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2ND COT PPT related literature.pptx
1. Explain the purpose and basic
requirements of an effective literature review.
2. Discuss important points on proper citation,
it’s types
3. Apply concepts on paraphrasing
statements.
4. Cite sources appropriately.
 Review Literature and Studies
 Types and Forms of Citations
 Plagiarism
 Referencing for Resources
 When thinking about what a
literature review is, we need to
think about what it is for. What is
the purpose of a literature
review?
Word factory
- Group yourselves according to
the WORD you have received in a
rolled paper.
- Use the manila paper and marker
to complete the alphabet with
words related to Review of
Related Literature(RRL)
- Proceed using the K-W-L chart
 What I know about RRL
 What I want to know more about RRL
 What I learn about RRL

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2ND COT PPT related literature.pptx

  • 2. 1. Explain the purpose and basic requirements of an effective literature review. 2. Discuss important points on proper citation, it’s types 3. Apply concepts on paraphrasing statements. 4. Cite sources appropriately.
  • 3.  Review Literature and Studies  Types and Forms of Citations  Plagiarism  Referencing for Resources
  • 4.  When thinking about what a literature review is, we need to think about what it is for. What is the purpose of a literature review?
  • 5. Word factory - Group yourselves according to the WORD you have received in a rolled paper. - Use the manila paper and marker to complete the alphabet with words related to Review of Related Literature(RRL)
  • 6. - Proceed using the K-W-L chart  What I know about RRL  What I want to know more about RRL  What I learn about RRL
  • 7.  Establishes the terms and context.  Presents a survey of preceding literature on the topic.  Explores ways that others have solved similar questions/problems.  Outlines the relationship of these texts to each other.
  • 8.  Evaluates the quality and relevance of the literature.  Establishes the gaps or inadequacies.  Demonstrates your scholarly rigor.
  • 9.  The literature review is a critical look at the existing research that is significant to the work that you are carrying out.
  • 10.  A critical analysis of existing research in your field;  it highlights both the strengths and weaknesses of existing research  Allows you to gain a critical understanding of your field
  • 11.  Opportunity to think about what has been done in your field; opportunity to think about the similarities, patterns, trends and also differences across the existing research  By identifying strengths and weakness, you will be able to think about what has not/needs to be done in your field  The gap in the literature is your justification for your research
  • 12. - Literature review as an outcome: appears in the final draft of your thesis as part of your introduction or as a separate chapter. - Literature review as a process: critical engagement ( thinking, reading, and writing) with relevant research on your topic. It is a crucial and formative stage of your thesis journey.
  • 13. LITERATURE REVIEW can help you: •Focus on your research question •Develop your research methodology and data collection procedures •Identify a conceptual framework for your research •Identify gaps in previous studies •Identify flawed methodologies or theoretical approaches •Identify controversies in the research literature •Provide a check for testing your findings and conclusions •Help you make meaning out of your findings.
  • 14. 1. provide background information 2. establish importance 3. demonstrate familiarity 4. “carve out a space” for further research
  • 17. 1.Planning 2. Reading and Research 3. Analyzing 4. Drafting 5. Revising
  • 18. a. Focus -Sort and categorize information -Eliminate irrelevant information b. Type - -Theory, methodology, policy, qualitative, quantitative c. Scope d. Academic Discipline
  • 19. Sources of information: a. Primary Source b. Secondary Source c. Tertiary source
  • 20. a. Collect and read materials b. Summarize sources c. Select only relevant books and materials
  • 21. YOU DON’T NEED TO READ EVERYTHING – you can’t! You don’t need to read every text You don’t need to read every word Caution!
  • 22. Analysis occurs on two levels 1. Individual sources 2. Body of research
  • 23.  Start with an overview  Decide on organizing principles (themes, trends, methodology, chronology, controversies – usually a combination of some of these)  Use headings for the different sections of the review  Provide summative signposts of where your argument is leading  Summarize your review/highlight ‘gap’ in
  • 24. Tips for clear writing:  Clear introduction: overview of topic, aim of review and structure  Clear paragraph structure  Make sure the subject of your sentence is clear  Don’t assume knowledge  Make sure key terminology and difficult ideas are always explained thoroughly (ask your yourself: does it make sense?)  Be objective and balanced  Use signposts to orient the reader
  • 25. Types and Forms of Citation
  • 26. - One way to express the appreciation for the recognition of people’s ownership of borrowed ideas.
  • 27. 1. Find or give importance and respect to the other people for what they know about the field 2. Give authority, validity, and credibility to other people’s claims, conclusions, and arguments 3. Prove broad and extensive reading of authentic and relevant materials about the topic 4. Help readers contact the sources of ideas easily 5. Permit readers to check the accuracy of work 6. Save researchers from plagiarism
  • 28. 1. Integral: The author’s name appears in the sentence.  Example (author-date system): Lillis (2001) argues that both tutors and students often lack explicit knowledge of the conventions governing the construction of academic texts. 2. Non-integral: The author’s name appears outside sentence.  Example: Both tutors and students often lack explicit knowledge of the conventions governing the construction of academic texts (Lillis, 2001).
  • 29.  If it’s not your own idea (and not common knowledge)—DOCUMENT IT! - Paraphrase key ideas. - Use quotations sparingly. - Introduce quotations effectively. - Use proper in-text citation to document the source of ideas. - Maintain accurate bibliographic records
  • 30. Citing Sources: Things to Avoid - Plagiarism - Irrelevant quotations. - Un-introduced quotations.
  • 31. - A criminal act of stealing intellectual property subject for penalty or imprisonment. - To steal or purloin from the writings of others - To appropriate without due acknowledgement of the author.
  • 32.  American Psychological Association (APA) uses the author-date method of citation. The last name of the author and the date of publication are inserted in the text in the appropriate place.  When referencing or summarizing a source, provide the author and year. When quoting or summarizing a particular passage, include the specific page or paragraph number, as well. CITATIONS IN THE TEXT
  • 33. One work by one author:  In one developmental study (Smith, 1990), children learned... OR  In the study by Smith (1990), primary school children... OR  In 1990, Smith’s study of primary school children…
  • 34. Works by multiple authors  First citation: Masserton, Slonowski, and Slowinski (1989) state that...  Subsequent citations: Masserton et al. (1989) state that...  For 6 or more authors, cite only the name of the first author followed by et al. and the year.
  • 35. When a resource has no named author, cite the first few words of the reference entry (usually the title). Use double quotation marks around the title of an article, chapter, or Web page. Italicize the title of a periodical, book, brochure, or report. For example: - The site seemed to indicate support for homeopathic drugs (“Medical Miracles,” 2009). The brochure argues for homeschooling (Education Reform, 2007). Works by no identified author:
  • 36. Two or more works in the same parenthetical citation:  Citations of two or more works in the same parentheses should be listed in the order they appear in the reference list (i.e., alphabetically, then chronologically).  Several studies (Jones & Powell, 1993; Peterson, 1995, 1998; Smith, 1990) suggest that...
  • 37. Specific parts of a source Always give the page number for quotations or to indicate information from a specific table, chart, chapter, graph, or page. The word page is abbreviated but not chapter. For example: The painting was assumed to be by Matisse (Powell, 1989, Chapter 6), but later analysis showed it to be a forgery (Murphy, 1999, p. 85).
  • 38. If, as in the instance of online material, the source has neither visible paragraph nor page numbers, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it. This allows the reader to locate the text in the source. For example: The patient wrote that she was unimpressed by the doctor’s bedside manner (Smith, 2006, Hospital Experiences section, para. 2)
  • 39. Book: --Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The guide to everything and then some more stuff. New York, NY: Macmillan. - Gregory, G., & Parry, T. (2006). Designing brain- compatible learning (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Chapter of a Book: - Bergquist, J. M. (1992). German Americans. In J. D. Buenker & L. A. Ratner (Eds.), Multiculturalism in the United States: A comparative guide to acculturation and ethnicity (pp. 53-76). New York, NY: Greenwood.
  • 40. - Journal Article without DOI (when DOI is not available): Becker, L. J., & Seligman, C. (1981). Welcome to the energy crisis. Journal of Social Issues, 37(2), 1-7. Hamfi, A. G. (1981). The funny nature of dogs. E-journal of Applied Psychology, 2(2), 38 -48. Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/index.php/fdo
  • 41. - Becker, E. (2001, August 27). Prairie farmers reap conservation's rewards. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com Encyclopedia Articles: - Brislin, R. W. (1984). Cross-cultural psychology. In R. J. Corsini (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 319-327). New York, NY: Wiley. - Developmental genetics. (2005). In Cambridge encyclopedia of child development. Retrieved from http://0- www.credoreference.com.library.muhlenberg.edu:80/e ntry/cupchilddev/development al_genetics Online Newspaper Articles:
  • 42. - Hershey Foods Corporation. (2001, March 15). 2001 Annual Report. Retrieved from http://www.hersheysannualreport.com/2000/index. htm Book Reviews: Dent-Read, C., & Zukow-Goldring, P. (2001). Is modeling knowing? [Review of the book Models of cognitive development, by K. Richardson]. American Journal of Psychology, 114, 126-133. Technical and Research Reports (often with corporate authors)
  • 43. Data Sets:  Simmons Market Research Bureau. (2000). Simmons national consumer survey [Data file]. New York, NY: Author. Blog post:  Lincoln, D. S. (2009, January 23). The likeness and sameness of the ones in the middle. [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://www.blogspace.com/lincolnworld/2009/1/2 3.php
  • 44. Website with no author or date of publication: Census data revisited. (n.d.). Retrieved March 9, 2009, from Harvard, Psychology of Population website, http://harvard.edu/data/index.php Do not include retrieval dates unless the source material may change over time. If no DOI has been assigned to the content, provide the homepage URL. Reprint from Another Source:
  • 45. Citation in the text: (Newton, 1998/1999). Reference List Citation: Newton, W. (1999). Return to Mars. In C. Mari (Ed.), Space Exploration (pp. 32- 41). New York, NY: H.W. Wilson. (Reprinted from National Geographic, pp. 2-26, August 1998).
  • 46. Thesis Statement: Service-learning programs implemented in American undergraduate universities since 2000 have not only proven beneficial for the individuals or organizations being served but also for the participating students by offering opportunities for academic, emotional, and social growth. Prior studies have identified many benefits for educational institutions from service-learning programs. These benefits include positive perceptions of the university by the community (Miron & Moely, 2006), enhanced student retention rates (Eyler et al., 2001), positive teaching and learning outcomes such as greater student involvement and participation in class (Caruso et al., 2007), and increased opportunities for meaningful research and scholarly activities (Strand et al., 2003). Summary of key research
  • 47. In this study and related research, the individuals serving are university students who are collaborating with the community partner. The studied benefits to individuals serving include cultural awareness sharing (Crabtree, 2008), as well as networking opportunities and application of classroom learning to real-world issues (Bowen et al., 2009). Ultimately, service-learning stimulates student learning and engages students in their surrounding communities. Service learning creates new goals for students such as personal development, career development, moral development, academic achievement, and “reflective civic participation” (Lamb et al., 1998). These types of projects allow students to utilize material learned in the classroom to improve societal conditions Evaluation and application to thesis/ topic
  • 48. Integrating concepts and theories learned in the classroom with everyday life makes students more capable of highlighting the importance of each course. Additionally, material learned in business courses can be applied to benefit the community through a variety of tangible services, such as business planning or marketing new programs. Service learning is an excellent way for students to apply their course lessons to real-world situations and concurrently benefit the community. Analysis and synthesis
  • 54. Workshop Instruction: 1. Search for literature related to your research problem/topic crafted in session 2 2. Write Literature using proper citation 3. Paraphrase the original statement to a researchers idea 4. Present your outputs to last for 5 minutes
  • 55. 10 - Logical organization, precise expression of thought, spelling, punctuation, grammar, proper tense, professional language. 8 - Logical organization, precise expression of thought, however, minor spelling, punctuation, grammar, proper tense, and/ or professional language problems. 5 - Weak organization and expression of thought OR major spelling, punctuation, grammar, proper tense, and/ or professional language problems. 2 - Weak organization and expression of thought AND major spelling, punctuation, grammar, proper tense, and/ or professional language problems. 0 - paper did not include this element.
  • 56.  5 - The internal references and reference page conformed to APA Format.  4 - The internal references or reference page include one area of improper formatting.  3 - The internal references and/or reference page include two areas of improper formatting.  2 - The internal references and/or reference page include three areas of improper formatting.  1 - The internal references and/or reference page include four areas of improper formatting.  0 - The internal references and reference page did NOT conform to APA Format.
  • 57. “ Why settle for LESS, when you can do your BEST!” (Anonymous)

Editor's Notes

  1. In pairs, discuss what you think a literature review is for. Jot your ideas down on paper.
  2. Process group’s work
  3. How else will you define exactly what you’re looking at and where its limits are? How else will you know what’s been done already? How else will you select an appropriate methodology and approach? How else will you know what the different perspectives and debates are, and where you are coming from? How else will you be able to build on or reject it? How else will you justify your own contribution? How else can I have faith in your conclusions?
  4. What type of literature review am I writing? What type of literature am I conducting?
  5. What materials am I going to use?
  6. CAUTION/ PICTURE
  7. How do I assess existing research? A literature review is never just a list of studies- it always offers an arguments about a body of research
  8. What am I going to write?
  9. How can I fine tune my draft? OBSERVE PARALLELISM
  10. - To steal or purloin from the writings of another; to appropriate without due acknowledgement of the author.
  11. When quoting in your paper, if a direct quote is less than 40 words, incorporate it into your text and use quotation marks. If a direct quote is more than 40 words, make the quotation a free-standing indented block of text and DO NOT use quotation marks.
  12. When a work has 2 authors cite both names every time you reference the work in the text. When a work has three to five authors cite all the author names the first time the reference occurs and then subsequently include only the first author followed by et al. For
  13. The site seemed to indicate support for homeopathic drugs (“Medical Miracles,” 2009). Treat reference to legal materials such as court cases, statutes, and legislation like works with no author.
  14. NOTE: For articles that have a DOI, see Journal Article with DOI example.
  15. Process group’s output
  16. ANONYMOUS