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X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

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X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

Presented by Lalita Tearprasert, MD.

September 11, 2015

Published in: Health & Medicine
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X-linked Agammaglobulinemia

  1. 1. X-linked Agammaglobulinemia Lalita Tearprasert ; M.D. 11 September 2015
  2. 2. • Introduction • Epidemiology • Pathogenesis • Clinical manifestations • Diagnosis • Management • Prognosis Scope
  3. 3. Introduction • First recognized human immune deficiency • Discovered in 1952 by Colonel Ogden Bruton; Agammaglobulinemia - Case report 8-year-old boy, recurrent infections over a 4-year period - Majority of infections: pneumococcus - Bruton attempted to vaccinate him against this pathogen >> no gamma globulin was produced - Treated with monthly intramuscular injections of human gamma globulin with significant clinical improvement - No family history - Subsequent cases revealed a similar clinical phenotype with an X-linked pedigree Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition. 1144-74. Bruton OC. Agammaglobulinemia. Pediatrics 1952; 9:722±7.
  4. 4. Epidemiology • Incidence and prevalence - Unknown because general population screening for the disorder is not done (1/3 new mutation) - Prevalence of 1/10,000 in the general population - Varies in many country ex. 1/379,000 in USA, 1/100,000 in norway • Only Male Sigmon J. et al.Clinical and Molecular Allergy 2008, 6:5. Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74 .
  5. 5. P. Benjasupattananan. et al. J Clin Immunol (2009) 29:357–364. In Thailand • Reviewed medical record in the past 18 years at Siriraj Hospital • 67 patients (44 males, 23 females)
  6. 6. Notarangelo D.et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2009;124:1161-78. Notarangelo D.et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2010;125:S182-94. 85 % 5 % • 2 forms genetic in agammaglobulinemia 1.) X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) -- 85% 2.) AR agammaglobulinemia (ARA) -- 10-15% Agammaglobulinemia
  7. 7. • XLA caused by mutations in the human BTK gene • In1993, two groups of investigators independently and almost simultaneously discovered the mutated gene in XLA. - The European group called atk gene (agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase) - The American group called bpk gene (B-cell pro-genitor kinase) A compromise was reached with the term "Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase)" in honor of Dr. Bruton Pathophysiology Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition. 1144-74. Conley ME, et al. Immunological Reviews 2005. Vol. 203: 216–234. Vetrie D, et al. Nature1993;361:226–233. Tsukada S, et al. Cell 1993;72:279–290.
  8. 8. BTK gene • Contains 19 exons and spreads over 37 kb of DNA • Located on Xq 21.33-q22. • Consists of 659 amino acid residues • BTK gene provides instructions for making a BTK protein http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. February 2012.
  9. 9. • Intracellular signal transduction molecules • 75 kDa cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinase (Member of Tec family) • Expressed in many hematopoietic lineages except in T cells and NK cells - High levels in all B lineage cell except plasma cells - Myeloid cells and platelets • Human BTK shares 99% aa sequence identity with mouse and rat BTK. BTK protein Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition. 1144-74. Conley ME, et al. Immunological Reviews 2005. Vol. 203: 216–234. Kanegane et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol Volume 108, Number 6.
  10. 10. • BTK protein consists of 5 functional domains - pleckstrin homology (PH) domain - Tec homology (TH) domain - Src homology 3 (SH3) domain - Src homology 2 (SH2) domain - Catalytic kinase (SH1) domain • Catalytic activity resides in the kinase domain while the other domains are necessary for protein-protein interactions. • Mutations in all domains of the BTK gene have been shown to cause XLA. Mutations are scattered throughout the gene. Conley ME, et al. Immunological Reviews 2005. Vol. 203: 216–234. Hendriks RW. Nature Reviews Cancer 14, 219–232 (2014). H. B. GASPAR & M. E. CONLEY. Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 119:383±389.
  11. 11. Wang LD. et al. Immunology 2003;110411-20. Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74 . • BTK required for pre-BCR signaling • BTK is typically found in the cytoplasm but moves to the membrane during B-cell activation, where upon it is phosphorylated by a number of different kinases. • Association of the BTK SH2 domain with the B cell linker protein (BLNK) is required for the activation of PLC gamma by BTK
  12. 12. • In turn, BTK then phosphorylates a range of downstream targets, ultimately resulting in the activation of cellular pathways that govern vital B-cell processes. Conley ME, et al. Immunological Reviews 2005. Vol. 203: 216–234. Hendriks RW. Nature Reviews Cancer 14, 219–232 (2014). H. B. GASPAR & M. E. CONLEY. Clin Exp Immunol 2000; 119:383±389.
  13. 13. • BTK was found to be already expressed in very early stages of B cell differentiati chain gene rearrangements • The loss of btk expression coincides with the loss of cell division capacity and of several membrane B cell antigens, such as sIg, CD19, CD20, CD22, CD24, CD40 and CD72 • In very early stages of B cell development the btk gene product may be present in an inactive form which is activated, e.g. by phosphorylation, in the pre-B cell stage through interactions with other B-lineage signalling molecules. • BTK protein is absent in most patients with XLA De Weers M. et al. Eur J Immunol. 1993;23:3109-14
  14. 14. • More than 600 different mutations in the BTK gene have been found. • 80%–90% have identified mutations - 90% : Single base pair substitution & insertion or deletion < 5 base pair 10%–20% not clear ( have mutations that are not easily detected or have disorders that are phenotypically similar to XLA but are caused by different gene defects ) • Mutations in BTK are highly variable. • No clear correlation has been found between mutation location and clinical phenotype. Conley et al. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 62:1034–1043, 1998. http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/ A service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine. February 2012. BTK gene mutation Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition. 1144-74.
  15. 15. • 55% of males have no family history of XLA 2 possibilities exist: 1.) De novo causing mutation : 15%-20% of cases 2.) Mother is a carrier of a disease-causing mutation : 80%-85% of cases • Female carriers of XLA can be identified by the presence of either nonrandom X chromosome inactivation in their B cells or the mutated gene (if known in the family) Pagon RA.,et al. GeneReviews. Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74 .
  16. 16. Wattanasirichaigoon D.et al. J Hum Genet (2006) 51:1006–1014. • First report of mutations of BTK from Thailand • 4 novel and 3 known BTK-mutations (6 Thai and 1 Burmese) • 6 were sporadic
  17. 17. B cell maturation Pieper K., et al. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2013;131:959-71. ARA XLA
  18. 18. • X-linked recessive : Male • Asymptomatic during the first few months of life because of the protection by maternally derived IgG antibodies. • Onset around 4-6 months • Recurrent bacterial infections, particularly otitis media, sinusitis and pneumonia, in the first 1 years of life. (60-80%) Clinical manifestations Practice parameter for diagnosis and management of primary immune deficiency. AAAI. Volume 94, May 2005. Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74.
  19. 19. • May be systemic (e.g., meningitis or septicemia) or involve mucous membrane surfaces (sinusitis, pneumonia, otitis, conjunctivitis, or gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections), joints (septic arthritis), or skin (cellulitis or abscesses) • Bronchiectasis or persistent enteroviral infections develop • Growth and development usually are normal • Autoimmune disorders do not seem to be a frequent problem in patients with XLA, unlike in patients with CVID. Ballow M. J Allergy Clin Immunol. April 2002. Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74 . Trakultivakorn and Ochs. Asian pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2006) 24: 57-63.
  20. 20. • Majority of patients are diagnosed < 5 years of age (Mean 35 months) • 20% diagnosed within the first year of life Conley ME, et al. Immunological Reviews 2005. Vol. 203: 216–234.
  21. 21. Plebani A. Clinical Immunology Vol. 104, No. 3, September; 221–230, 2002. 73 males
  22. 22. • 6 patients with XLA • Mean age of onset was 2.5 years • Mean age at diagnosis was 7.3 years • Pneumonia being the predominant manifestation • Bronchiectasis 5/6 • Most H.influenzae f Trakultivakorn and Ochs. Asian pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2006) 24: 57-63.
  23. 23. • Predisposition for malignancy : less clear - Filipovich and Shapiro reported that 4.2% of patients in an immune deficiency cancer registry had XLA. Lymphoreticular and gastrointestinal malignancies were the most common Physical examinations • Tonsils, adenoids, and peripheral lymph nodes are very small because of the absence of germinal centers and fail to undergo normal hypertrophy in response to infection. Ballow M. J Allergy Clin Immunol. April 2002. Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74 . Trakultivakorn and Ochs. Asian pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2006) 24: 57-63.
  24. 24. • Rarely, patients with XLA also have a short stature caused by growth hormone deficiency. • A newly discovered mutation in myeloid elf-1–like (MEF gene) • Only known to occur in a single family, shares many features with XLA • These patients must be distinguished from patients with XLA who have poor growth secondary to malnutrition. • 2/4 patients (II-4 and III-3) - recurrent otitis media, rhinitis, and conjunctivitis • 1 pateint (II-3) monoarticular arthritis • The youngest (III-4) asymtopmatic • pan-hypogammaglobulinemia and isolated growth hormone deficiency Stewart M.et al. Immunol Res (2008) 40:262–270.
  25. 25. • Mild or "leaky" phenotype (Rare : Late onset) - less severe disease, lack repeated infection in childhood - The block in B-cell differentiation may be leaky, resulting in some Ig synthesis (B cells > 2%) - Ddx : CVID may also present with profound hypogammaglobulinemia and markedly reduced numbers of B cells. Molecular analysis for mutations in BTK is necessary to distinguish CVID from patients with XLA. Ballow M. J Allergy Clin Immunol. April 2002. Trakultivakorn and Ochs. Asian pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2006) 24: 57-63. Usui K, Sasahara Y, Tazawa R, et al. Respir Res 2001.
  26. 26. • The case presented here is the only adult-onset case of the 107 cases in the XLA registry of the Ministry of Health and Welfare, Japan • patient's BTK gene was sequenced • found to have a 2 base pair (AG) deletion in the codon for Glu605 (AGT) in exon 18 that encodes a part of the kinase domain of the BTK protein. Usui K, Sasahara Y, Tazawa R, et al. Respir Res 2001.
  27. 27. • A 51-year-old male presenting with chronic nasal congestion, recurrent sinusitis,sporadic pneumonia,and pronounced B cell deficiency. • A family history suggestive of an XLA was noted. • A mutation(Cys 145 --> StoP)was identified in Btk cDNA and was confirmed in amplified exon6 of genomic DNA from both the proband and an affected nephew. MolecularMedicine,Volume2, Number5, September1996.
  28. 28. • 10-month-old Japanese girl • Frequent respiratory infections and otitis media during the last 2 months. • Nonconsanguineous parents • Her father was diagnosed XLA at the age of 3 years , Healthy mother • Low serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, and IgM • Found a mutation in the first single base pair of intron 11 (G >A) of BTK gene in her father and heterozygous mutation in the patient at the same site • Patient was diagnosed as having XLA associated with a defect of BTK caused by heterozygous abnormality of the BTK gene and nonrandom X inactivation of maternally derived X chromosome in which normal BTK gene is located Takada H. et al. Blood 2004;103:185-7.
  29. 29. - Encapsulated organisms (pneumococci, streptococci, and Haemophilus influenzae) - High-grade pathogens (meningococci, staphylococci, Pseudomonas organisms, and various species of Mycoplasma) - Resistance to viral infection is usually normal, except >> enteroviruses (coxsackie, echovirus) that may result in vaccine-related paralytic poliomyelitis or a dermatomyositis- meningoencephalitis syndrome >> hepatitis viruses >> poliovirus - Giardia, Cryptosporidium cause diarrhea - Ureaplasma and Mycoplasma cause jount infections, urogenital tract Pathogens Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74 . Trakultivakorn and Ochs. Asian pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2006) 24: 57-63.
  30. 30. Diagnosis • Family history • Clinical manifestations • Laboratory - Intermittent neutropenia can occur, particularly at onset of an acute infection. - Low serum IgG, IgM and IgA level - Peripheral blood CD19 B-cell counts < 2% Practice parameter for diagnosis and management of primary immune deficiency. AAAI. Volume 94, May 2005. Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74.
  31. 31. Pagon RA.,et al. GeneReviews. • Gene mutation 1.) Prenatal diagnosis also has been accomplished by detection of the mutated gene in chorionic villus or amniocentesis samples 2.) Confirmed by demonstrating - absence of BTK protein in monocytes or platelets - detection of a mutation in BTK in DNA
  32. 32. Pagon RA.,et al. GeneReviews.
  33. 33. • 10% to 15% of agammaglobulinemic patients • Clinically indistinguishable from XLA • Either sex • Suspected in - Female patients with agammaglobulinemia - Families with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance - Consanguinity - Agammaglobulinemic male patients in whom BTK mutations cannot be identified AR agammaglobulinemia Trakultivakorn and Ochs. Asian pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2006) 24: 57-63.
  34. 34. • Mutations in the genes encoding immunoglobulin heavy or light chains or their associated signaling molecules lead to agammaglobulinemia or hypogammaglobulinemia • Most defects in the μ heavy chain (IGHM) gene (chromosome 14) • Early onset infections, tend to be younger at the age of diagnosis and and more complications than XLA • B cells are absent in their peripheral blood, while most XLA patients have a small number of circulating B cells Yel L.et al. N Engl J Med 1996; 335:1486-93. Lopez Granados E. et al. J Clin Invest. 2002;110:1029-35.
  35. 35. • Defining the genetic etiology of antibody deficiencies is important for subsequent genetic counseling, carrier detection, and prenatal diagnosis. • Early diagnosis and treatment would improve the survival. • Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and antibiotic prophylaxis were the conventional treatments which resulted in an increasing survival rate. • Gene therapy of XLA could be considered as a paradigm for future. Treatment Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74 . P. Benjasupattananan. et al. J Clin Immunol (2009) 29:357–364. Moreau T.et al.Current Gene Therapy.Volume 7, Issue 4;284 - 294.
  36. 36. • 1950s, 1960s, and 1970 - Treated with plasma therapy or intramuscular gamma globulin, therapies that provided only low concentrations of serum IgG. - The majority of patients died with an acute infection, chronic lung disease or enteroviral encephalitis before they reached adulthood. • Mid1980s, IVIG came into common use. - Achieve normal or near normal concentrations of IgG. - When coupled with aggressive use of antibiotics, IVIG has markedly improved the outcome of patients with XLA. Conley ME, et al. Immunological Reviews 2005. Vol. 203: 216–234. IVIG
  37. 37. • IVIG at a dose of 400-800 mg/kg every 3 to 4 weeks. • Keep trough IgG > 500 mg./dl. • Trough serum IgG levels > 800 mg/dL may be necessary to fully prevent chronic sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and enteroviral infections. • Despite receiving IVIG, some patients develop persistent enteroviral infections or crippling sinopulmonary disease, because no effective means exists for replacing secretory IgA at the mucosal surface. Ballow M. J Allergy Clin Immunol. April 2002. Conley ME, et al. Immunological Reviews 2005. Vol. 203: 216–234.
  38. 38. • Patients may benefit from prophylaxis, although there are no controlled studies that provide evidence for their use and wide variations in practice are observed • Typically SMX-TMP (United States used in approximately 50%, Europe in 14%) Antibiotic prophylaxis Kuruvilla and De la Morena. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2013. • Chronic antibiotic therapy in addition to IVIG infusions can be effective for management of pansinusitis or bronchiectasis Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74 .
  39. 39. Vaccination Immune deficiency foundation. Volume 1 Issue 1 October 1998.
  40. 40. Prognosis • Good (if early IVIG replacement therapy, and in the absence of polio, other persistent enteroviral infections, arthritis, or lymphoreticular malignancy) • A full active lifestyle is to be encouraged and expected. • Long-term follow up - Bronchiectasis and gastroenteritis may occur despite IVIG treatment. - Close monitoring and aggressive treatment of acute or chronic infections are essential Practice parameter for diagnosis and management of primary immune deficiency. AAAI. Volume 94, May 2005. Thomas A.E. Plattes-Mills. Middleton's Allergy 8th Edition.1144-74 .
  41. 41. • 73 males XLA • Delayed diagnosis >> risk of developing CLD increased • Respiratory tract infections remained the most prominent clinical problem observed also during follow-up despite immunoglobulin substitution treatment. Plebani A. Clinical Immunology Vol. 104, No. 3, September; 221–230, 2002.
  42. 42. Cause of death Trakultivakorn and Ochs. Asian pacific journal of allergy and immunology (2006) 24: 57-63. Practice parameter for diagnosis and management of primary immune deficiency. AAAI. Volume 94, May 2005. • Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis may cause serious morbidity or mortality in XLA patients. This complication is usually caused by ECHO viruses. Treatment with high doses of IVIG and with the antiviral drug pleconaril. • Its occurrence has dropped considerably since IVIG has been routinely administered to patients but does occur rarely, even with replacement.
  43. 43. • 87 adults with a definitive diagnosis of XLA. • 10 had died at greater than 21 years of age. • Enterovirus was acquired before the patient was treated with intravenous gammaglobulin. V . Howard et al. / Clinical Immunology 118 (2006) 201–208.
  44. 44. Take home message • Early diagnosis and treatment - IVIG, ATB prophylaxis • Defining genetic etiology • Long-term follow-up : Infection
  45. 45. Thank you

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