how t...
madrasas and government come from economically deprived backgrounds. (A thesis submitted
by Dr. Samiullah Ghanchi, CSSEIP,...
women and a high dropout rate at the elementary stage of education (Report, 1983). According
to the 2001 Census, although ...
feminine through socialization .Though girls education is gradually becoming more of a social
norm, it is still heavily in...
Though education in a government primary school is also free many families are more in favour
of the education in a madras...
is needed mostly for good behavior (79%) and rendering assistance in work (75%). This is
closely followed by letter writin...
Closely followed by this is higher education for security (86%). The main explanation offered by
them is that if the girls...
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families
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In this document causative factors are discussed for dropout of students from middle class Muslim families from Kothawa village in surat district, GUJARAT. It is social research (Academic Research) done as a part of Master of Social Work in Veer Narmad South Gujarat University (VNSGU), Surat

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Causative factors for dropout among middle class muslim families

  1. 1. CAUSATIVE FACTORS FOR DROPOUT AMONG MIDDLE CLASS MUSLIM FAMILIES: A STUDY FROM KOTHAWA. A Dissertation Submitted To MSW Programme, Dept. of Sociology, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat In partial fulfillment of the requirement For the degree of Master of Social Work Research Guide: Researcher: Ms. Rekha Mistry Shaikh Mo. Arifalam Mo. S Assistant Professor, Master of Social Work, Dept of sociology,V.N.S.G.U., Surat 2009 - 2011 1
  2. 2. A Study of CAUSATIVE FACTORS FOR DROPOUT AMONG MIDDLE CLASS MUSLIM FAMILIES: A STUDY FROM KOTHAWA. Submitted To: Veer Narmad South Gujarat University As the fulfillment of Master of Social Work Submitted By: Shaikh Mohammad Arifalam Mohammad Sultan MSW Programme, Department of Sociology Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat – 395 007 Gujarat 2
  3. 3. Declaration I declare that the Dissertation entitled “Causative factors for dropout among middle class Muslim families: A study from kothawa “is a record of independent research work carried out by me under the supervision and guidance of Ms.Rekha Mistry. This work has not been submitted to any other University/Institution for any Degree/Diploma. Student: (Shaikh Mohammad Arifalam Mohammad Sultan) Research Guide: Head: Ms.Rekha Mistry Dr. Parvez Abbasi Assistant Professor, Professor & Head Master of Social Work, Dept. of Sociology, Dept. of sociology. V.N.S.G.U., Surat V.N.S.G.U., Surat 3
  4. 4. Acknowledgement My first and most heartily gratitude goes to the almighty ALLAH who blesses to all for his divine throughout my life, this MSW programme and this dissertation. At this juncture, when I am submitting my dissertation, I honestly feel that this report of study would not have been possible without the support guidance, critique and direction of those who are associated with my academic and personal life. Foremost I would extend my respect and gratitude to Dr. Parvez Abbasi, HOD of Department of Sociology, Veer Narmad South Guharat University, Suarat, whose advises are very helpful for my dissertation and his concern for the students has always made me perform better confidentiality and Coordinator of the MSW Programme Mr. BahadurShinh Vasava for his valuable advice and co-operation during the dissertation. I acknowledge my deep indebtedness to my research guide Ms. Rekha Mistry who despite of her busy schedule spare time for me and guided my throughout my studying and my dear respected guide helped me at the time of any difficulty. And other faculty, Mr. Shital Tamakuwala for her constant motivation and guidance which kept encourages me. And my special thanks for our field-Coordinator Ms. Rujal Bhatt for her precious support and help during dissertation. Then I deeply thanks to all my classmate friends and hostel friends whom unforgettable support and motivation and I specially thanks to Gosai Piyush, Gamit Piyush, Fulwadiya Fyaz, Gohil Ruchi and juniors like Gmit Hitesh and Vasoya Payal for their valuable support which I never forget, thanks to all my friends. Last but not the least I thank to all my respondents without them this study can’t be possible and my I thank to all my family members for their support, motivation, courage for the study. Shaikh Mo. Arifalam Mo. S. 4
  5. 5. Index Sr.No Topic Page no I * Acknowledgment III-IV * List of Tables & Charts 1 Introduction 1-33 2 Review of literature 34-65 3 Data Analysis & Interpretation 66-98 4 Major Findings 99-102 5 Conclusion & suggestions 103-104 6 Bibliography 7 Appendix 105 106-111 5
  6. 6. LIST OF TABLES AND GRAPHS 6
  7. 7. LIST OF TABLES AND CHART Table no Content Page no 1 Family 66 2 Occupation 67 3 Income 68 4 Family Income 69 5 Children are getting education 70 6 No. of children dropped education in the family 71 7 Gender of children who dropped education 72 8 No. of male child drop out in the family 73 9 No. of female child drop out in the family 74 10 Drop out after the standards 75 11 Past scholastic performance 76 12 Personal reasons for leaving school 77 13 Economic Reasons for leaving school 78 14 School related reasons for leaving school 79 15 Social reasons for leaving school 80 16 Religious reasons for leaving school 81 7
  8. 8. 17 Child’s activity after dropping out the education 82 18 Type of job 83 19 Wish to go to school 84 20 If yes, then efforts for it 85 21 Advantage of education 86 22 Higher education- a better position in the society 87 23 Impact of higher education on child’s mind 88 24 Type of effects 89 25 Higher education- less religiousness 90 26 Education - change in life 91 27 Types of changes in the life 92 28 Provided vocational education to the child 93 29 Perception about providing vocational education 94 30 Preference to the type of education 95 31 Education - provided to girls 96 32 If yes, then the level of education 97 33 Educated girls - permission to do job 98 8
  9. 9. INTRODUCTION 9
  10. 10. Introduction The Problem The basic objective of India’s development, according to the Planning Commission, is to provide masses of the Indian people with opportunities to lead a good life. Since nearly 80 per cent people live in the rural areas. But when India became a free country, the immediate problem that the Government had to face is the curse of poverty with all its available resources. Further, since the society had vertical groupings, some commanding everything in life and some practically nothing in life, it became the duty of the State to remove this hierarchically inequalities. The Constitution of India provides for such a situation under the Directive Principles of State Policy as follows. “The State shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting as effectively as it may, a social order in which justice, social, economic and political shall inform all the institutions of national life”. The economic approach claimed priority in poor nations for aiming to increase the ability of the marginalized to buy food, clothing and shelter. The role of education in facilitating social and economic progress is well accepted today. The ability of a nation’s population to learn and perform in an environment where scientific and technological knowledge is changing rapidly is critical for its growth. While the importance of human capital and its augmentation for a nation’s development cannot be under-emphasized, its micro-economic consequences also need to be acknowledged. Improvements in the functional and analytical ability of children and youth through education open up opportunities leading to both individual and group entitlements. Improvements in education are not only expected to enhance efficiency (and therefore earnings) but also augment democratic participation, upgrade health and quality of life. At the time of adopting the Constitution the Indian state had committed itself to provide elementary education under Article 45 of the Directive Principles of State policy. Article 45 stated that “The State shall endeavor to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.” In 1993, in a landmark judgment, the Supreme Court ruled that the right to education is a fundamental right flowing from the Right to Life in Article 21 of 10
  11. 11. the Constitution. Subsequently in 2002 education as a fundamental right was endorsed through the 86th amendment to the Constitution. Article 21-A states that “The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age six to fourteen years in such a way as the State may, by law, determine.” The 86th Amendment also modified Article 45 which now reads as “The state shall endeavor to provide early childhood care and education for all children until they complete the age of 6 years”. However, despite this commitment the number of children in this age group who have remained out of school is alarmingly large. “The State shall provide free and Compulsory education to all children of the age six to fourteen years... ” (Art. 21 A) The successive governments have vacillated on enacting the Right to Education Bill despite the fact that Article 21-A makes it the responsibility of the State to provide free and compulsory education to every child. Since education is a concurrent subject, both the State and Central governments are responsible for it. By not passing the required legislation for Right to Education, the Central governments have abdicated their responsibility. As a consequence the educational conditions of the children of India remain precarious. The education of Muslims in India it shows that Muslims are at a double disadvantage with low levels of education combined with low quality education; their deprivation increases manifold as the level of education rises. In some instances the relative share for Muslims is lower than even the SCs who are victims of a long standing caste system. Such relative deprivation calls for a significant policy shift, in the recognition of the problem and in devising corrective measures, as well as in the allocation of resources. Here focuses on the differentials in levels of educational achievement amongst India’s Socio-religious Communities (SRCs). The availability of Census data on educational attainments by religion for the first time since Independence has enabled the Committee to examine the temporal trends in educational attainments. Human Development Survey, 2004-05 provides provisional estimates NSSO data (2004-05). These figures were compared with the 55th round (1999-00) to examine the trend in attendance rates overtime. It can be seen that there has been a significance increase in the current enrolment and attendance rates for all communities. The increase has been the highest among ST/SCs 11
  12. 12. (95%), followed by Muslims (65%). In 1999-00 Muslims had the lowest enrolment rate among all communities, except SCs/STs and this and this rate was 78% of the average enrolment rate for the population as whole. In 2004-05 the Muslim enrolment rate was slightly higher than that of the OBCs but was somewhat lower the average enrolment rate. A State-wise analysis reveals reasonably high enrolment rates amongst Muslim children in most states. In Kerala, Karnataka, Delhi, Maharastra, and some other states. The enrolment rates among Muslims are higher than the State average. On the other hand, in states like Utter Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar and Uttranchal enrolment rates are very low (below 70% of the State average). In fact, in Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand and Andra Pradesh enrolment rates for Muslims children are lower than all others. The NCAER estimates of current enrolment rates are lower than the NSSO estimates. The deference between the Muslims (74%) and the remaining population (83%) in much sharper. Development aims at not only increased income, but also change in the institutional structures. Many think that development consists of mostly material items. But there are others who include social and the non-material dynamics as well. If development objectives are to be executed successfully with efficiency and effectiveness there should be a planned approach. It is for this reason that the Government of India set up the Planning Commission. About six decades ago the First Five Year Plan was inaugurated. Since the socio-economic development of the rural areas is of crucial significance in the framework of integrated group and social justice, the Community development was a comprehensive self-help movement which embraced multi-phased development. After some years of experience, it was found that Community Development had failed in its goal because of certain inherent defect and therefore, Rural Development programmes were started. And again, Rural Development programmes are replaced by Integrated Rural Development Programmes (IRDP). Conceptually, Integrated Rural Development means multi-phased development of rural economy by exploiting to the optimum local resources in men, material, land and water. It includes agriculture, cottage and small industries, health and family welfare, education and social welfare, etc. Though the term economic development has been used for a long time, whenever the issue of development is taken up in India, social elements have always been included in the concept of development. Thus in Indian situation development includes economic aspects and social aspects. India’s plans were drawn up within the frame of political change. Together democracy, 12
  13. 13. economic development and social change. Together, these pointed to three closely related objectives: (1) the pursuit of welfare; (2) the search for equality; and (3) the desire for more even distribution of economic power. The importance of education for rural development was also stressed. Two aspects of education are central to economic development; general education for the masses of the people and training for specific vocations and professions. Today India is the second biggest market in the world and also one of the fastest developing countries but if India has to make full fast development, the biggest for it is the education, through education backward communities also get developed too fast. The education helps not only in economical life but in social, cultural and healthy life also. It is thus clear that the main purpose of India’s rural development programmes is to bring about radical changes in the socio-economic conditions of the people. Further, it is also evident that the main emphasis is on removal of inequalities and promotes integration among different sections of the population. Of the several sections of the rural population, Muslims constitute one important segment. Muslims in Indian States The conditions of Muslims in the princely State of Mysore have not been either studied or reported anywhere. Thus it is a real problem to assess the changes in conditions of the Muslims during the post-independence period. However, the census reports provide certain evidences on the demographic and literacy position of the Muslims. Economic status of the Muslims is conspicuously absent all along. A brief review of data available from the Census Report is presented here. The demographical position of the Muslims in the Indian polity ensures a significant role to be played by them. To-day they constitute 11.21 per cent of the population of the country. They are spread throughout the length and breadth of the country. In some States they constitute a formidable size of population. In Laccadive and Minicoy islands they form 94% of the total population. Jammu and Kashmir has 66 per cent. In Assam we find 24 per cent. Twenty per cent population of Kerala and West Bengal consists of Muslims. In the India nearly 13,81,88,240 of the total population are Muslims. Further 8,87,94,744 of the rural population and 4,93,93,496 of the urban population consists of Muslims (Census 2001). 13
  14. 14. Middle Class Family The 'middle class' is an over-used expression and difficult to pin down, since it is defined not just in terms of income, but also as values, cultural affinities, lifestyles, educational attainments and service sector employment. Using income, one way of defining middle class is in terms of how much of income is left over for discretionary expenditure, after paying for food and shelter. If more than one-third is left, that qualifies one for inclusion in the 'middle class'. The middle class of India is for whom most of the advertising is targeted. The middle class Indian normally lives in a fixed income. He has to manage his finance in a rigid budget. He wife selects reasonably good furnishings and uses modern cooking gadgets. He usually has a two-wheeler of this own. He aspires for the well-to-do lifestyle he sees on TV. So his purchases are generally materialistic in nature. Because of this he likes to make large purchases and pay for though the different credit facilities that are made available to him by the banks and other financial institutions. Present Education Scenario in India Today in India the ambition of Middle Class and Poor students to undergo Higher and Technical education is becoming a dream due to the huge amount of fees charged by the money minded Private Colleges. Postgraduate Courses are mostly self financed and the fee per year for MBA, MCA, M. Sc courses is more than Rs.20, 000/- per semester depending upon the state and reputation of the College. So for two year M. Sc courses a student has to spend minimum Rs.50, 000/- for tuition fees besides the huge Hostel fees and this are out of reach to Middle Class/Lower Middle Class Muslim students. Even for Prospectus of MBA and MCA courses the private colleges are charging Rs.350/- to Rs.1000/- depending upon the institute. If a Middle Class student has to apply for more than one course means he has to face financial problems. In a country where majority of people are groaning under the weight of poverty, hunger and increasing prices how the middle class Indian people will pay huge amounts for higher and Technical education. In the Krishna district and neighbour Guntur, West Godavari Districts (In Andhra Pradesh) there are considerable Muslim Population. If one observes closely they will find the number of people 14
  15. 15. going for Technical, Higher education is very less because of their financial problems and large families. Most of the Muslim students are stopping their education after Middle School and settling in self employment schemes like Motor Cycle repairing, Welding, Tailoring etc. We wanted to help this neglected people by helping to study Higher and Technical education. Definition of Dropout: Gaustad (1991) reports that the definition of a dropout varies widely, with different states, districts, and even schools within districts using the term differently. For example, some districts may not include students who drop out over the summer, or who leave school to get married, while others do include them in the dropout total. In addition, some districts may keep more complete records than others. For example, some districts follow up on students who do not return after the summer to determine whether or not they are enrolled in other schools, while other districts do not. Other variations may include whether or not certain types of nontraditional students (i.e., those who leave regular high school before graduation to enter correctional institutions, enroll in GED programs, or enter college) are counted as dropouts until they have completed an equivalency program (McMillen et. al., 1994). Dropout rates are about the same for males and females, but the rates are not the same for students from different ethnic groups or different income levels. In general, rates are higher for minority students and students from disadvantaged backgrounds. (1993) • Social and Economic Situation of Muslim Minority : At least 58 of every 100 students who enrolled in schools in Gujarat failed to make it to high school in 2008-09 – that represents the 16th highest dropout rate in the country. This data was released in the Rajya Sabha in reply to a question by Avtarsingh Karimpuri, an MP from Uttar Pradesh. Among 29 states and six union territories, Gujarat’s dropout rate of students between class X ranked 16, at 58.84%, which was higher than the national dropout rate of 55.88% in 2008-09. Among progressive states, Gujarat fared the worst. Of Gujarat’s girls, 62.25% dropped out and 56.24% was the figure for the boys. Sikkim had the highest dropout rate at 82.26% followed by 15
  16. 16. Bihar at 81.5%. However, Gujarat’s dropout rate has shown a tad improvement since 2005-06, when 60.27% students had dropped out before high school. This was the year when the government launched the kanya kelavni campaign to improve girls’ enrolment in schools. Sources in the education department said that most girls studied to class VII, and began dropping out only between class IX and class X. The data shows that from classes I-VIII, 46.36% boys dropped out and 40.75% girls dropped out. Education officials say the reason for quitting school was financial constraints followed by the lack of will of parents to make their children finish school. Principal Secretary, education, Hasmukh Adhia, said: “Gujarat is taking steps to stop dropping out. The secondary school enrolment ratio is 61%. We are trying to overcome this and improve. The government has already started 250 schools in rural areas so that more students complete secondary schooling.” Gujarat government has launched vidyalaxmi bond and insurance schemes like vidyadeep to aid children and support families which education their children (The Times of India-20/4/2011). In Andhra Pradesh State Government has accorded 5% reservation for Muslim Minority in Education and in employment in the month of July 2005 which was quashed by Honourable High Court of Andhra Pradesh (twice). At the time of implementing reservation to Muslim Minority in Backward Classes “E” Group, Government has issued press release where in the following points are worth mentioning. 1. The population of Muslim Minority according to 1991 Census is 11 Percent. 2. The study revealed that 65 percent of Muslims are living below the poverty line (i.e., whose income is below Rs.1000/- per month) 3. The literacy rate among Muslim Minority is 18%. 4. The lowest literacy rate is observed among Muslim women and is only 8%. 5. The study revealed that most of the Muslims are engaged in pretty businesses such as running Pan Shops, fruits and flowers besides working as labourers. 6. It is pertinent to make a mention that the percentage of Muslim Minority undergoing Higher Education such as MBA, MCA, and M. Sc courses is only 0.5% which is disproportionate to their population. 7. India though a Non-Islamic Country has large number of Muslim Minority. According to 2001 Census (data collected before the year 2000), the population of Muslim Minority are 16
  17. 17. 13,81,88,240 and it clearly tells about the need for proper care about the growing Muslim Minority in India. 8. The Muslim Minority population is growing at a rate of 34%. * Justice Rajindar Sachar Committee Report: The said report was tabled before Honourable Parliament of India on 30th November, 2006. The report clearly stated the necessity to uplift the downtrodden Muslim Minority in India. The report clearly states the lowest percentage of Muslim Minority in the important places in Government employment. 1. The percentage of Muslim Minority in Government employment is only 4.9% which is very less when compared with present population of 150 million Muslim Minority in India. 2. The percentage of Muslims in Security sector i.e., Police, Military, Air Force etc., is only 3.2 which is very low. 3. The percentage of Graduates is only 3.6% which is very low when compared with other communities where as this percentage is very less in Andhra Pradesh State. 4. 25% of the Muslim Children in the age 6-14 years age group has either never attended School or has dropped out. 5. The percentage of Muslim Minority in Engineering Education and in Jawahar Navodaya Vidyalayas (Central Government Schools) are very less when compared with other communities. 6. The Sachar Committee also recommended for reservation at par with Scheduled Castes for the Muslim Groups known as Arzals who are mostly working as butchers, washer man, barbers and Scavengers. 7. The report also stressed the need for infrastructure, health care facilities, and pucca roads for the areas where Muslims are living because most of the Muslims are living in slum areas. 8. The Report clearly recommended reducing the wide gap between Muslims and other communities. *The Sachar Committee’s Views: Education is the only way to increase the living standards of our Muslim Community and also education will equip with the skills to earn one’s livelihood. 17
  18. 18. • The very purpose of education is to enhance the quality of life and life management systems. Also to increase the literacy the Muslim youth will not fall in the hands of the fundamentalists. 1. Education among Muslim women is very less. If mother is properly educated, she will guide her children in their career. 2. The Muslim Minority are discontinuing their studies mostly after Middle School and settling in self employment schemes like Tailoring, Motor Cycle Repairing, Welding shops etc. This is mainly because of their inability to pay for education. 3. The number of Muslim Minority Higher Educational Colleges to take of the poverty sicken Muslim Minority are very few in number. There are good numbers of Engineering Colleges opened for Muslim Minority throughout the country but they cannot help the Muslim Minority because in these colleges, they can provide Seats to Muslim Minority but the fee is similar to that in Private Unaided Colleges and is Rs.25000 or more depending upon the State Government. 4. If anybody can kindly help the Society, the committee will be able to obtain government aid for payment of staff salaries of the Proposed Muslim Minority College so that the fee will be very less and nominal. 5. Muslim Minority Colleges run on non-profit basis to take of the growing Muslim community in India. 6. There are only two Universities to take care of the Muslim Minority in India. They are Aligarh Muslim University and Jamia Millia Islamic. But for Christian Minority, good numbers of Deemed Universities have been established by Christian Missionaries – Satya Bhama University, Allahabad Agricultural University etc. (more than eight Deemed Universities – self financed by the Missionaries). The Sachar Committee’s Commitment to help Muslim Students: The Proposed College will be a Non Profit making Institution. The proposed fees are much below the fees charged by even Government aided Colleges. 18
  19. 19. • It is our Prime Objective to run the Institution on totally virtuous highly disciplined lines without giving scope for any evil practices or habits maintaining silence during study hours and highly appreciable elegancies and manners with pleasant and congenial Climate. • 24 hours Laboratory and Library facilities will be provided. • Besides giving good coaching we will concentrate on building good character in students who are future citizens of India. • Unlike other Higher Education colleges, we will introduce Dress Code in our College in order to promote the sense of belongingness and equality. Educational development: perception, problems and motivation In the earlier chapter on “Educational Status”, the responses of the Muslims have been examined and the results indicate that the progress is very poor. Educational development is dependent on many socio-cultural factors, besides economic conditions, values, attitudes, motivation, etc., have profound influences over the participants. Similarly, certain problems inherent in the system of education or the participants themselves curb advancement. A brief analysis of these issues is presented here. Secular and theological education: Human development is the product of social life. Social interactions bring about tremendous changes in the behavioural aspects of people. Muslims live in a country where there is cultural pluralism. They have to adjust their social life both in accordance with the principles of their own religion and the norms and values of the broader Indian Society. This requires, therefore, both secular and religious education. The views of the respondents on these issues are discussed here. Secular Education It is further observed form the table that while 46 percent respondents desire education not more than upper primary for girls, only 24 percent desire this level for boys. Though about one-fourth of the respondents desired high school education, there is not much difference in their opinion about the need for boys and girls. But so far as college education is concerned, the difference in the parents desire is too wide. While just 26 percent respondents want college education for girls, 50 percent desire it for boys. 19
  20. 20. The information obtained on theological education is significantly different. Though almost all the respondents want theological education for boys and girls their desire is confined to basic level only. Those who desire proficiency in theological education are almost negligible. It is interesting to understand the basic philosophy behind the desire for certain levels of secular and theological education. The respondents are fully aware of the importance of Muslim development. It is not just a question of importance or significance of one at the cost of the other. To the majority of them the basic understanding of the Muslim way of life is that a Muslim has to lead a comfortable life in this world and prepare himself for a comfortable life in the other world. While secular education prepares him to meet the routine requirements of a mortal, theological education acts as an agent of social control over the affairs of the individual. The fear was that certain activities of Muslims would be detrimental not only to the society as a whole but also to the Muslims themselves. Theological education helps a man with secular education to adjust himself to the realities of the society and conduct himself in the best interest of all. As already pointed out, there is hardly any difference on the levels of theological education for boys and girls. But what is more significant about theological education is that, as already pointed out there is hardly any desire for proficiency standard. When further probed into the respondents could offer a very highly acceptable explanation. According to them, proficiency in theological education is not needed and is not possible in the case of all Muslims. This level is required for those who enter certain specialized areas of Islamic activities like Priesthood. But basic knowledge should be possessed by every Muslim, male or female as this would help Muslims lead a good life in the Muslims society and also a good life in the national policy. Perception of the need for education Perception of the need for or importance of education is the initiator of interest in education. The participant should have a clear vision of the outcome of education. It is only when they are convinced; it is possible to kindle interest among them. This is perhaps the situation with all backward classes. The position of the Muslims in relation to primary education as well as higher education is discussed here. Primary education: From the earlier discussion it becomes patently clear that most of the literates among the muslins have not crossed upper primary level. Even this it is no small achievement. What makes the parents provide even this much of education to their children? It is not anyway because of 20
  21. 21. compulsory education that the parents send their children .The reasons given for primary education are indicated in table 5.6. There are nine reasons assigned. These are: jobs, security, matrimonial alliances, letter writing, reading story books, reading religious books, ensuring family interest, help in domestic work and good behavior. While all these reasons are assigned to boys and girls, the intensity of the assignment varies between boys and girls. As it is evident from the table, in respect of the boys, primary education is needed mostly for good behavior (79%) and rendering assistance in work (75%). This is closely followed by letter writing and reading story books (59%). But the reasons given in the case of girls’ primary education are different. For instance, in the case of girls, the most important reason is security (79%), followed by matrimonial alliances (69%) reading religious books (68%) securing jobs(63%), family interest(60%). Letter writing and reading stories also accounts for nearly 50 percent. The main difference between boys and girls are that while in the case of primary education for boys, good behavior and assistance in work are the most important reasons, in the case of the girls, security in life and matrimonial alliance together with reading religious book are the most important reasons. Higher Education: The responses of the Muslim males and female to higher education have already been described. This dismal position has been there consistently during the last three generations. This warrants further explanation as to why the Muslims are not responding to higher education and further, if they have a desire for higher education, why they want higher education? The latter issue is taken up first. These are seven reasons assigned by the respondents which motivate them to send their children for higher education. These are: jobs, knowledge, status, security, good matrimonial alliance, adjustment in life and progress of the family. While all these reasons are applicable to the male children as well as to the female children, these are a significant variation in the opinion of the respondents for higher education to boys and girls. So far as male children are concerned a vast majority of them feel that higher education would provide opportunities in employment market (87%). They feel that if the boys are graduates or double graduates, they would secure jobs in Government offices and factories. The next important reason is that higher education would ensure progress of the family (57.9%). Their 21
  22. 22. thinking is that when boys are educated, they would be in a position to bring progress and prosperity to the whole family. The third reason is that higher education would enable their children acquire knowledge. The other reasons assigned for boys are status (34%), security (33%), better chances of getting girls from good families (29%) and adjustment in life (29%). So far as girls are concerned, the most important reason is knowledge (87%). The respondents feel that higher education would provide all round knowledge for development. Closely followed by this is higher education for security (86%). The main explanation offered by them is that if the girls have to face an unforeseen calamity in life, particularly after marriage, they would be exposed to many problems in life mostly connected with maintenance. If the girls are educated, they can stand on their own legs and face the challenges in life. Prospects of better matrimonial alliance account for 73%. It is the thinking of the respondents that educated girls would get better husbands. Forty nine % feel that higher education would make the girls prepare themselves for any type of adjustment in life. The other reasons assigned are: progress of the family (43%), status(34%), and job(29%). A Comparative analysis of the reasons given for higher education for boys and girls shows a few fundamental differences. While securing jobs gets the first place so far as the male children are concerned, it accounts for the least in the case of female children, though knowledge is an important reason for boys and girls, it is knowledge that is given the most important reason for girls’ education. Similarly, while higher education for security and good matrimonial alliances finds the second and third place in the case of girls, not much importance is given in the case of boys. Similarly, adjustment for girls than for boys. Further, progress of the family is more important for the male children than for the female children. Actual responses The second aspect of this question of higher education concerns the actual responses. We have known that the actual responses are very poor. And thus there is a conflict of values, a conflict between precept and practice. The respondents’ attention was drawn to this conflict and their explanation was sought. Three important reasons were assigned by the respondents for this conflicting situation. There are: (1) Higher education is a costly enterprise. With limited income, it is just impossible for the parents to think of higher education for all the children. They have to make some sort of adjustment in their family budget if they were keen on higher education for children. In this process, preference is generally given to the boys; (2) though higher education 22
  23. 23. for girls is sometimes accepted as a very important instrument for development, Muslims are generally traditional and therefore, they would not like to send their daughters to centers of higher education where co-education prevails. Co-education seems to be a social taboo. Separate higher educational institution for girls are generally not available in or near about places. Parents are generally reluctant to send their daughters to Hostels or relative in cities; (3) the third reason is a very important one. If higher education is a passport for jobs, and if educated Muslims do not get jobs commensurate with the qualifications, then there is thorough disappointment and disillusionment. Quite a few cases were brought to the notice of the author. A few graduates who could not get jobs were assisting their fathers in their petty shops. The grouse of the fathers was that even after spending a few thousands of rupees on the boy’s education there was nothing they could get by way of returns. Reasons Reasons for choosing medium of instruction were probed into. The major reasons given by the respondents are: (1) at the primary school levels, particularly at the upper primary level, Urdu, the mother tongue of the students, is the ideal choice as the children would understand better. For girls, Urdu medium is more feasible and practicable (2) Kannada medium is taken on two grounds namely (a) Urdu schools are not located or even if located, these schools body managed and (b) Kannada being the language of the state would help children in course of time.(3)English medium schools are generally not found in villages. Even in towns, they are generally not found. Even if they are located, cost of education prohibits a large number. At the high school level English medium is preferred because of the fact that (1) Urdu medium high school are not located in many villages. Anyway, when the children have to go to high school, the choice is between Kannada medium and English medium. And in this process, they prefer English medium as it is considered to be more useful later on. At the college level English medium is the normal medium and therefore these people have to take English medium. (Mumtaz Ali Khan, 1984) Habits connected with learning Besides formal education, informal education and non-formal education also influences the development of people. Quite often these in-formal educational mechanisms assume the form of 23
  24. 24. habits. Newspapers, magazines, books, radio and movies are the five habits connected with learning, as ascertained from the respondents. It is gathered that most of the adult males do not use any of these media of learning as habits. Even those who listen to radios or see movies, though constitute a large number here a very insignificant number listen to radios or see movies with the intention of learning for development. Even those who read newspaper and magazines, though the number is limited, hardily take them as mechanisms for equisition of knowledge. Reading books is the least that a very negligible number of adult females read newspapers when compared to the adult males read books. Another significant difference is that even though more adult females than adult males listen to radio and see movies, adult females have hardly anything to learn from radio and movies for development. So far as children are concerned, we find a large number of male and female children listening to the radio and seeing the movies. But what is said about the adult males and females about radio movies as mechanisms for learning is also true in the case of the male and female children. Reading news-papers, magazines and books is the least that the boys and girls can do. Motivation Motivation plays a vital role in promoting participation of the backward classes of people in educational programmes. Their value system and attitudes are so structured that their poor participation is credited to the biological nature as such. If these people have to be awakened, they have to be motivated. Mere legislation and verbal pronouncements will not help the cause of the poor and the ignorant. What is generally felt desirable to enable liberal participation of children is the structure of motivational factors. This motivational issue was discussed with the Muslims respondents. Barring a small number, all the remaining participated in a dialogue on motivational factors. The four major motivations that world help the parents are: (1)Financial assistance: Financial assistance on a liberal scale so that children are not kept out of schools for want of finances for education. (2)Opening of good schools: Good schools, according to the parents, included good buildings and good teachers. They were very particular about the latter. In fact, quite a few Muslims were highly critical of the Muslim teachers who had generally poor qualities as teachers. 24
  25. 25. (3)Separate schools for girls: The respondents were very particular that girls’ education suffers beyond lower primary standard as the parents become reluctant to send the grown up girls to schools where boys also study. Such a measure would assume at least upper primary standard in the case of girls. (4)Liberal assistance from the government: The respondents were generally unhappy with the facilities provided by the state for advancement of education among the Muslims but when their attention was drawn to enable participation of the poorer sections of the society in educational programmes, a vast majority of them were unaware of the special measures. Some of them were able to mention the facilities provided to the scheduled castes. Some of them had developed a feeling that the government had deliberately let them down. The government is worse them the step-mother according to some. However, 14% of them had received some benefits from the state. These benefits are; (1) Free supply of books, (2) Scholarship, and (3) Free ships. If these schemes are extended on a liberal scale as done in the case of the scheduled castes, it is felt that the Muslim participation would be much better. Another important motivational factor for participating in higher education is job assurance. many Muslims feel that this is the most effective motivation. Otherwise, disappointment and frustration among the other Muslims who may not be willing to send their children for higher education. Other factors involved in educational development Besides the various motivational factors suggested for promoting education among the Muslims, three other factors were also brought to light during discussions. These are: private tuition, parents’ participation in school function and social organizations. The cumulative effects of all these factors are likely to improve Muslims participation in education both quantitatively and qualitatively. Private tuitions: Muslims children, as is true perhaps in the case of other backward class children are generally poor in school performances. This is because of the parental background or because of the particular socio-economic system which is not conducive to the cause of the Muslims. Such children require additional coaching it is gathered from the respondents that the need for private 25
  26. 26. tuition was realized by a little more than 50% parents. These are the people who were interested in pulling up their children. Private tuition is provided in three places, namely teachers’ houses (81%), students’ house and any other place mutually convenient. It was further learnt that private tuition in a teachers’ house had certain advantages both for the parents and the teachers. If the child goes to the teacher’s house, the tuition fee charged will be less because more children are there. If on the other hand the teacher has to go to the students’ house, the tuition fee will be more and secondly, the problem of separate room arises. Anyway, this latter practice is mostly confined to the well to do Muslims. Private tuition is offered mostly in the evening between six and eight and in the day time during holidays. At the lower primary level, both boys and girls are mixed. But at the later stage of the upper primary and onwards, boys and girls are segregated and further, grown up girls will not be allowed to take private tuition from the male teachers. It was mentioned earlier that there were also people who did not feel the need for private tuition. These people who accounted for 59% furnished five important reasons. These are: (1) Poverty (36%); (2) Self coaching (24%); (3) Bright children (5%); (4) Good teachers (33%) and the remaining could not give any answer. School functions Participation of the parents in school functions speaks of the values of education that they hold. Thirty two % respondents said they would attend some of the school functions either to see the progress of the school or just to see the functions arranged periodically. Of these two advantages in attending school functions, as reported by the respondents, understanding the progress of the school prevails among many people. They feel that if the school progresses better, their children would be in a position to derive better advantages. Social organizations for education Muslim society as it is seen today has become a class-conscious society. Though Islam aims at equality in practice this is generally a myth. the main reason for the bankruptcy of egalitarian type of society is the non-participation of the Muslim intellectuals, the affluent people in taking up the cause of education among the Muslims in general and rural Muslims in particular. Whether the capable Muslims and Muslim organizations take up the cause of spreading education among Muslims is a very important issue in the present context. When the issue was 26
  27. 27. raised with the respondents, a very disappointing note was struck. “Who is there to help us, Sir? Who is interested in us?” Only about 14% respondents said that there were some people and organizations helping educational advancement among Muslims. Most of these persons were close relatives who were helping them financially and otherwise. So far as Muslim organizations are concerned, only a small number could say something about them. In fact, until recently there were no Muslim organizations involved in promoting education among Muslims. A few that exist are located in cities and certainly not in rural areas. Further, these Muslim education al institutions did not have their roots in rural areas and the system of education they are interested in does not promote spread of minimum educational standards. They are mostly confined to higher learning or higher education, particularly in the field of science and technology. And thus the rule of Muslim organizations is extremely negligible in educating the illiterate or seems semi literate Muslims masses. This is the outcome of the discussions held with knowledgeable Muslims. (Mumtaz Ali Khan, 1984) Economic developments: Perception, problem and motivations The economic conditions of the Muslims have been discussed in the relevant chapter. From this discussion, it becomes evident that Muslims are by and large subjected to poverty and distress. As seen in the case of educational development, even in matters relating to economic development, problems and motivations become quite relevant. Economic problems Muslims, as perhaps other backward social groups, have quite a few economic problems. The various economic problems that the respondents mentioned are: (1) low income (2) poor housing conditions (3) No savings but loans (4) Credit problem (5) Inadequate work (6) Unemployment land holdings. Who are responsible for the poor economic conditions of these people? The respondents mention five persons or factors responsible for their backwardness. These are: (1)Muslims themselves:The respondents could identify four important factors under this category. These are: (a) self (b) Muslim leaders (c) The Muslim rich people (d) Muslim organization. It is interesting to note that some people held themselves for their backwardness. They could identify reasons which held the 27
  28. 28. self responsible for this. Laziness is a major reason. Muslims do not get up quite early in the morning and attend to their work. They taken things easy want to command comforts, take rest. Large size of the family would neutralize whatever increased income is brought to the family. In the case of the low income family, large number of children has made their conditions unbearable. The respondents are conscious of this population pressure on economic conditions of the family. But whether this economic problem has really made them accept family planning is a different issue and therefore, that is not discussed here. (2)Extravagance:Spending above one’s means is said to be one of the reasons for the backwardness of Muslims. Of course, this is perhaps a universal truth. But the respondents were emphatic when they refer to extravagance. They were critical of people spending lavishly when they could affect savings. This type of avoidable expenditure is bound to lead to ruination. Some Muslims said that Islam opposes extravagance in private or public life. But still quite a few people violate the Islamic principle and face problems in life. The continued apathy of Muslims in general for education to their sons and daughters is held responsible for backwardness, according to some people. It is argued that Muslims neglect education when they are poor and also when they are rich. Similarly, in the judgment of some Muslims, lack of religious education is also responsible for backwardness. They feel that if Muslims receive religious education then they will understand the virtues of hard work, honesty and then can lead a better life. (3) Aspiration:Aspiration is a stepping stone as for future prosperity. If aspiration is lacking then the future of the children or even the adult’s is uncertain. Some of them do not look to the future. They do not aspire something better for their children or for themselves, in the years to come. If they have some aspiration to come up in life at least half way they can go. Otherwise, they cannot. Some respondents said that Muslims generally prefer to enjoy whatever is available today, but do not bother about tomorrow. This type of value system curbs their future development. Muslim elite and organizations The elite has a tremendous social responsibility in improving the conditions of their people, this is a duty cast on them by Islam. Self-cantered life is denounced in Islam. Even when one is not financially sound, one can help the backward people in many other ways. But the Muslim 28
  29. 29. respondents were highly critical of rich Muslims as well as the Muslim leadership. they could profusely quote a few instances where the Muslim political leaders had approached them for votes and promised many things. But after getting elected they were not to be seen at all. Social organizations have a key role to play in developing the backward people in particular. Often each caste group or religious group will have its own associations. Hopes soar high among the members that these organizations would help them. But if the associations disappoint them, then people’s confidence in the associations is lost. It is in this context that the views of the Muslims were obtained on some of the Muslims organizations. The various organizations known to some of the Muslims (no organization was known to more than 50 percent respondents) are : Baitumal, AL-Ameen society, ahle Hadis, tableeq-e-jamadt, Muslim Lengue, Wakf board and jammat-e-islami.knowlegeable persons appreciated the baitumal’s noble objectives which were in the nature of extending certain services to the needy Muslims. Donations and subscriptions are collected from the rich and middle class Muslims. But the experience of the people is that these Baitumal organizations are generally ineffective and misused, and often defunct. Al-ameen Educational society established in Bangalore city about a decade ago has good impact on the people. It is rated very high and people have enthusiasm in extending any support to it. But this organization is generally confined to higher education the doors of which are generally not accessible to a vast majority of the Muslims who have no interest in giving higher education to their children. The second weakness of this organization, according to some key persons, is that it is generally urban-based and hence rural Muslims are out of its reach. But people hope that in due course the organization may reach the rural areas and the rural Muslims. Muslims who are familiar with Ahle- Hadis and tableeq-e-jamaat say that these organizations are concerned with preaching and propagating Islamic principles and are useful to this extent. But they are generally not helpful to remove the day-to-day economic and social problem of the poor Muslims. Muslim League has lost its traditional hold and popularity. Many consider it to be out dated and a dead horse. And as such it is not useful to the poor Muslims. Its main objective is to enter election scene during every general election and create emotions among the Muslim masses and after the election it becomes almost defunct, though a vast majority of the people are not familiar with its historical role in pressing for partition of the country, somehow people regard it as not condusive to Muslims development. Further, it has no rural base and rural development 29
  30. 30. programmes. Jamaat-e-Islami is generally disliked as its ideology is anti-secular. People equate it as a counter part of the R.S.S. It has programmes for development of Muslims faced with economic and education problems. (Mumtaz Ali Khan, 1984) The Problem Statement: Today education is very important for the any community to get development, in the India second the largest community is Muslims, but their contribution in the fast developing country is very slow and minor level of their contribution and its reason is low education level among Muslims. Central Government is also serious about to improve minority’s life for the development. With Muslims, though they have financially support then also they don’t take high education. They sets their mind that Muslims are not going to get any Government service then what are the advantages of getting higher education. Through this mind-set, they make their child uneducated or not enough educated to get the better service in the government sector. And children or adolescents are also not interested in getting the higher education, family and also that child or adolescent is not trying to get/provide school education more than school education they put wattage on sports in that family also supporting. This is the scenario therefore researcher selected this topic for this proposes my objectives of the study are as follows: Objectives of the study: To know the perception of Muslims parents towards education. To assess the causative factors for drop out among middle class Muslim families. 30
  31. 31. Descri iptive Ar reas of Un niverse: Surat is a port & met tropolitan ci in the Ind ity dian state of Gujarat and administrative headqua f d arters of the District. As of 2008, Sur and its m o rat metropolitan area had a population o approxim of mately on. est Gujarat and n ninth largest in India. A moat divide the es 4.2 millio It is the second large city in G older par of the city with its na rts y, arrow streets and handso houses, and the new suburbs. s ome wer The city is largely recognized f its textil and diamo busines r for le ond sses. It is also known a the as diamond capital of India. Ninety I y-two perce of the w ent world's diamo onds are cut and polish in t hed urat in has hest rowth Surat. Su is also considered a relatively clean city i India. It h the high GDP gr rates in In at 11.5% as of 2008 ndia % 8. Coordin nates 21.1 17°N 72.83°E / 21.17°N 72.83°ECoo E ordinates: 72.83°E Country Ind State Gu dia ujarat District(s) Surat ne C+5:30) Are ea Time zon IST (UTC Populatio on:4,786,002 January 27th 2011 2on 21.17°N 72 2.83°E / 21.17°N Density: 14,658 /km2 (37,964 /sq mi) q Metro: 6 6,512,000 (5) (2009)) 31
  32. 32. Sex ratio: 764/1000 males Literacy: 82.5%% Geography Surat is a port city situated on the banks of the Tapti river (damming of the Tapti caused the original port facilities to close; the nearest port is now in the Hazira area of Surat). The city is located at 21°10′N 72°50′E/ 21.17°N 72.83°E. It has an average elevation of 13 meters. The Surat district is surrounded by Bharuch, Narmada (North), Navsari and Dang (South) districts. To the west is the Gulf of Cambay. The climate is tropical and monsoon rainfall is abundant (about 2,500 mm a year). Surat has grown in area since the early 1900s. The oldest part of the city developed in the area between the train station and the area known as Athwalines. Since the 1990s most of the new development including the most desirable location for the city's burgeoning middle and upper class is the area between the Athwalines and Indian Ocean. Climate Surat has a tropical wet and dry climate, moderated strongly by the Arabian Sea. The summer begins in early March and lasts till June. April is the hottest month, the average temperature being 30 °C. The monsoon begins in late June and the city receives about 800 mm of rain by the end of September, with the average temperature being around 28 °C during those months. October and November see the retreat of the monsoon and a return of high temperatures till late November. Winter starts in December and ends in late February, with average temperatures of around 22 °C, and little rain. Economy Surat is famous for its diamond industry and textile industry, along with silk and chemicals. It is at the heart of India's thriving diamond-polishing industry, which in 2005 cut 92% of the world's diamond pieces and earned India $15 billion in exports.It is a major production centre for synthetic textiles in India. 32
  33. 33. Recently the diamond industry has been struck very hard due to the slowdown in the US economy. The exports have fallen sharply and it has affected the entire diamond industry of Surat. Many of the thousands of diamond units in the city have been shut down due to negligible exports. Experts say that this is a black sign for Surat's economy if the slowdown in European and US economy continues. Over 200,000 workers have already been laid off from jobs in the diamond sector. The picture of the textile industry too is not good. The textile industry has been affected harshly due to the global economy slowdown. Surat is known as the textile capital of India, but exports have fallen steeply in past months. Job cuts have been a major issue in recent past in the textile sector too. Demographics The population of Surat according to new city limits is 42,74,429. Males constitute 56% of the population and females 44%. Surat has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 81%, and female literacy is 70%. In Surat, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age. Around 5% of the total population is Oriya, since many people come from Orissa in search of jobs; some of whom are then forced to return home, due to shortages of jobs in Surat. And KIM is the one of the biggest town of the Surat district at their there is a village name KOTHAWA (Dargah) which is famous for the sufi HAZARAT MAKHDUM SHAHID WAVA’S dargah, at this village many villagers depended on the dargah means their occupation related to or depended on dargah’s visitors. Villagers’ literacy rate is very low. There is school up to only 4 standard and till to 7 standard next village of this. And for up to 7 standard children have to go 3 km away from the village. Education Schools in Surat are either "municipal schools" (run by the SMC) or private schools (run by trusts or individuals), which in some cases receive financial aid from the government. The schools are affiliated either with the Gujarat State Board or the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE). Under the 10+2+3 format, students attend primary and secondary schooling during the first ten years and then may complete two years of higher secondary education, followed by three years at 33
  34. 34. college for commerce, arts or science degrees. Generally, engineering degree courses take four years, while medicine takes about five and half years or more. Most colleges in the city are affiliated with the Veer Narmad South Gujarat University. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, one of the NITs, is a premier engineering college, is also located here. Surat has a large concentration of colleges under the Veer Narmad South Gujarat University in the Athwa Lines area on the banks of the Tapti river. It has a medical college and three engineering colleges, including the prestigious Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat(SVNIT formerly svrcet or svr, among the 17 NIT's of India), some private colleges like Sarvajanik College of Engineering and Technology (SCET), and the C K Pithawala College of Engineering and Technology (CKPCET). SCET is one of the few institutions in the country to offer engineering degrees in Surat's main industry, Textiles. The 'Sir K.P.College of commerce' and MTB Arts and PT Science colleges are among the oldest in the state of Gujarat with PT Science being the only English Science college in the city. V.T. Choksi Sarvajanik College of Education is another well known educational institution. Sheth P T Mahila college of Arts and Homescience is exclusively for girls.. This grant in aid college is affiliated to SNDT Women's university, Mumbai (NAAC accredited 5 star). Surat has one of Private Medical College SMIMER - Surat Municipal Institute of Medical Education & Research, Dr.S & S.S.Gandhi College of Polytechnic Engineering, Majuragate, Surat Media Gujarat Mitra, one of the oldest and most respected dailies of the country, is the most popular daily newspaper of Surat and South Gujarat. Besides Gujarat Mitra, other dailies include Gujarat Samachar, Sandesh, Divyabhaskar and Commodity World. Local editions of these newspapers are published in Gujarati. Loktej was the first Hindi daily published in Surat. Rajasthan Patrika and Savera are now the top Hindi daily newspapers in Surat. The national dailies Indian Express, The Times of India and Mid Day are the most popular English-language newspapers. DNADaily News and Analysis is a new addition to the list of English dailies available in Surat. Since the city has the largest synthetic textile manufacturing center in India, there is an exclusive textile newspaper called Textile Graph. It is published in Surat, since 1994, in Gujarati and Hindi 34
  35. 35. versions. The 'Textile Directory of Surat' (5th. edition) comprising business information of textile traders and industry in and around Surat is also published by Textile Graph. Most cable service providers have local television channels. Satellite TV DTH services are provided by DISH TV, TATA SKY and BIG TV. Broadband internet connections are also available in the city. Broadband service providers include BSNL, TATA Indicom, Reliance Communication, YOU Broadband. Wi-Fi connectivity is available at many cafes. Radio Currently, Surat has four FM Radio stations along with the national radio Vividh Bharati. • Radio City 91.1 • Radio Mirchi 98.3 • My FM 94.3 • Big FM 92.7 35
  36. 36. Research Methodology: 1) Universe of the study:The universe of this study is Kothwa village which is 10 km far away from Kim railway station in the Surat district. The topic of the study is to know the causative factors for dropout among middle class Muslim families. 2) Sample of the study:There were almost up to 75 children who have dropped the education but from them nearly 55 children who came in to my research category which was age should not be up to 22 years and child should have dropped the education after 7th standard so up to 20 children were up to 22 years old so researcher has selected 50 children’s father as the respondents for the study. 3) Selection of sample:The sample design is concerned with two aspects. Firstly the number of respondents to be selected and secondly how are these respondents through sampling methods. The researcher utilized probability sampling method, while undertaking research process. There are various methods under probability sampling method like: a) Stratified Sampling b) Snowball Sampling Stratified Sampling: In stratified sampling the population is divided into several sub-populations that are individually more homogeneous than the total population and then we select items from each stratum to constitute a sample. Since each stratum is more homogeneous than the total population, we are able to get more precise estimates for each stratum and by estimating more accurately each of the component parts, and we get a better estimate of the whole. Researcher has used first Stratified Sampling for the data collection, at the area of data collection there were up to 75 students who have dropout the education but from them up to 20 students were above the age limit which is below 22 years but the researcher did not know the exactly how many and who are the students who have dropped out the school so researcher had made the list of the respondents who comes under the age limit of 22 years at this way researcher 36
  37. 37. divided the population into these two division which are below and above the age of 22 years and made the list of them whomever researcher knew. Snowball Sampling: Snowball sampling is externally helped in studying some special sampling situation. In snowball sampling we start with a few respondents of the type we wish to include in our study and who in turn are expected to guide us to get more respondents and so on. Like the rotation of snowball, sample increases in its size as we continue to get more units of study. Researcher has made the list of the respondents through that list, started the research and also researcher got other respondents through the selected respondents through this way researcher has got the total respondents and completed the data collection. Variable under the Study: Variables for the present study are as follow… Independent Variable: • Personal Information, • Dropout • Perception Towards Education Dependent Variable: • Economic condition • Education • Occupation 4) Data Collection:The two types of sources of data in social research are ‘people’ and ‘paper’. People are labeled as primary source of data and paper is labeled as secondary source of data. 1. Primary data The Structured Interview:Data collection methods will vary according to the type of information of researcher; the research question and the resources. For the study the researcher uses the structured interview method. Researcher selected the structured interview method because there are not enough 37
  38. 38. educated people to fill the questionnaire by themselves and in this method flexibility is permitted in deciding the answer and also giving multiple choices to the interviewee. In this structured interview method researcher include personal data, fathers’ education level, reasons for dropping the education and perception about the education. 2. Secondary data Data for the study collected through secondary sources also. The reports of Census, NFHS, NSS, other surveys and those such as Sachar Committee used for data collection and completion. Besides these, books, monographs, journals, newspapers and websites on the internet have been used. The researcher utilized the different libraries like library of the department of the Sociology, library of CSEIP, library of the university and library of the CSS. 5) Data Analysis:a) Coding sheet: It includes age, gender, standard, education level of parents, economical condition, different reasons for dropping the education and perception about the education etc…for example Family type includes nuclear code number (0), and joint code number (1). b) Master sheet: In the vertical side the numbers are given to the respondent from 1 to 50. The horizontal side was from A to AM. Code (0) is given to male respondents and (1) is given to female respondents, for the analysis of the data researcher used SPSS and MS EXCEL. Limitations: • Due to time limitation researcher couldn’t get more respondents for the study. • Due to age limitation researcher couldn’t include other students who dropout the education before some years. 38
  39. 39. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 39
  40. 40. Review of Literature Reviews of work on Muslims have pointed to the paucity of work on Muslims since Independence (I. Ahmad 1972; Madan 1995). Satish Saberwal (2005) have commented that there were ideological, conceptual and methodological reason for the scarcity of basic enquiry concerning Muslims at this time. He suggests that one of the ideological reasons for the neglect of Muslims during this period was that, following the trauma of partition, there was a tendency to ignore marks of difference within Indian society. Scholars working with categories of ‘Hindu’ and ‘Muslim’ could be accused of displaying a communal outlook. Conceptually , the focus on caste – an issue which – as identified with Indian society, and methodology, the disinterest of sociologists in historical developments, contributed to a general neglect of Muslims in sociology in India. The broad issues of sociological concern in the years following Independence took up the challenges and possibilities of modernization and development, while more substantive investigations were made of villages, caste, kinship, ritual, and issues of inequality arising out of the nexus of caste and class (Beteille, 2003). These were, by and large, looked at as large projects, and there seems to have been no thinking at that time on exploring the impact on different religious communities. Apart from this, there was perhaps a disinterest in religion, arising out of a need to commit to the values of modernization, in which religion was seen as one of the major handicaps to development. At most, the interest in religiously defined groups was with looking at features of religion that were mostly to play a facilitating or obstructive role in modernization. There were a few monographs that looked at issues that were specific to Muslims. Leela Dube’s Matriliny and Islam (1969) took up the theoretical issue of how a matrilineal kinship system works in a society which otherwise adheres to Islam, ‘which in its ideology as well as in its prescriptions, mandates and injunctions assumes and emphasizes a matrilineal social structure’ (Ibid.: 3). Pratap Aggarwal’s (1971) research on the Meos Started with the interesting question of why the Meos, who for about 300 years had been nominal Muslims, became more committed to their Muslims identity after Partition. Both these dealt with somewhat unusual situations, and both looked at religion in different ways. Mattison Mines (1972) looked at the question of entrepreneurship among a Muslim community in South India, 40
  41. 41. keeping in view Max Weber’s proposition that a major factor in the development of capitalism in the West was religion. Mines attempted to show that the Muslim community he studied was not lacking in line with other studies that looked at entrepreneurship among other groups, like the Jains, who were successful businesspersons despite belong to a religion which would be characterized as ‘other worldly’ by Weber. As far as the role of religion was concerned, the studies considered religion as one among other factors, and took as the backdrop against which they explored the variations and contradictions in religious practice in the communities studied. Apart from these monographs, there was little that specifically looked at Muslims, whether as separate communities or even in terms of the general demographic situation. It was this kind of absence that led Imtiaz Ahmad (1972) to point out that, whether one looked at village studies, or modernization and development studies, the absence of work on Muslims or, for that matter, on all the minorities, is striking. He was pointing to the lacuna in empirical work, since most studies looked at Hindu communities or castes; nevertheless, the question also raised the issue of how India itself was viewed. Imtiyaz Ahmad’s collections of articles written on different aspects of Muslims in India were an attempt to remedy the situation as far as the lacuna in work on Muslims was concerned. His four edited books published in the 1970s and 1980s put together articles on Muslims in the areas of family and kinship, caste, modernization and change, and religion and ritual. He articulated the framework that was evident in the articles: While Muslims in India (as Muslims elsewhere) believe in and practice the cardinal pillars of the faith, the practice of Islam in India is heavily underlined ‘by element which are accretions, drawn from the local environment and contradict the fundamentalist view of the beliefs and practices to which Muslims must adhere (1981:7). Many of the practices associated with rites of passage, customs, beliefs and social institutions were accordingly discussed in this framework, and accounted for either as ‘survivals’ or as ‘diffusion’ from Hindu customs. Rituals especially were described as ‘syncretic’. Since this was the major frame in which the research interest on Muslims in India developed, in the1970s and 1980s worldwide there was a growing realization among anthropologists that Muslim societies were not simple reflections of the ‘Great and Little tradition’, and the focus of sociological studies of Islam and Muslim societies studies, which had simply assumed that the textual practices as articulated by the Ulama were the actual practices to be found in the community. The focus on ‘lived’ Islam was an effort to bring into the sociological forefront the fact that Islamic societies were quite diverse 41
  42. 42. and that one could find in those societies a number of practices that went beyond the ‘five pillars’. Women’s rituals, the different ways in which the Prophet was emulated, healing rituals, Sufi shrines, and women’s rituals were some of the areas which were explored in Muslim societies. A number of variations of the ‘Great and Little tradition’ approach emerged, in which dichotomies such as ‘universal’ and particular’, ‘transcendental’ and ‘practical’, ‘purist’ and ’syncretic’, ‘orthodox’ and ‘heterodox’, etc. were used to describe what was seen as a conflict between the ‘textual’ and ‘lived’ Islam (see Roy 2005:32). Roy also points out that this frame, through which the problem of diversity of religious practices was addressed, resulted in a tendency to exclude as ‘Islamic’ those practices that did not fit in with the Ulama’s definition of Islam. Such practices were classed as ‘local’, ‘cultural’, etc. and their existence in the communities studied was taken as evidence of inadequate Islamisation or as evidence that the process of conversion was gradual and slow. The research question that was considered most interesting was how the local and the universal (or textual) were combined or contradicted in practice. In India, this kind of research question was exemplified in the discussion of caste. One of the major areas of focus in the late 1970s and 1980s was caste. On the one hand, the interest in caste was in terms of its ideological aspects. This was inspired by Louis Dumont’s Homo Hierarchicus (1980), which defied India as opposed to the West in terms of its approach to hierarchy. On the other hand, there were empirical investigations on caste, for instance, in village studies, which revealed how the field showed variation in caste not easily visible in the texture approaches of G.S. Ghurye or Dumont. The focus on caste as the defining feature of Indian society contributed further to the tendency to see India as primarily Hindu. For Dumont, India was culturally Hindu, and other communities, religious groups and categories were by definition, therefore, secondary. In Dumont’s work, Muslims society, which according to the textual sources, should have been more egalitarian. Peter van der Veer (1994:33) points out how the Orientalist assumption dominated not only the theories in the social sciences that dealt with the caste system, but also discussions on HinduMuslim relations, by relying on textual material for their understanding of the place of religion in Indian society. For Dumont, since the caste system was so primary, Muslims were marginal, because they were just like Hindus (in having caste), or marginal anyway either because they followed a ‘foreign; religion or because of their numbers, the issue of caste dud raise some 42
  43. 43. theoretical question regarding the extent to which caste could be said to exist among Muslims in India, and the explanation for it (see Lindholm, 1986). Imtiaz Ahmad’s book in caste (1978) had already pointes to the existence of communities which practiced endogamy or had other practiced endogamy or had other practices that were similar to caste. The book identified many communities which practiced endogamy and had restricted relationships with one another. Dumont’s discussion on caste among Muslims had looked at the issue only with reference to the textual contradiction between the normative egalitarianism of Islam and hierarchy of Hindu society. Imtiyaz Ahmad’s explanation for the existence of these practices among Muslims was that it was the impact of the wider Hindu society. However, an alternative explanation was also put forward. C. Lindholm (1986) pointed out that there were similar practices in other parts of the Islamic world, and that, therefore, the existence of the practices described among the different Muslim communities represented in Imtiyaz Ahmad’s book could be considered to be part of a larger cultural milieu than just the Hindu Indian. He pointed out that one should not only assume ‘assimilation’, but also question where and why there was resistance to assimilation. The focus on ‘lived’ Islam was a necessary corrective to looking at Islam in a historic manner, as the Islamist and religious scholars tended to do. On the other hand, the focus on the syncretic and exotic was at the cost of looking at the everyday and textual practices in their own terms, and recognizing that these too were embedded in the local culture and that they too could be of sociological interest. Unfortunately, the very focus on ‘lived’ Islam seems to have replicated the idea that there is a textual and a local, each clearly identifiable according to some external standard. Roy (2005) has traced the development of approaches to the study of ‘popular’ Islam and has lamented the tendency of social scientists to categorize the ‘popular’ as not ‘Islamic’. The point is very well taken. However, it seems that Roy replicates the division, even in the process of criticizing the Islamists and social scientists who have adopted this approach. He continues to talk of the need to recognize that the relationship between the two is not always antagonistic, that is sometimes complementary or may even involve inserting an ‘Islamic’ meaning or content into some cultural practice, in this way incorporating it into an Islamic framework. These processes are clearly visible at the empirical level. However, treating tradition in this way not only makes a distinction that may or may not be meaningful for those who actually practice the religion, but it gives fixity to definitions of Islam without relating these to the social groups they represent. Also, it once again has the effect of ignoring those practices 43
  44. 44. which cannot be easily classed as one or another. Two points can be noted in this connection. The first is regarding how to look at the distinction between the prescribed practices and other that are also done by Muslim in any particular context. Such distinctions have to be seen with reference to why that distinction is being made, in which context, by whom and with what effect. This means, first of all, recognizing the Ulama as one among others who are trying to articulate what being Muslim means to them. Studies of religion per se have gone into the background, and issues of nationalism, secularism, ethnicity, identity, pluralism and multiculturalism have come in for more close discussion. These discussions inevitably bring in the situation of Muslims as minorities. It is, however, the general approach adopted in these studies that has been of help even in work that is more directly anthropological and sociological. This is, no doubt, not only because of developments within India, but also because of events worldwide. The major advance that we see in the recent studies in India is that they are more historicized, they take the position that identities are social constructs, and that it is in the context of specific social and political developments that identities (including religious identities) take shape. Furthermore, there is a far greater recognition that culture must be viewed as dynamic, and that religion today is deeply influenced by political events. The realization that the position of Muslims needs to be monitored has resulted in some studies which have tried to survey the situation of Muslims with regard to specific parameters. For example, A. Ahmad (1993) and R. Jain (2005) have looked at the state of education among Muslims. Coming to the education of Muslims Danish (2004) argues in his report, it is based on a survey conducted in three districts of Uttar Pradesh that have a fairy high Muslim population, characterized by high rates of illiteracy and widespread poverty: Siddharthnagar, Barabanki and Moradabad. A total of 48 madrasas and 6 Government schools were surveyed and 216 madrasa teachers, 15 Government primary school teachers, and several students in schools and madrasas and their parents were interviewed for this study. In the Moradabad district it was found that 42.35% of parents of students in madrasas and government schools were illiterate, 12.94% had acquired secondary education and only 1.76% was madrasa graduates. Their average annual income was `  24,535. Of the 170 parents, only 4 were government employees. 10.58% were unemployed, 15,85% were daily wage earners, 42.35% were engaged in small income generation activities and 27.64% were artisans. In other words, the vast majority of students studying in 44
  45. 45. madrasas and government come from economically deprived backgrounds. (A thesis submitted by Dr. Samiullah Ghanchi, CSSEIP, Department of Sociology, VNSG University). It is further observed form the table that while 46 percent respondents desire education not more than upper primary for girls, only 24 percent desire this level for boys. Though about one-fourth of the respondents desired high school education, there is not much difference in their opinion about the need for boys and girls. But so far as college education is concerned, the difference in the parents desire is too wide. While just 26 percent respondents want college education for girls, 50 percent desire it for boys (Dr. Mumtaz Ali Khan, 1984). A study up on ‘Focusing on education for the Muslim girl child’ by Prof. Rekha Pande, Director of Centre for Women's Studies, Maulana Azad National Urdu University, Gachi Bowli, Hyderabad, she described that Education is a very important tool for creating a gender just society and bringing in empowerment to women. For this we have to start with the girl child. Unfortunately today if we look at the statistics there is a lot of gap between the education of men and women. Even within the context of education in general, there is a wide gap between the Muslim women and the women belonging to other religions and communities. Though primary education is free in India very few girls who enroll, continue their studies and drop out at some point or another. Education is a very important means for upward mobility and integration into the economy and society and if a large chunk of women are left behind overall development will take a back seat. Even though many changes have taken place in the role and status of Women in India, and also in the world, no spectacular transformation has taken place in the case of Muslim women. Their participation in the social and economic spheres is limited when compared to their female counterparts in other religious communities. In comparison with other major culture areas, the Muslim majority nations of the world have low rate of reported economic activity by women, low female literacy at all levels. Various impediment have been imposed on women by Muslim community by a role principally to that mother and wife and for all practical purpose denied her freedom to choose a role or a combination of roles. Though considerable steps have been taken and enrolment of girls has marginally increased yet social and gender gaps are wide and many of the girls drop out after the initial primary school. The 1983, Report on Minorities, declared Muslims to be a backward community primarily due to the dismal educational and exceedingly poor socio- economic status particularly of Muslim 45
  46. 46. women and a high dropout rate at the elementary stage of education (Report, 1983). According to the 2001 Census, although literacy among Muslims improved between 1993-94 and 19992000, their rates (67.66%) are still on average 10% below that of the Hindus (71.16 %). In rural areas in 2000, 48% of Muslims above the age of seven could not read or write, compared to 44% Hindus in the same situation. In urban areas the gap is much wider, 30% among the Muslims but only 10% among the Hindus (Census, 2001). In a study which we did in some of the slums in Hyderabad, India among the muslim girls, we found that of the 472 children, 298 are the school going children and 174 are the drop outs. In our sample among the boys, 6.9% were illiterate, 41.15% were drop outs, 44.32% were school going. Of the girls 8.36% were illiterate, 26.69% were drop outs, and 64.9% were going to school. From the 298 school going children, 45.30% of the children are boys and 54.69% are girls. The number of children who preferred English medium is 50.5% in which 44.59% are girls and 55.40% are boys which show that for boys english medium is preferred when compared to the girls, for whom a religious education is considered important. Girls percentage in drop out level is lower than the boys because girls are usually send to school after doing their houses hold activities where as boys have earn for the family, to overcome the financial problems due to the high rate of poverty. As the education level increases the number of children in the school decreases. A main reason for the girls, not being sent to the college is early marriage, and for the boys it is poverty. Due to their low socio-economic status they do not prefer the higher education for the boys. If the socioeconomic state is satisfactory, then they prefer to give higher education to the boys in comparison to girls because boys will be their bread earner for the family and girls would get married and go to another house. May people are sending their girls to school to educate the family or to become better house wives. Cultural norms as well as family livelihood strategies place girls education at a greater risk than that of boys. The making of gender identity begins in the family as children internalize what are seen as culturally appropriate qualities and attitudes associated with being masculine and 46
  47. 47. feminine through socialization .Though girls education is gradually becoming more of a social norm, it is still heavily influenced by considerations of marriage and status production rather than the need for economic security for the individual or her family. Thus when girls are ready for marriage and social taboos to their mobility set in, or there is need for extra hands within the home, or finances do not permit, it is girls who are more likely to be pulled out of schools than boys. Girls are at a disadvantage in relation to boys not merely in relation to their chances of school entry and retention but in the kind of academic environments provided by the home as well. Though schools are embedded in the larger social structure characterized by hierarchical gender relations and ideologies that devalue the position of women, attempts must be made to push the limits and explore the possibilities of change through schools, particularly as they offer public space that is obliged to be informed by principles of equality. Thus it is necessary to critically review school knowledge and pedagogic practices from the perspective of gender equity and provide meaningful learning opportunities for all children. The overwhelming finding of our survey is of conspicuous and continuing disparities in education for the Muslim women. While 28.66% men were illiterate, 38.66% women were illiterate. Even at the all India level most Muslim women have never been to school close to 58 per cent of women reported themselves to be illiterate and the school enrolment rate for the Muslim girl is high at the primary level that is 53.46 per cent, as we move up the education ladder, there is a significant drop in the proportion of the higher education. A major problem facing both boys and girls in this socio- economic stratum is that although they may be enrolled at the primary level, they don’t always remain in school. Many of the boys drop out in order to earn for a living and girls drop out due to marriage and low value placed on the girls’ education. Three crucial factors play an important role in deciding about education, the low standard of living, low level of boys’ education and early marriages. As the boys are less educated the parents feel if the girls get more education it can create problems for marriage. They still see education as a stop gap arrangement for marriage and not to make one independent and self reliant. 47
  48. 48. Though education in a government primary school is also free many families are more in favour of the education in a madrasa. They do not see the Government school as an effective means of social mobility. There is a need to modernize these madarsas and equip them also to provide formal education besides religious education. Many parents think that English education is good and a child would have a bright future if they are educated in English medium schools. Hence, this is a very important reason for modernizing the education in the madrasas and expands their scope by including other systems of education besides religious education. The low school enrolment and gender disparity are manifestations of poverty and the inaccessibility of the school system. Poor households also withdraw girls for supplementing the household earning or taking care of the siblings when the parents are working. Artisans, skilled workers and small business families do not see any advantage in formal schooling as it does not add on to their skills or their job prospects. As there are very few of these people in government jobs they do not see any advantages in formal schooling. Early marriage was a great impediment to girls schooling because there is an increase in incidents of dowry and parents would like to get their girls married soon. A large scale effort has to be made to create awareness and bring in education to people below the poverty line. Perception of the need for education Perception of the need for or importance of education is the initiator of interest in education. The participant should have a clear vision of the outcome of education. It is only when they are convinced; it is possible to kindle interest among them. This is perhaps the situation with all backward classes. The position of the Muslims in relation to primary education as well as higher education is discussed here. Primary education From the earlier discussion it becomes patently clear that most of the literates among the muslins have not crossed upper primary level. Even this it is no small achievement. What makes the parents provide even this much of education to their children? It is not anyway because of compulsory education that the parents send their children. There are nine reasons assigned. These are: jobs, security, matrimonial alliances, letter writing, reading story books, reading religious books, ensuring family interest, help in domestic work and good behavior. While all these reasons are assigned to boys and girls, the intensity of the assignment varies between boys and girls. As it is evident from the table, in respect of the boys, primary education 48
  49. 49. is needed mostly for good behavior (79%) and rendering assistance in work (75%). This is closely followed by letter writing and reading story books (59%). But the reasons given in the case of girls’ primary education are different. For instance, in the case of girls, the most important reason is security (79%), followed by matrimonial alliances (69%) reading religious books (68%) securing jobs (63%), family interest(60%). Letter writing and reading stories also accounts for nearly 50 percent. The main difference between boys and girls are that while in the case of primary education for boys, good behavior and assistance in work are the most important reasons, in the case of the girls, security in life and matrimonial alliance together with reading religious book are the most important reasons. Higher Education: The responses of the Muslim males and female to higher education have already been described. This dismal position has been there consistently during the last three generations. This warrants further explanation as to why the Muslims are not responding to higher education and further, if they have a desire for higher education, why they want higher education? The latter issue is taken up first. These are seven reasons assigned by the respondents which motivate them to send their children for higher education. These are: jobs, knowledge, status, security, good matrimonial alliance, adjustment in life and progress of the family. While all these reasons are applicable to the male children as well as to the female children, these are a significant variation in the opinion of the respondents for higher education to boys and girls. So far as male children are concerned a vast majority of them feel that higher education would provide opportunities in employment market (87%). They feel that if the boys are graduates or double graduates, they would secure jobs in Government offices and factories. The next important reason is that higher education would ensure progress of the family (57.9%). Their thinking is that when boys are educated, they would be in a position to bring progress and prosperity to the whole family. The third reason is that higher education would enable their children acquire knowledge. The other reasons assigned for boys are status (34%), security (33%), better chances of getting girls from good families (29%) and adjustment in life (29%). So far as girls are concerned, the most important reason is knowledge (87%). The respondents feel that higher education would provide all round knowledge for development. 49
  50. 50. Closely followed by this is higher education for security (86%). The main explanation offered by them is that if the girls have to face an unforeseen calamity in life, particularly after marriage, they would be exposed to many problems in life mostly connected with maintenance. If the girls are educated, they can stand on their own legs and face the challenges in life. Prospects of better matrimonial alliance account for 73%. It is the thinking of the respondents that educated girls would get better husbands. Forty nine % feel that higher education would make the girls prepare themselves for any type of adjustment in life. The other reasons assigned are: progress of the family (43%), status (34%), and job (29%). A Comparative analysis of the reasons given for higher education for boys and girls shows a few fundamental differences. While securing jobs gets the first place so far as the male children are concerned, it accounts for the least in the case of female children, though knowledge is an important reason for boys and girls, it is knowledge that is given the most important reason for girls’ education. Similarly, while higher education for security and good matrimonial alliances finds the second and third place in the case of girls, not much importance is given in the case of boys. Similarly, adjustment for girls than for boys. Further, progress of the family is more important for the male children than for the female children. Actual responses The second aspect of this question of higher education concerns the actual responses. We have known that the actual responses are very poor. And thus there is a conflict of values, a conflict between precept and practice. The respondents’ attention was drawn to this conflict and their explanation was sought. Three important reasons were assigned by the respondents for this conflicting situation. There are: (1) Higher education is a costly enterprise. With limited income, it is just impossible for the parents to think of higher education for all the children. They have to make some sort of adjustment in their family budget if they were keen on higher education for children. In this process, preference is generally given to the boys; (2) though higher education for girls is sometimes accepted as a very important instrument for development, Muslims are generally traditional and therefore, they would not like to send their daughters to centers of higher education where co-education prevails. Co-education seems to be a social taboo. Separate higher educational institution for girls are generally not available in or near about places. Parents are generally reluctant to send their daughters to Hostels or relative in cities; (3) the third reason 50

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