Report on Potato

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Report on Potato

  1. 1. CONTENTS Profile of potato in Pakistan 1 Etymology 2 Characteristics 3 Genetics 4 History 5 Role in world food supply 6 Nutrition o 6.1 Comparison to other major staple foods o 6.2 Toxicity 7 Growth and cultivation o 7.1 Storage o 7.2 Yield o 7.3 Varieties 8 Genetically modified potatoes 9 Pests o 9.1 Pesticides 10 Uses o 10.1 Culinary uses 11 Art 12 See also 13 References 14 Notes 15 Further reading 16 External links
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum Potato tuberosum of the Nightshade family. The word may refer to the plant itself as well as the edible tuber. In the region of the Andes, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species. Potatoes were introduced outside the Andes region four centuries ago, and have become an integral part of much of the world's cuisine. It is the world's fourth-largest food crop, following rice, wheat and maize.[1] Long-term storage of potatoes requires specialised care in cold warehouses.[2] Potato cultivars appear in a variety of colors, shapes, and sizes Scientific classification Potato is grown in more than 100 countries, under temperate, subtropical and tropical conditions. It is essentially a "cool weather crop", with temperature being the main limiting factor on production: tuber growth is sharply inhibited in temperatures below 10°C (50°F) and above 30°C (86°F), while optimum yields are obtained where mean daily temperatures are in the 18 to 20°C (64 to 68°F) range. Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Asterids Order: Solanales Family: Solanaceae Genus: Solanum Species: S. tuberosum Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. For that reason, potato is planted in early spring in temperate zones and late winter in warmer regions, and grown during the coolest months of the year in hot tropical climates. In some subtropical highlands, mild temperatures and high solar radiation allow farmers to grow potatoes throughout the year, and harvest tubers within 90 days of planting (in temperate climates, such in northern Europe, it can take up to 150 days). The potato is a very accommodating and adaptable plant, and will produce well without ideal soil and growing conditions. However, it is also subject to number of pests and diseases. To prevent the build-up of pathogens in the soil, farmers avoid growing potato on the same land from year to year. Instead, they grow potato in rotations of three or more years, alternating with other,
  3. 3. dissimilar crops, such as maize, beans and alfalfa. Crops susceptible to the same pathogens as potato (e.g. tomato) are avoided in order to break potato pests' development cycle. With good agricultural practices, including irrigation when necessary, a hectare of potato in the temperate climates of northern Europe and North America can yield more than 40 tonnes of fresh tubers within four months of planting. In most developing countries, however, average yields are much lower - ranging from as little as five tonnes to 25 tonnes - owing to lack of high quality seed and improved cultivars, lower rates of fertilizer use and irrigation, and pest and disease problems. SOIL AND LAND PREPARATION The potato can be grown almost on any type of soil, except saline and alkaline soils. Naturally loose soils, which offer the least resistance to enlargement of the tubers, are preferred, and loamy and sandy loam soils that are rich in organic matter, with good drainage and aeration, are the most suitable. Soil with a pH range of 5.2-6.4 is considered ideal. Growing potatoes involves extensive ground preparation. The soil needs to be harrowed until completely free of weed roots. In most cases, three ploughings, along with frequent harrowing and rolling, are needed before the soil reaches a suitable condition: soft, well-drained and wellaerated. PLANTING The potato crop is usually grown not from seed but from "seed potatoes" - small tubers or pieces of tuber sown to a depth of 5 to 10 cm. Purity of the cultivars and healthy seed tubers are essential for a successful crop. Tuber seed should be disease-free, well-sprouted and from 30 to 40 g each in weight. Use of good quality commercial seed can increase yields by 30 to 50 percent, compared to farmers' own seed, but expected profits must offset the higher cost. The planting density of a row of potatoes depends on the size of the tubers chosen, while the inter-row spacing must allow for ridging of the crop (SEE BELOW). Usually, about two tonnes of seed potatoes are sown per hectare. For rainfed production in dry areas, planting on flat soil
  4. 4. gives higher yields (thanks to better soil water conservation), while irrigated crops are mainly grown on ridges. STAGES IN CROP DEVELOPMENT 1. Planted seed tuber 2. Vegetative growth 3. Tuber initiation 4. Tuber bulking CROP CARE During the development of the potato canopy, which takes about four weeks, weeds must be controlled in order to give the crop a "competitive advantage". If the weeds are large, they must be removed before ridging operations begin. Ridging (or "earthing up") consists of mounding the soil from between the rows around the main stem of the potato plant. Ridging keeps the plants upright and the soil loose, prevents insect pests such a tuber moth from reaching the tubers; and helps prevent the growth of weeds. After earthing up, weeds between the growing plants and at the top of the ridge are removed mechanically or using herbicides. Ridging should be done two or three times at an interval of 15 to 20 days. The first should be done when the plants are about 15-25 cm high; the second is often done to cover the growing tubers.
  5. 5. MANURING AND FERTILI ZATION The use of chemical fertilizer depends on the level of available soil nutrients - volcanic soils, for example, are typically deficient in phosphorus - and in irrigated commercial production, fertilizer requirements are relatively high. However, potato can benefit from application of organic manure at the start of a new rotation - it provides a good nutrient balance and maintains the structure to the soil. Crop fertilization requirements need to be correctly estimated according to the expected yield, the potential of the variety and the intended use of the harvested crop. WATER SUPPLY The soil moisture content must be maintained at a relatively high level. For best yields, a 120 to 150 day crop requires from 500 to 700 mm (20 to 27.5 inches) of water. In general, water deficits in the middle to late part of the growing period tend to reduce yield more than those in the early part. Where supply is limited, water is directed towards maximizing yield per hectare rather than being applied over a larger area. Because the potato has a shallow root system, yield response to frequent irrigation is considerable, and very high yields are obtained with mechanized sprinkler systems that replenish evapotranspiration losses every one or two days. Under irrigation in temperate and subtropical climates, a crop of about 120 days can produce yields of 25 to 35 tonnes/ha (11 to 15.6 tons per acre), falling to 15 to 25 tonnes/ha (6.6 to 15.6 tons per acre) in tropical areas. PESTS AND DISEASES Against diseases, a few basic precautions – crop rotation, using tolerant varieties and healthy, certified seed tubers - can help avoid great losses. There is no chemical control for bacterial and viral diseases but they can be controlled by regular monitoring (and when necessary, spraying) of their aphid vectors. The severity of fungal diseases such as late blight depends, after the first infection, mainly on the weather - persistence of favourable conditions, without chemical spraying, can quickly spread the disease.
  6. 6. Insect pests can wreak havoc in a potato patch. Recommended control measures include regular monitoring and steps to protect the pests' natural enemies. Even damage caused by the Colorado Potato Beetle, a major pest, can be reduced by destroying beetles, eggs and larvae that appear early in the season, while sanitation, crop rotations and use of resistant potato varieties help prevent the spread of nematodes. HARVESTING Yellowing of the potato plant's leaves and easy separation of the tubers from their stolons indicate that the crop has reached maturity. If the potatoes are to be stored rather than consumed immediately, they are left in the soil to allow their skins to thicken - thick skins prevent storage diseases and shrinkage due to water loss. However, leaving tubers for too long in the ground increases their exposure to a fungal incrustation called black scurf. To facilitate harvesting, the potato vines should be removed two weeks before the potatoes are dug up. Depending on the scale of production, potatoes are harvested using a spading fork, a plough or commercial potato harvesters that unearth the plant and shake or blow the soil from the tubers. During harvesting, it is important to avoid bruising or other injury, which provide entry points for storage diseases. STORAGE Since the newly harvested tubers are living tissue – and therefore subject to deterioration - proper storage is essential, both to prevent post-harvest losses of potatoes destined for fresh consumption or processing, and to guarantee an adequate supply of seed tubers for the next cropping season. For ware and processing potatoes, storage aims at preventing "greening" (the build up of chlorophyll beneath the peel, which is associated with solanine, a potentially toxic alkaloid) and losses in weight and quality. The tubers should be kept at a temperature of 6 to 8°C degrees, in a dark, well-ventilated environment with high relative humidity (85 to 90 percent). Seed tubers are stored, instead, under diffused light in order to maintain their germination capacity and encourage development of vigorous sprouts. In regions, such as northern Europe, with only one
  7. 7. cropping season and where storage of tubers from one season to the next is difficult without the use of costly refrigeration, off-season planting may offer a solution. PROFILE OF POTATO IN PAKISTAN Over the years, potato has become an important crop for both farmers and consumers in Pakistan. It is the fourth most important crop by volume of production, it is high yielding, having a high nutritive value and gives high returns to farmers. From around 3,000 Ha. At the time of independence, the area under production increased to around 112,000 ha during 2004-2005. During the same period the average yields rose from around 9 in 1947 to 18 MT per ha. Pakistan is self-sufficient in potatoes for household consumption and relies for more than 99% on locally produced seed potatoes. Presently, it is estimated that the total annual domestic production amounts to around 2.02 Million MT, of which 280000 MT is used as seed and 1.7 Million MT is available for consumption after post harvest losses. With a population of roughly 150 Million, this accounts to 11 Kg per Capita per annum. The recent large increase in acreage was reached by an intensification of the cultivation in existing potato growing areas, as well as by introduction of the crop in new areas and to inexperienced farmers. Hence, many problems, like diseases and pests, became more hazardous and a large number of farmers are lacking knowledge of the right cultivation technique. These include pests and disease control, land preparation and irrigation, fertilizer application, crop rotation and multi-cropping techniques. The lack of credit facilities to purchase inputs creates difficulties, in particular for small farmers, inhibiting their effort to raise productivity. High quality costly seed forms another constraint. The seed contributes to about 35-40% of the total cost of production in Pakistan. Formal certified seed production is limited and faces technical, economical and managerial problems. Lack of availability of sufficient quantities of good seed and low purchasing power of the farmers, forces them to rely on seed sources of doubtful quality or own production, for which most of them do not have the proper skills. Poor post harvest handling, including transport and storage practices, causes unnecessary damage and losses and reduction of consumption quality. Sufficient cold store space is available in Pakistan. The handling of potatoes in storage is unsatisfactory and poorly managed. Finally, the farmers and consumers are faced with serve cyclical fluctuations in price, as production moves from glut to shortage, so preventing the farmers from enjoying a reliable income and inhibiting the consumer from including potato as a regular staple part in his diet.
  8. 8. Area and production of potatoes in Pakistan: YEAR 1947-48 AREA. (000 HA) PRODUCTION.(000) TONNES 3.0 30.0 1999-2000 112.8 1871.0 2000-2001 101.5 YIELD. HA. TONNES/ 10.0 17.3 1665.7 16.4 2001-2002 105.2 1730.7 16.4 2002-2003 115.8 1946.3 16.8 2003-2004 109.7 1938.1 17.7 2004-2005 112.0 2024.9 18.1 Sources: 1. From Agricultural Statistics of Pakistan, MINFAL, Islamabad 2004-2005. Provincial Shares in Area and production. Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Balochistan respectively account for 86, 0.5, 9 and 4.5 percent of the total area and 88.3, 0.3, 7.2 and 4.2 percent of the production of potatoes in the country. The shares of Autumn, Spring and Summer crops in the annual production are estimated at 75,10 and 15 percent, respectively. Important Potato Production Districts. Districts of Okara, Sahiwal, Kasur, Sialkot, Sheikhupura, Jhang, Lahore, Narowal, Pakpattan, Gujranwala, T.T. Singh and Khanewal from the Punjab, Nowshera, Dir, Swat, Balakot, Gilgit, Sakardu and Mansehra from the NWFP and Pishin, Killa Saifulla and Kalat from Balochistan are important potato growing districts, accounting among themselves for 78 percent of the total production of the crop.
  9. 9. Changes in Area, Yield and Production. (a) Long Term Changes:- 1995-96 to 2004-05. Potato production during the ten year period between 1995-96 to 2004-05 is estimated to have increased @ 7.5 percent per annum on account of 3.8 percent annual expansion in its area and 3.7 percent improvement. The lion’s share in potato production in last six year was (1999-2005) i.e. 90 percent comes from Punjab, where Autumn and Spring crops are raised from Balochistan 3 percent from sindh, 0.25 percent from NWFP, 6.62 percent. In Sindh, area of potatoes have decreased by 3.2 percent resulting in production decrease of 12.5 percent in the last ten years. Climatic conditions in the NWFP are conducive to grow all three crops of potatoes. Total production from these crops has increased @ 6 percent on account of 2 expansion in area and 4 percent rise in yield. In Balochistan, only Summer crop is cultivated. The production in this province has diminished 9.3 percent in last ten years because the area under the crop has contracted @ 4.35 percent.
  10. 10. MAJOR POTATO GROWING SEASONS TABLE NO. VI: _____________________________________________________________________________ CROP PLANTING HARVESTING PRODUCTION SHARE _____________________________________________________________________________ Spring Jan-Feb April-May 07.10 % Summer March-May August-Oct 15-20 % Autumn Sept-Oct Jan-Feb 70-75 % IMPORTANT POTATO VARIETIES BEING GROWN IN PAKISTAN TABLE NO. VII: RED SKIN WHITE SKIN Desiree Diamant Cardinal Ajax Kuroda Hermes SH-5 Lady Rosetta Raja, Symphonia, Asterix Sante
  11. 11. DIFFERENT PUBLIC AND PRIVATE INSTITUTES/ORGANIZATIONS WORKING IN SEED POTATO PRODUCTION PUBLIC PRIVATE - Agricultural Biotechnology, NARC, Islamabad. - Syko International Company Lahore. - Plant Virology, AARI, Faisalabad. - Bari traders Lahore. - Hazara Agriculture Research Station, Abbottabad. - Okara Potato, Vegetable & Fruit Growers Co-operative Society. - Potato Seed Unit, Deptt. Of Agri. Gilgit. - Bhatti Brothers Lahore. - VSSPP, Farm, ARI, Quetta. - Nangaparbat Potato Growers Association, Gilgit - Punjab Seed Corporation, Sahiwal. -Hammad & Company, Sahiwal - Haji Sons Lahore - Stamex International, Lahore - AGB Seed Company Lahore - Trade channels, Lahore. - Punjab Agri. Farms, Lahore. MAJOR ISSUES: NON AVAILABILITY OF QUALITY SEED: Þ Expensive. Þ Rapid degeneration of quality seed due to its multiplication in spring season which is full of viral diseases vector Myzus persicae. Þ Total quantity of imported seed has to pass through spring season for further multiplication.
  12. 12. Spread of fungal diseases. Late blight (Phytophthora infestans) was found major yield limiting factor in high hills and is also a serious problem in plains, it may reduce the yield up to 70%. In year 2006-07 late blight appear as major disease in all potato growing areas. This disease is favored by temperature between 10 C0 and 25 C0, accompanied by heavy dew or rain. It is suggested to growers in future precautionary sprays of fungicide in the month of November for autumn crop, in February for spring crop and in August for summer crop can help to save potato crop from sever damage of late blight. Two type of the fungicides are available in market protective and curative to control this disease. Diseases with Mycoplasma Pathogens: Mycoplasma was found a serious problem in major potato growing areas of Punjab. 45% reduction in yield was recorded in research trials. Soil borne diseases. Monocropping in hilly areas and lack of crop rotation in other potato growing areas of Pakistan are major causes for spread of soil borne diseases. Þ Cyst nematode. Þ Rhizoctonia, Verticillium, Scab and Softrot. Lack of high yielding and disease resistance clones. No proper gene pool is available in the country. Lack of coordination in seed producing agencies. There is very little coordination among public and private seed producers. Different agro-ecological zones for potato production. I. Irrigated plains of Sindh, Southern Punjab and Balochistan. II. Irrigated plains of Central Punjab and South East NWFP. III. Irrigated and rainfed plains of NWFP and Northern Punjab.
  13. 13. IV. Irrigated lower valleys of NWFP. V. Rainfed high valleys and hill sides of NWFP, Northern Punjab and Azad Kashmir. VI. Irrigated high valleys of NWFP, Northern Areas around Chillas and Azad Kashmir. VII. Irrigated high valleys of Northern Areas and NWFP around Mastuj. VIII.Irrigated high valleys of Balochistan, South and North Waziristan. ETYMOLOGY The English word potato comes from Spanish patata (the name used in Spain). The Spanish Royal Academy says the Spanish word is a compound of the Taino batata (sweet potato) and the Quechua papa (potato).[11] The name potato originally referred to a type of sweet potato rather than the other way around, although there is actually no close relationship between the two plants. The English confused the two plants one for the other. In many of the chronicles detailing agriculture and plants, no distinction is made between the two.[12] The 16th-century English herbalist John Gerard used the terms "bastard potatoes" and "Virginia potatoes" for this species, and referred to sweet potatoes as "common potatoes".[13] Potatoes are occasionally referred to as "Irish potatoes" or "white potatoes" in the United States, to distinguish them from sweet potatoes.[13] The name spud for a small potato comes from the digging of soil (or a hole) prior to the planting of potatoes. The word has an unknown origin and was originally (c. 1440) used as a term for a short knife or dagger, probably related to Dutch spyd and/or the Latin "spad-" root meaning "sword"; cf. Spanish "espada", English "spade" and "spadroon". The word spud traces back to the 16th century. It subsequently transferred over to a variety of digging tools. Around 1845 it transferred over to the tuber itself.[14] The origin of "spud" has erroneously been attributed to a 19th-century activist group dedicated to keeping the potato out of Britain, calling itself The Society for the Prevention of an Unwholesome Diet.[14] It was Mario Pei's 1949 The Story of Language that can be blamed for the false origin. Pei writes, "the potato, for its part, was in disrepute some centuries ago. Some Englishmen who did not fancy potatoes formed a Society for
  14. 14. the Prevention of Unwholesome Diet. The initials of the main words in this title gave rise to spud." Like most other pre-20th century acronymic origins, this one is false.[14]
  15. 15. Characteristics Flowers of a potato plant Russet potatoes with sprouts Potato plants are herbaceous perennials that grow about 60 cm (24 in) high, depending on variety, the culms dying back after flowering. They bear white, pink, red, blue, or purple flowers with yellow stamens. In general, the tubers of varieties with white flowers have white skins, while those of varieties with colored flowers tend to have pinkish skins.[15] Potatoes are crosspollinated mostly by insects, including bumblebees, which carry pollen from other potato plants, but a substantial amount of self-fertilizing occurs as well. Tubers form in response to decreasing day length, although this tendency has been minimized in commercial varieties.[16] Potato plants
  16. 16. After potato plants flower, some varieties produce small green fruits that resemble green cherry tomatoes, each containing up to 300 true seeds. Potato fruit contains large amounts of the toxic alkaloid solanine and is therefore unsuitable for consumption. All new potato varieties are grown from seeds, also called "true seed" or "botanical seed" to distinguish it from seed tubers. By finely chopping the fruit and soaking it in water, the seeds separate from the flesh by sinking to the bottom after about a day (the remnants of the fruit float). Any potato variety can also be propagated vegetatively by planting tubers, pieces of tubers, cut to include at least one or two eyes, or also by cuttings, a practice used in greenhouses for the production of healthy seed tubers. Some commercial potato varieties do not produce seeds at all (they bear imperfect flowers) and are propagated only from tuber pieces. Confusingly, these tubers or tuber pieces are called "seed potatoes," because the potato itself functions as "seed". GENETICS There are about 5,000 potato varieties worldwide. Three thousand of them are found in the Andes alone, mainly in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile, and Colombia. They belong to eight or nine species, depending on the taxonomic school. Apart from the 5,000 cultivated varieties, there are about 200 wild species and subspecies, many of which can be cross-bred with cultivated varieties, which has been done repeatedly to transfer resistances to certain pests and diseases from the gene pool of wild species to the gene pool of cultivated potato species. Genetically modified varieties have met public resistance in the United States and in the European Union.[17][18] The major species grown worldwide is Solanum tuberosum (a tetraploid with 48 chromosomes), and modern varieties of this species are the most widely cultivated. There are also four diploid species (with 24 chromosomes): S. stenotomum, S. phureja, S. goniocalyx, and S. ajanhuiri. There are two triploid species (with 36 chromosomes): S. chaucha and S. juzepczukii. There is one pentaploid cultivated species (with 60 chromosomes): S. curtilobum. There are two major subspecies of Solanum tuberosum: andigena, or Andean; and tuberosum, or Chilean.[19] The Andean potato is adapted to the short-day conditions prevalent in the mountainous equatorial and tropical regions where it originated. The Chilean potato, native to the Chiloé Archipelago, is adapted to the long-day conditions prevalent in the higher latitude region of southern Chile.[20]
  17. 17. The International Potato Center, based in Lima, Peru, holds an ISO-accredited collection of potato germplasm.[21] The international Potato Genome Sequencing Consortium announced in 2009 that they had achieved a draft sequence of the potato genome.[22] The potato genome contains 12 chromosomes and 860 million base pairs making it a medium-sized plant genome.[23] More than 99 percent of all current varieties of potatoes currently grown are direct descendants of a subspecies that once grew in the lowlands of south-central Chile.[24] Nonetheless, genetic testing of the wide variety of cultivars and wild species affirms that all potato subspecies derive from a single origin in the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia (from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex).[5][6][7] Most modern potatoes grown in North America arrived through European settlement and not independently from the South American sources. However, at least one wild potato species, Solanum fendleri, is found as far north as Texas and used in breeding for resistance to a nematode species that attacks cultivated potatoes. A secondary center of genetic variability of the potato is Mexico, where important wild species that have been used extensively in modern breeding are found, such as the hexaploid Solanum demissum, as a source of resistance to the devastating late blight disease.[25] Another relative native to this region, Solanum bulbocastanum, has been used to genetically engineer the potato to resist potato blight.[26] Potatoes yield abundantly with little effort, and adapt readily to diverse climates as long as the climate is cool and moist enough for the plants to gather sufficient water from the soil to form the starchy tubers. Potatoes do not keep very well in storage and are vulnerable to molds that feed on the stored tubers, quickly turning them rotten. By contrast, grain can be stored for several years without much risk of rotting.[27] HISTORY The potato was first domesticated in the region of modern-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia[5] between 8000 and 5000 BCE.[6] It has since spread around the world and become a staple crop in many countries.
  18. 18. According to conservative estimates, the introduction of the potato was responsible for a quarter of the growth in Old World population and urbanization between 1700 and 1900.[28] Following the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire, the Spanish introduced the potato to Europe in the second half of the 16th century. The staple was subsequently conveyed by European mariners to territories and ports throughout the world. The potato was slow to be adopted by distrustful European farmers, but soon enough it became an important food staple and field crop that played a major role in the European 19th century population boom.[7] However, lack of genetic diversity, due to the very limited number of varieties initially introduced, left the crop vulnerable to disease. In 1845, a plant disease known as late blight, caused by the fungus-like oomycete Phytophthora infestans, spread rapidly through the poorer communities of western Ireland, resulting in the crop failures that led to the Great Irish Famine.[25] Thousands of varieties still persist in the Andes however, where over 100 cultivars might be found in a single valley, and a dozen or more might be maintained by a single agricultural household.[29] ROLE IN WORLD FOOD SUPPLY Potato yield in producing countries, 2000 Top Potato Producers in 2011 (million metric tons) People's Republic of China 88.4
  19. 19. India 42.3 Russia 32.7 Ukraine 24.2 United States 19.4 Germany 11.8 Bangladesh 8.3 Poland 8.2 France 8.0 Belarus 7.7 World Total 374.4 Source: UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)[2] The United Nations FAO reports that the world production of potatoes in 2010 was about 324 million tonnes.[30] Just over two thirds of the global production is eaten directly by humans with the rest being fed to animals or used to produce starch. This means that the annual diet of an average global citizen in the first decade of the 21st century included about 33 kg (or 73 lb) of potato.[1] However, the local importance of potato is extremely variable and rapidly changing. It remains an essential crop in Europe (especially eastern and central Europe), where per capita production is still the highest in the world, but the most rapid expansion over the past few decades has occurred in southern and eastern Asia. China is now the world's largest potato-
  20. 20. producing country, and nearly a third of the world's potatoes are harvested in China and India.[10] The geographic shift of potato production has been away from wealthier countries toward lowerincome areas of the world, although the degree of this trend is ambiguous.[31] In 2008, several international organizations highlighted the potato's role in world food production, in the face of developing economic problems. They cited its potential derived from its status as a cheap and plentiful crop that grows in a wide variety of climates and locales.[32] Due to perishability, only about 5% of the world's potato crop is traded internationally; its minimal presence in world financial markets contributed to its stable pricing during the 2007– 2008 world food price crisis.[33][34] Thus, the United Nations officially declared 2008 as the International Year of the Potato,[35] to raise its profile in developing nations, calling the crop a "hidden treasure".[36] This followed the International Rice Year in 2004. NUTRITION Potato, raw, with skin Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) Energy 321 kJ (77 kcal) Carbohydrates 17.47 g - Starch 15.44 g - Dietary fiber 2.2 g Fat 0.1 g Protein 2g Water 75 g Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.08 mg (7%) Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.03 mg (3%)
  21. 21. Niacin (vit. B3) 1.05 mg (7%) Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.296 mg (6%) Vitamin B6 0.295 mg (23%) Folate (vit. B9) 16 μg (4%) Vitamin C 19.7 mg (24%) Vitamin E 0.01 mg (0%) Vitamin K 1.9 μg (2%) Calcium 12 mg (1%) Iron 0.78 mg (6%) Magnesium 23 mg (6%) Manganese 0.153 mg (7%) Phosphorus 57 mg (8%) Potassium 421 mg (9%) Sodium 6 mg (0%) Zinc 0.29 mg (3%) Link to USDA Database entry Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults. Source: USDA Nutrient Database The potato contains vitamins and minerals, as well as an assortment of phytochemicals, such as carotenoids and natural phenols. Chlorogenic acid constitutes up to 90% of the potato tuber natural phenols. Others found in potatoes are 4-O-caffeoylquinic acid (crypto-chlorogenic acid), 5-O-caffeoylquinic (neo-chlorogenic acid), 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic
  22. 22. acids.[37] A medium-size 150 g (5.3 oz) potato with the skin provides 27 mg of vitamin C (45% of the Daily Value (DV)), 620 mg of potassium (18% of DV), 0.2 mg vitamin B6 (10% of DV) and trace amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, folate, niacin, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, and zinc. The fiber content of a potato with skin (2 g) is equivalent to that of many whole grain breads, pastas, and cereals. The potato is best known for its carbohydrate content (approximately 26 grams in a medium potato). The predominant form of this carbohydrate is starch. A small but significant portion of this starch is resistant to digestion by enzymes in the stomach and small intestine, and so reaches the large intestine essentially intact. This resistant starch is considered to have similar physiological effects and health benefits as fiber: It provides bulk, offers protection against colon cancer, improves glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, lowers plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, increases satiety, and possibly even reduces fat storage.[38][39][40] The amount of resistant starch in potatoes depends much on preparation methods. Cooking and then cooling potatoes significantly increases resistant starch. For example, cooked potato starch contains about 7% resistant starch, which increases to about 13% upon cooling.[41] The cooking method used can significantly affect the nutrient availability of the potato. Potatoes are often broadly classified as high on the glycemic index (GI) and so are often excluded from the diets of individuals trying to follow a low-GI diet. In fact, the GI of potatoes can vary considerably depending on type (such as red, russet, white, or Prince Edward), origin (where it was grown), preparation methods (i.e., cooking method, whether it is eaten hot or cold, whether it is mashed or cubed or consumed whole, etc.), and with what it is consumed (i.e., the addition of various high-fat or high-protein toppings).[42] In the UK, potatoes are not considered by the NHS as counting towards the five portions of fruit and vegetables diet.[43]
  23. 23. COMPARISON TO OTHER MAJOR STAPLE FOODS The following table shows the nutrient content of potato and other major staple foods, each in respective raw form. Staple foods are not commonly eaten raw and are usually sprouted or cooked before eating. In sprouted and cooked form, the relative nutritional and anti-nutritional contents of each of these grains may be different from the values reported in this table. Nutrient content of major staple foods[44] Maize STAPLE: / Corn [B] [ Rice Wheat[ Potato[ Cassava[ Soybean Sweet C] D] E] [F] Sorghu [G] [H] m Yam[Y] Plantain [Z] (Green) potato Amount Amount Amount Amount Amount A] Component (per 100g Amount Amount Amount Amount Amount portion) Water (g) 10 12 13 79 60 68 77 9 70 65 Energy (kJ) 1528 1528 1369 322 670 615 360 1419 494 511 Protein (g) 9.4 7.1 12.6 2.0 1.4 13.0 1.6 11.3 1.5 1.3 Fat (g) 4.74 0.66 1.54 0.09 0.28 6.8 0.05 3.3 0.17 0.37 74 80 71 17 38 11 20 75 28 32 Fiber (g) 7.3 1.3 12.2 2.2 1.8 4.2 3 6.3 4.1 2.3 Sugar (g) 0.64 0.12 0.41 0.78 1.7 0 4.18 0 0.5 15 Calcium (mg) 7 28 29 12 16 197 30 28 17 3 Carbohydrates (g)
  24. 24. Iron (mg) 2.71 0.8 3.19 0.78 0.27 3.55 0.61 4.4 0.54 0.6 127 25 126 23 21 65 25 0 21 37 210 115 288 57 27 194 47 287 55 34 Potassium (mg) 287 115 363 421 271 620 337 350 816 499 Sodium (mg) 35 5 2 6 14 15 55 6 9 4 Zinc (mg) 2.21 1.09 2.65 0.29 0.34 0.99 0.3 0 0.24 0.14 Copper (mg) 0.314 0.22 0.434 0.11 0.10 0.13 0.15 - 0.18 0.08 0.485 1.09 3.985 0.15 0.38 0.55 0.26 - 0.40 - Selenium (mcg) 15.5 15.1 70.7 0.3 0.7 1.5 0.6 0 0.7 1.5 Vitamin C (mg) 0 0 0 19.7 20.6 29 2.4 0 17.1 18.4 Thiamin (mg) 0.385 0.58 0.383 0.08 0.09 0.44 0.08 0.24 0.11 0.05 Riboflavin (mg) 0.201 0.05 0.115 0.03 0.05 0.18 0.06 0.14 0.03 0.05 Niacin (mg) 3.627 4.19 5.464 1.05 0.85 1.65 0.56 2.93 0.55 0.69 0.424 1.01 0.954 0.30 0.11 0.15 0.80 - 0.31 0.26 0.622 0.16 0.3 0.30 0.09 0.07 0.21 - 0.29 0.30 Magnesium (mg) Phosphorus (mg) Manganese (mg) Pantothenic acid (mg) Vitamin (mg) B6
  25. 25. Folate Total 231 38 16 27 165 11 0 23 22 0 9 2 13 180 14187 0 138 1127 0.49 0.11 1.01 0.01 0.19 0 0.26 0 0.39 0.14 0.3 0.1 1.9 1.9 1.9 0 1.8 0 2.6 0.7 97 0 5 1 8 0 8509 0 83 457 1355 0 220 8 0 0 0 0 0 30 0.667 0.18 0.269 0.03 0.07 0.79 0.02 0.46 0.04 0.14 ed fatty acids 1.251 0.21 0.2 0.00 0.08 1.28 0.00 0.99 0.01 0.03 0.18 0.627 0.04 0.05 3.20 0.01 1.37 0.08 0.07 (mcg) 19 Vitamin A (IU) 214 Vitamin E, alphatocopherol (mg) Vitamin K (mcg) Beta-carotene (mcg) Lutein+zeazant hin (mcg) Saturated fatty acids (g) Monounsaturat (g) Polyunsaturated fatty acids (g) 2.163 A corn, yellow B rice, white, long-grain, regular, raw C wheat, hard red winter D potato, flesh and skin, raw E cassava, raw F soybeans, green, raw G sweet potato, raw, unprepared H sorghum, raw
  26. 26. Toxicity Early Rose variety seed tuber with sprouts Potatoes contain toxic compounds known as glycoalkaloids, of which the most prevalent are solanine and chaconine. Solanine is also found in other plants in the family Solanaceae, which includes such plants as the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and tobacco (Nicotiana) as well as the potato, eggplant, and tomato. This toxin affects the nervous system, causing weakness and confusion.[citation needed] These compounds, which protect the plant from its predators, are, in general, concentrated in its leaves, stems, sprouts, and fruits.[45] Exposure to light, physical damage, and age increase glycoalkaloid content within the tuber;[46] the highest concentrations occur just underneath the skin. Cooking at high temperatures —over 170 °C (340 °F)— partly destroys these. The concentration of glycoalkaloid in wild potatoes suffices to produce toxic effects in humans. Glycoalkaloids may cause headaches, diarrhea, cramps, and in severe cases coma and death; however, poisoning from potatoes occurs very rarely. Light exposure causes greening from chlorophyll synthesis, thus giving a visual clue as to areas of the tuber that may have become more toxic; however, this does not provide a definitive guide, as greening and glycoalkaloid accumulation can occur independently of each other. Some varieties of potato contain greater glycoalkaloid concentrations than others; breeders developing new varieties test for this, and sometimes have to discard an otherwise promising cultivar.
  27. 27. The toxic fruits produced by mature potato plants Breeders try to keep solanine levels below 200 mg/kg (200 ppmw). However, when these commercial varieties turn green, even they can approach concentrations of solanine of 1000 mg/kg (1000 ppmw). In normal potatoes, analysis has shown solanine levels may be as little as 3.5% of the breeders' maximum, with 7–187 mg/kg being found.[47] While a normal potato has 12–20 mg/kg of glycoalkaloid content, a green tuber contains 250–280 mg/kg, and green skin 1500–2200 mg/kg.[48] The U.S. National Toxicology Program suggests that the average American consume at most 12.5 mg/day of solanine from potatoes (the toxic dose is actually several times this, depending on body weight). Douglas L. Holt, the State Extension Specialist for Food Safety at the University of Missouri, notes that no reported cases of potato-source solanine poisoning have occurred in the U.S. in the last 50 years, and most cases involved eating green potatoes or drinking potato-leaf tea.[citation needed]
  28. 28. GROWTH AND CULTIVATION Potato planting Potato field in Fort Fairfield, Maine
  29. 29. Potatoes grown in a tall bag are common in gardens as they increase potato yield and minimize the amount of digging required at harvest Potatoes are generally grown from seed potatoes – these are tubers specifically grown to be disease free and provide consistent and healthy plants. To be disease free, the areas where seed potatoes are grown are selected with care. In the USA this restricts production of seed potatoes to only 15 states out of the 50 states that grow potatoes.[49] These locations are selected for their cold hard winters that kill pests and long sunshine hours in the summer for optimum growth. In the UK, most seed potatoes originate in Scotland in areas where westerly winds prevent aphid attack and thus prevent spread of potato virus pathogens.[50] Potato growth has been divided into five phases. During the first phase, sprouts emerge from the seed potatoes and root growth begins. During the second, photosynthesis begins as the plant develops leaves and branches. In the third phase stolons develop from lower leaf axils on the stem and grow downwards into the ground and on these stolons new tubers develop as swellings of the stolon. This phase is often (but not always) associated with flowering. Tuber formation halts when soil temperatures reach 27 °C (81 °F); hence potatoes are considered a cool-season crop.[51] Tuber bulking occurs during the fourth phase, when the plant begins investing the majority of its resources in its newly formed tubers. At this stage, several factors are critical to yield: optimal soil moisture and temperature, soil nutrient availability and balance, and resistance to pest attacks. The final phase is maturation: The plant canopy dies back, the tuber skins harden, and their sugars convert to starches.[52] New tubers may arise at the soil surface. Since exposure to light leads to greening of the skins and the development of solanine, growers are interested in covering such tubers. Commercial growers usually address this problem by piling additional soil around the base of the plant as it grows ("hilling", or in British English "earthing up"). An alternative method used by home gardeners and smaller-scale growers involves covering the growing area with organic mulches such as straw or with plastic sheets.[52] Correct potato husbandry can be an arduous task in some circumstances. Good ground preparation, harrowing, plowing, and rolling are always needed, along with a little grace from the weather and a good source of water. Three successive plowings, with associated harrowing and
  30. 30. rolling, are desirable before planting. Eliminating all root-weeds is desirable in potato cultivation. In general, the potatoes themselves are grown from the eyes of another potato and not from seed. Home gardeners often plant a piece of potato with two or three eyes in a hill of mounded soil. Commercial growers plant potatoes as a row crop using seed tubers, young plants or microtubers and may mound the entire row. Seed potato crops are 'rogued' in some countries to eliminate diseased plants or those of a different variety from the seed crop. Potatoes are sensitive to heavy frosts, which damage them in the ground. Even cold weather makes potatoes more susceptible to bruising and possibly later rotting, which can quickly ruin a large stored crop. At harvest time, gardeners usually dig up potatoes with a long-handled, three-prong "grape" (or graip), i.e., a spading fork, or a potato hook, which is similar to the graip but with tines at a 90° angle to the handle. In larger plots, the plow is the fastest implement for unearthing potatoes. Commercial harvesting is typically done with large potato harvesters, which scoop up the plant and surrounding earth. This is transported up an apron chain consisting of steel links several feet wide, which separates some of the dirt. The chain deposits into an area where further separation occurs. Different designs use different systems at this point. The most complex designs use vine choppers and shakers, along with a blower system or "Flying Willard" to separate the potatoes from the plant. The result is then usually run past workers who continue to sort out plant material, stones, and rotten potatoes before the potatoes are continuously delivered to a wagon or truck. Further inspection and separation occurs when the potatoes are unloaded from the field vehicles and put into storage. Immature potatoes may be sold as "new potatoes" and are particularly valued for taste. These are often harvested by the home gardener or farmer by "grabbling", i.e. pulling out the young tubers by hand while leaving the plant in place. Potatoes are usually cured after harvest to improve skin-set. Skin-set is the process by which the skin of the potato becomes resistant to skinning damage. Potato tubers may be susceptible to skinning at harvest and suffer skinning damage during harvest and handling operations. Curing allows the skin to fully set and any wounds to heal. Wound-healing prevents infection and water-
  31. 31. loss from the tubers during storage. Curing is normally done at relatively warm temperatures 50 to 60 °C (122 to 140 °F) with high humidity and good gas-exchange if at all possible.[53]
  32. 32. STORAGE Storage facilities need to be carefully designed to keep the potatoes alive and slow the natural process of decomposition, which involves the breakdown of starch. It is crucial that the storage area is dark, well ventilated and for long-term storage maintained at temperatures near 4 °C (39 °F). For short-term storage before cooking, temperatures of about 7 to 10 °C (45 to 50 °F) are preferred.[2][54] On the other hand, temperatures below 4 °C (39 °F) convert potatoes' starch into sugar, which alters their taste and cooking qualities and leads to higher acrylamide levels in the cooked product, especially in deep-fried dishes—the discovery of acrylamides in starchy foods in 2002 has led to many international health concerns as they are believed to be possible carcinogens and their occurrence in cooked foods are currently under study as possible influences in potential health problems.[55][56] Under optimum conditions possible in commercial warehouses, potatoes can be stored for up to ten to twelve months.[2] When stored in homes, the shelf life is usually only a few weeks.[54] If potatoes develop green areas or start to sprout, these areas should be trimmed before using. [54] Trimming or peeling green areas are inadequate to remove copresent toxins, and such potatoes are no longer suitable as animal food.[57][58] Commercial storage of potatoes involves several phases: drying of surface moisture; a wound healing phase at 85% to 95% relative humidity and temperatures below 25 °C (77 °F); a staged cooling phase; a holding phase; and a reconditioning phase, during which the tubers are slowly warmed. Mechanical ventilation is used at various points during the process to prevent condensation and accumulation of carbon dioxide.[2] YIELD The world dedicated 18.6 million hectares in 2010 for potato cultivation. The average world farm yield for potato was 17.4 tonnes per hectare, in 2010. Potato farms in the United States were the most productive in 2010, with a nationwide average of 44.3 tonnes per hectare.[59] United Kingdom was a close second.
  33. 33. New Zealand farmers have demonstrated some of the best commercial yields in the world, ranging between 60 to 80 tonnes per hectare, some reporting yields of 88 tonnes potatoes per hectare.[60][61][62] There is a big gap among various countries between high and low yields, even with the same variety of potato. Average potato yields in developed economies ranges between 38–44 tonnes per hectare. The two largest producers of potato, China and India which accounted for over a third of world's production in 2010, had yields of 14.7 and 19.9 tonnes per hectare respectively.[59] The yield gap between farms in developing economies and developed economies represents an opportunity loss of over 400 million tonnes of potato, or an amount greater than 2010 world potato production. Potato crop yields are determined by factors such as the crop breed, seed age and quality, crop management practices and the plant environment. Improvements in one or more of these yield determinants, and a closure of the yield gap, can be a major boost to food supply and farmer incomes in the developing world.[63][64] VARIETIES Bamberg potatoes
  34. 34. Organically grown Russet Burbanks While there are close to 4000 different varieties of potato,[65] it has been bred into many standard or well-known varieties, each of which has particular agricultural or culinary attributes. In general, varieties are categorized into a few main groups, such as russets, reds, whites, yellows (also called Yukons) and purples—based on common characteristics. Around 80 varieties are commercially available in the UK.[66] For culinary purposes, varieties are often differentiated by their waxiness. Floury, or mealy (baking) potatoes have more starch (20–22%) than waxy (boiling) potatoes (16–18%). The distinction may also arise from variation in the comparative ratio of two potato starch compounds: amylose and amylopectin. Amylose, a long-chain molecule, diffuses from the starch granule when cooked in water, and lends itself to dishes where the potato is mashed. Varieties that contain a slightly higher amylopectin content, a highly branched molecule, help the potato retain its shape when boiled.[67] The European Cultivated Potato Database (ECPD) is an online collaborative database of potato variety descriptions, updated and maintained by the Scottish Agricultural Science Agency within the framework of the European Cooperative Programme for Crop Genetic Resources Networks (ECP/GR)—which is organised by the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI).[68] Popular varieties (cultivars) include: Adirondack Clavela Pike Blue Blanca Pink Eye Adirondack Désirée Pink Red Estima Apple Agata Fianna Primura Almond Fingerling Ranger Alpine Russet Flava Russet Alturas French Ratte Amandine Fingerling Record Fir
  35. 35. Annabelle German Red La Soda Anya Butterball Red Norland Arran Victory Golden Red Pontiac Atlantic Wonder Rooster Austrian Goldrush Russet Crescent Home Guard Burbank Avalanche Innovator Russet Bamberg Irish Cobbler Norkotah Bannock Irish Lumper Selma Russet Jersey Royal Shepody Kennebec Sieglinde Fontenay Kerr's Pink Silverton BF-15 Kestrel Russet Bildtstar Keuka Gold Sirco Bintje King Edward Snowden Blazer Russet Kipfler Spunta Blue Congo Lady Balfour Up to date Bonnotte Langlade Stobrawa British Queens Linda potato Superior Cabritas Marcy Villetta Rose Camota Marfona Vivaldi Canela Russet Maris Piper Vitelotte Cara Marquis Yellow Finn Carola Megachip Yukon Gold Chelina Monalisa Chiloé[69] Nicola Cielo Norgold Belle de Russet[70] Pachacoña BLUE VARIETIES
  36. 36. Potato variety "Blue Swede" The blue potato (or purple potato) originated in South America. It has purple skin and flesh, which becomes blue once cooked. It has a slight whitish scab that seems to be present in all samples. The variety, called "Cream of the Crop", has been introduced into Ireland and has proved popular.[71] A mutation in the varieties' P locus causes production of the antioxidant anthocyanin.[72] GENETICALLY MODIFIED POTATOES Genetic research has produced several genetically modified varieties. 'New Leaf', owned by Monsanto Company, incorporates genes from Bacillus thuringiensis, which confers resistance to the Colorado potato beetle; 'New Leaf Plus' and 'New Leaf Y', approved by US regulatory agencies during the 1990s, also include resistance to viruses. McDonald's, Burger King, FritoLay, and Procter & Gamble announced they would not use genetically modified potatoes, and Monsanto published its intent to discontinue the line in March 2001.[73] Waxy potato varieties produce two main kinds of potato starch, amylose and amylopectin, the latter of which is most industrially useful. The German chemical company BASF created the Amflora potato, which has been modified to contain antisense against the enzyme that drives synthesis of amylose, namely granule bound starch synthase.[74] This resulting potato almost exclusively produces amylopectin, and thus is more useful for the starch industry. In 2010, the European Commission cleared the way for 'Amflora' to be grown in the European Union for
  37. 37. industrial purposes only—not for food. Nevertheless, under EU rules, individual countries have the right to decide whether they will allow this potato to be grown on their territory. Commercial planting of 'Amflora' was expected in the Czech Republic and Germany in the spring of 2010, and Sweden and the Netherlands in subsequent years.[75] Another GM potato variety developed by BASF is 'Fortuna' which was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which originate from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum.[76][77] In October 2011 BASF requested cultivation and marketing approval as a feed and food from the EFSA. In 2012 GMO development in Europe was stopped by BASF.[78][79] In 2010, a team of Indian scientists announced they had developed a genetically modified potato with 35 to 60% more protein than non-modified potatoes. Protein content was boosted by adding the gene AmA1 from the grain amaranth. They also found 15 to 25% greater crop yields with these potatoes.[80] The researchers expected that a key market for the GM potato would be the developing world, where more than a billion people are chronically undernourished.[81]
  38. 38. PESTS Main article: List of potato diseases A potato ruined by late blight The historically significant Phytophthora infestans (late blight) remains an ongoing problem in Europe[25][82] and the United States.[83] Other potato diseases include Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia, black leg, powdery mildew, powdery scab and leafroll virus. Insects that commonly transmit potato diseases or damage the plants include the Colorado potato beetle, the potato tuber moth, the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), the potato aphid, beetleafhoppers, thrips, and mites. The potato root nematode is a microscopic worm that thrives on the roots, thus causing the potato plants to wilt. Since its eggs can survive in the soil for several years, crop rotation is recommended. PESTICIDES During the crop year 2008, many of the certified organic potatoes produced in the United Kingdom and certified by the Soil Association as organic were sprayed with a copper pesticide[84] to control potato blight (Phytophthora infestans).[85] According to the Soil Association, the total copper that can be applied to organic land is 6 kg/ha/year.[86] According to an Environmental Working Group analysis[87] of USDA and FDA pesticide residue tests performed from 2000 through 2008, 84% of the 2,216 tested potato samples contained detectable traces of at least one pesticide. A total of 36 unique pesticides were detected on
  39. 39. potatoes over the 2,216 samples, though no individual sample contained more than 6 unique pesticide traces, and the average was 1.29 detectable unique pesticide traces per sample. The average quantity of all pesticide traces found in the 2,216 samples was 1.602 ppm. While this is a very low value of pesticide residue, it is the highest amongst the 50 vegetables analyzed. USES Potatoes are used to brew alcoholic beverages such as vodka, potcheen, or akvavit. They are also used as food for domestic animals. Potato starch is used in the food industry as, for example, thickeners and binders of soups and sauces, in the textile industry, as adhesives, and for the manufacturing of papers and boards.[88][89] Maine companies are exploring the possibilities of using waste potatoes to obtain polylactic acid for use in plastic products; other research projects seek ways to use the starch as a base for biodegradable packaging.[89][90] Potato skins, along with honey, are a folk remedy for burns in India. Burn centers in India have experimented with the use of the thin outer skin layer to protect burns while healing.[91][92] Potatoes (mainly Russets) are commonly used in plant research. The consistent parenchyma tissue, the clonal nature of the plant and the low metabolic activity provide a very nice "model tissue" for experimentation. Wound-response studies are often done on potato tuber tissue, as are electron transport experiments. In this respect, potato tuber tissue is similar to Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans and Escherichia coli: they are all "standard" research organisms.
  40. 40. CULINARY USES Various potato dishes Potatoes are prepared in many ways: skin-on or peeled, whole or cut up, with seasonings or without. The only requirement involves cooking to swell the starch granules. Most potato dishes are served hot, but some are first cooked, then served cold, notably potato salad and potato chips/crisps. Common dishes are: mashed potatoes, which are first boiled (usually peeled), and then mashed with milk or yogurt and butter; whole baked potatoes; boiled or steamed potatoes; French-fried potatoes or chips; cut into cubes and roasted; scalloped, diced, or sliced and fried (home fries); grated into small thin strips and fried (hash browns); grated and formed into dumplings, Rösti or potato pancakes. Unlike many foods, potatoes can also be easily cooked in a microwave oven and still retain nearly all of their nutritional value, provided they are covered in ventilated plastic wrap to prevent moisture from escaping; this method produces a meal very similar to a steamed potato, while retaining the appearance of a conventionally baked potato. Potato chunks also commonly appear as a stew ingredient. Potatoes are boiled between 10 and 25[93] minutes, depending on size and type, to become soft.
  41. 41. LATIN AMERICA Papa rellena Peruvian cuisine naturally contains the potato as a primary ingredient in many dishes, as around 3,000 varieties of this tuber are grown there.[94] Some of the more notable dishes include boiled potato as a base for several dishes or with ají-based sauces like in Papa a la Huancaína or ocopa, diced potato for its use in soups like in cau cau, or in Carapulca with dried potato (papa seca). Smashed condimented potato is used in causa Limeña and papa rellena. French-fried potatoes are a typical ingredient in Peruvian stir-fries, including the classic dish lomo saltado. Chuño is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Peru and Bolivia,[95] and is known in various countries of South America, including Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile. In Chile's Chiloé Archipelago, potatoes are the main ingredient of many dishes, including milcaos, chapaleles, curanto and chochoca. In Ecuador, the potato, as well as being a staple with most dishes, is featured in the hearty locro de papas, a thick soup of potato, squash, and cheese.
  42. 42. EUROPEAN CUISINE Fish and chips In the UK, potatoes form part of the traditional staple fish and chips. Roast potatoes are commonly served with a Sunday roast, and mashed potatoes form a major component of several other traditional dishes such as shepherd's pie, bubble and squeak, and bangers and mash. New potatoes are often cooked with mint and served with a little melted butter. The Tattie scone is a popular Scottish dish containing potatoes. Colcannon is a traditional Irish food made with mashed potato, shredded kale or cabbage, and onion; champ is a similar dish. Boxty pancakes are eaten throughout Ireland, although associated especially with the north, and in Irish diaspora communities; they are traditionally made with grated potatoes, soaked to loosen the starch and mixed with flour, buttermilk and baking powder. A variant eaten and sold in Lancashire, especially Liverpool, is made with cooked and mashed potatoes. Bryndzové halušky is the Slovakian national dish, made of a batter of flour and finely grated potatoes that is boiled to form dumplings. These are then mixed with regionally varying ingredients.[96] In Northern and Eastern Europe, especially in Scandinavian countries, Poland, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine, newly harvested, early ripening varieties are considered a special delicacy. Boiled whole and served un-peeled with dill, these "new potatoes" are traditionally consumed with Baltic herring. Puddings made from grated potatoes (kugel, kugelis, and potato babka) are popular items of Ashkenazi, Lithuanian, and Belarussian cuisine.[97]
  43. 43. A baked potato served with butter In Western Europe, especially in Belgium, sliced potatoes are fried to create frieten, the original French fried potatoes. Stamppot, a traditional Dutch meal, is based on mashed potatoes mixed with vegetables. In France, the most notable potato dish is the Hachis Parmentier, named after Antoine-Augustin Parmentier, a French pharmacist, nutritionist, and agronomist who, in the late 18th century, was instrumental in the acceptance of the potato as an edible crop in the country. The pâté aux pommes de terre is a regional potato dish from the central Allier and Limousin regions. In the north of Italy, in particular, in the Friuli region of the northeast, potatoes serve to make a type of pasta called gnocchi.[98] Similarly, cooked and mashed potatoes or potato flour can be used in the Knödel or dumpling eaten with or added to meat dishes all over central and Eastern Europe, but especially in Bavaria and Luxembourg. Potatoes form one of the main ingredients in many soups such as the vichyssoise and Albanian potato and cabbage soup. In western Norway, komle is popular. A traditional Canary Islands dish is Canarian wrinkly potatoes or papas arrugadas. Tortilla de patatas (potato omelete) and patatas bravas (a dish of fried potatoes in a spicy tomato sauce) are near-universal constituent of Spanish tapas.
  44. 44. NORTH AMERICA French fries served with a hamburger Poutine: Fried potatoes, cheese curds, and gravy In the United States, potatoes have become one of the most widely consumed crops and thus have a variety of preparation methods and condiments. French fries and often hash browns are commonly found in typical American fast-food burger joints and cafeterias. One popular favorite involves a baked potato with cheddar cheese (or sour cream and chives) on top, and in New England "smashed potatoes" (a chunkier variation on mashed potatoes, retaining the peel) have great popularity. Potato flakes are popular as an instant variety of mashed potatoes, which reconstitute into mashed potatoes by adding water, with butter or oil and salt to taste. A regional dish of Central New York, salt potatoes are bite-size new potatoes boiled in water saturated with salt then served with melted butter. At more formal dinners, a common practice includes taking
  45. 45. small red potatoes, slicing them, and roasting them in an iron skillet. Among American Jews, the practice of eating latkes (fried potato pancakes) is common during the festival of Hanukkah. A traditional Acadian dish from New Brunswick is known as poutine râpée. The Acadian poutine is a ball of grated and mashed potato, salted, sometimes filled with pork in the center, and boiled. The result is a moist ball about the size of a baseball. It is commonly eaten with salt and pepper or brown sugar. It is believed to have originated from the German Klöße, prepared by early German settlers who lived among the Acadians. Poutine, by contrast, is a hearty serving of French fries, fresh cheese curds and hot gravy. Tracing its origins to Quebec in the 1950s, it has become a widespread and popular dish throughout Canada. INDIAN SUBCONTINENT In India, the most popular potato dishes are aloo ki sabzi, batata vada, and samosa, which is spicy mashed potato mixed with a small amount of vegetable stuffed in conical dough, and deep fried. Potatoes are also a major ingredient as fast food items, such as aloo chaat, where they are deep fried and served with chutney. In Northern India, alu dum and alu paratha are a favorite part of the diet; the first is a spicy curry of boiled potato, the second is a type of stuffed chapati. A dish called masala dosa from South India is very notable all over India. It is a thin pancake of rice and pulse paste rolled over spicy smashed potato and eaten with sambhar and chutney. Poori in south India in particular in Tamil Nadu is almost always taken with smashed potato masal. Other favorite dishes are alu tikki and pakoda items. Vada pav is a popular vegetarian fast food dish in Mumbai and other regions in the Maharashtra in India. Aloo posto (a curry with potatoes and poppy seeds) is immensely popular in East India, especially Bengal. Although potatoes are not native to India, it has become a vital part of food all over the country especially North Indian food preparations. In Tamil Nadu this tuber acquired a
  46. 46. name based on its appearance 'urulai-k-kizhangu' ( ) meaning cylindrical tuber. EAST ASIA In East Asia, particularly Southeast Asia, rice is by far the predominant starch crop, with potatoes a secondary crop, especially in China and Japan. However, it is used in northern China where rice is not easily grown, with a popular dish being 青椒土豆丝 (qīng jiāo tǔ dòu sī), made with green pepper, vinegar and thin slices of potato. In the winter, roadside sellers in northern China will also sell roasted potatoes. It is also occasionally seen in Korean and Thai cuisines.[99] ART The potato has been an essential crop in the Andes since the pre-Columbian Era. The Moche culture from Northern Peru made ceramics from earth, water, and fire. This pottery was a sacred substance, formed in significant shapes and used to represent important themes. Potatoes are represented anthropomorphically as well as naturally.[100] During the late 19th century, numerous images of potato harvesting appeared in European art, including the works of Willem Witsen and Anton Mauve.[101] Van Gogh's 1885 painting "The Potato Eaters" portrays a family eating potatoes.[102] Invented in 1949 and marketed and sold commercially by Hasbro in 1952, Mr. Potato Head is an American toy that consists of a plastic potato and attachable plastic parts such as ears and eyes to make a face. It was the first toy ever advertised on television.[103]
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