RESEARCH PROPOSAL ON:
THE EFFECTS OF INORGANIC AND ORGANIC
FERTILIZER APPLICATION ON SWEET PEPPER
PRODUCTION INTERMS OF YIELDS AND COST.
“A CASE STUDY AT VVU TECHIMAN CAMPUS”
SEKYI STEPHEN KWAME
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES.
Sweet Pepper (Capsicum annuum ) is a crop that belongs to
the solanaceous family and a season crop that can be grown
throughout the year.
Sweet pepper originated from Mexico and Central America.
In Ghana,Tuobodom District is known to be one of the
leading producers of exotic vegetables like sweet pepper
with higher yields in Ghana.
Sweet pepper are low in Calories.
It contains plenty of vitamin C which powers human immune
system and keeps the skin youthful.
It contains lycopene and sulphur that lower the risk of
prostate,bladder,cervical and pancreatic cancer.
The capsaicin in sweet pepper reduces bad cholesterol,
control diabetes, bring relief from pain and eases
inflammation( injury, infections).
Sweet pepper has the ability that can contribute to the
alleviation of poverty within household because it is
drought, tolerant and can be produce all year round.
The problem is to assess the effects of inorganic and organic
fertilizer application on sweet pepper production interms of
yield and cost.
MAIN AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The main aim is to evaluate the performance of the various
fertilizer regimes on sweet pepper production.
To assess the yield levels of California and Yolo wonder,
using different fertilizer regimes.
To assess the cost and benefit on the right fertilizer regime on
sweet pepper production.
Sweet pepper plant is a perennial in warm climates but grows
as an annual in northern climates.
Peppers grow well under a wide range of soil pH form 5.5 to
Sweet pepper requires cool weather for best fruit quality.
In low elevations, October to December planting is best. In
mid and high elevations, it can be grown throughout the year.
Avoid planting in low lying fields next to streams and rivers
because these sites are subject to high humidity and moisture
conditions and, therefore, especially prone to bacterial spot
Producers should also avoid fields where long residual corn
or soya bean herbicides have been used, because herbicide
carry-over can cause serious damage to peppers.
Ideally ,seedlings should be raised in seedling trays using a
sterile sowing medium so that healthy, vigorous seedlings
This provides uniform moisture and fertilization during the
growing season. Dry conditions result in premature smallsized fruit set, which leads to reduced yields (Bosland &
Sweet pepper has a total water requirement of about 600 mm
and a weekly water requirement of 25 mm during the first
five weeks and 35 mm thereafter (Anon., 2000).
Excessive rainfall or water supply can negatively affect
flower and fruit formation and eventually lead to fruit rot
(Coertze & Kistner, 1994).Unrestricted water supply to the
crop can be as harmful as not enough water.
Water stress during flowering and friutset can cause flower
and fruit drop. Water stress during fruit development can
cause poorly developed,small,misshapen fruit, or blossom
During the growing season, pepper should receive 1 to 2
inches of rainfall or irrigation per week, depending on soil
type and stage of growth. Sufficient water during fruiting
will result in more numerous large fruit.
Water requirements rapidly increase and approach 100% of
Evapotranspiration(Eto) as complete canopy cover and
Ideal pepper transplants are 5 to 6 weeks old,5 to 6 leaves,
are 6 to 8 inches tall, have a stiff but not a woody stem strong
enough to withstand transplanting, have an intact root
system(but are not root bound),and have not suffered shock
from storage or holding.
They should be slightly hardened but not to the point where
they are slow to take off in the field.
Good weed control in peppers begins similarly to any other
crop, before the crop is planted. Control established
perennials before planning to plant peppers in the field.
Organic fertilizers are derived from living things such as
animals and plants. Most common are manures, bone meal,
fish meal etc.
Poultry manure is a useful source of Nitrogen that plants
needs for green leafy growth. It contains smaller amount of
nutrients such as Nitrogen-4%, Phosphorus-2%, Potassium1%.
It contains acidity and alkalinity that varies according to its
age, the diet fed to the birds, the age of the birds and the litter
materials used. It has a pH range of 6.5 to 8.0
Brechelt (1989) revealed that, stable manure and compost
applied at 5, 10, 20 or 30 tons/ha to Capsicum grown in
greenhouse stimulated plant growth up to 20 tons/ha, but
generally fell with increasing rates of application from 20 up
to 30 tons/ha.
Corrales et al., (1991) studies on two sources of organic
fertilizer at the rate of 4 ton/ha, i.e., decomposed chicken
manure and compost made of sugar-cane bagasse, sawdust
and aches at 2:1:1.
They found that, leaf area of pepper plants was significantly
increased by incorporating both materials into the plant bed.
Shehata (1992) reported that the application of farm yard
manure as organic manure significantly increased the dry
matter content of sweet pepper plant leaves at both plant
stages of 70 and 100 days after transplanting .
Whereas, a steady significant increase in dry matter content
were recorded with increasing the rate of FYM from 25, 50,
75 up to 100 m3 / fed.
Inorganic fertilizers are man made formulas that can be
formulated for various speeds of release. Common are N.P.K.
After transplanting, fertilize the pepper plants with a starter
A starter fertilizer solution can be prepared by following
directions on a water-soluble fertilizer or by dissolving 2
tablespoons of an all-purpose garden fertilizer, such as N.P.K
10-10-10, in one gallon of water. Give each plant 1 to 2 cups
of the solution.
Ado(2012) in a study of Sweet pepper response to NPK
fertilizer for improved growth and yield indicate that
application of NPK fertilizer within the first two weeks after
transplanting produced higher number of leaves, early
flowering time and subsequently produced a highest fruit
yield of pepper.
Aphids (primarily Myzus persicae),Aphids can make pepper
fruit unmarketable because of the honeydew that is secreted
by the aphid and/or associated sooty mould fungi. Infested
plants can be stunted, with deformed foliage.
Controlling weed hosts around the edges of fields may help
to control aphid infestations.
Soft rot begins in the peduncle and calyx tissues of harvested
fruit, but infection can occur through wounds on the fruit.
Internal tissue near the site of infection softens and the
expanding lesion reduces the fruit interior to a watery mass.
Fruit infected on the plant collapse and hang on the plant
like a water-filled bag and when the content leaks out, a dry
shell of the fruit is left behind.
The disease is severe during rainy periods because the
bacteria are splashed from the soil onto the fruit. The decay
can be reduced by harvesting dry fruit, reducing damage
during handling and controlling insects that cause damage to
the fruit (Black et al., 1991).
For best yield and quality, green peppers are harvested when
they reach full size, are firm, and have thick flesh. This is
shortly before they begin to change color. Some hot peppers
are picked after they have changed color.
Harvest peppers twice a week to achieve maximum yields
and pick by using a twisting, pulling motion with part of the
stem adhering to the fruit.
Bell peppers are usually harvested when large and firm in
the immature green stage. They also may be allowed to fully
ripen to red, yellow, orange, purple, or other colors.
Fully ripe bell peppers are slightly sweeter and have a higher
vitamin content than the immature green peppers.
Fresh peppers may be stored for up to 3 weeks in cool,
moist conditions (45 to 50 F and 85 to 90 percent relative
Start harvesting at 80-100 days from transplanting or 3-6
weeks after flowering. Harvest mature green fruits.
For successful production of sweet pepper, the following
materials will be obtained.
Land for production.
Sweet pepper seeds namely (California Wonder) and (Yolo
Organic fertilizer(Poultry Manure).
Weedicides and pesticides.
The two varieties to be used are as follows;
The seeds will be nursed until they are ready for
transplanting to the field when soil conditions are favorable
for easy establishment of the seedlings.
Fields will be prepared thoroughly by plowing and
harrowing ,removing the different types of plant debris.
The purpose of the weeding is to control weeds that compete
with the crops and prevent the spread of diseases and pests.
Two (2 )weeks after transplanting, the first weeding is done
and the second weeding is done from 6 weeks.
The two forms that will be employed to amend the sweet
pepper production are the organic(Poultry Manure) and the
Fertilizer application will be done 2 weeks after
Various fertilizer treatments that will be used are follows:
Organic (poultry manure)-10 tons/ha.
Organic(Poultry Manure). + Quarry dust-5 tons + 100kg/ha.
The sweet pepper will be watered on 2 times daily (morning
holes or watering can will be used as a means of
irrigation to the sweet pepper.
DATA TO BE COLLECTED
Number of leaves per plant.
Time of flowering initiation
50% flower initiation.
Full flower initiation.
Number of flowers per plant.
DATA TO BE COLLECTED
Number of fruits per plant.
Date of harvesting.
Weight of fruit per plant.
Cost of fertilizers.
Cost of labourers
Cost of land preparation.
The four treatments are as follows;
T1 – No fertilizer.
T2 – Inorganic fertilizer. (N.P.K)
T3 – Organic fertilizer(Poultry Manure)..
T4 –Mixture of organic fertilizer and quarry dust.
The two varieties to be used are as follows;
V1 – California Wonder.
V2 – Yolo Wonder.
Two(2) varieties (California Wonder and Yolo Wonder) will
be used with 6 treatments and 3 replications under the Split
The treatments will be V1T1, V1T2, V1T3, V1T4, V2T1,
V2T2, V2T3, V2T4 because of the two varieties.
V1T1 – California wonder with no fertilizer.
V1T2 – California wonder with inorganic fertilizer(N.P.K).
V1T3 – California wonder with organic fertilizer(Poultry
V1T4 – California wonder with mixture of organic
fertilizer and quarry dust.
V2T1 –Yolo wonder with no fertilizer .
V2T2 –Yolo wonder with inorganic fertilizer( N.P.K).
V2T3 – Yolo wonder with organic fertilizer(Poultry Manure).
V2T4 – Yolo wonder with mixture of organic
fertilizer and quarry dust
The data collected from the various plots will be analyzed
using the analysis of variance (ANOVA)
TIME REQUIRED (MONTHS)
REPORT EDITING AND
It is expected that, sweet pepper that would be grown under
the mixture of the organic fertilizers (Poultry Manure )and
Quarry dust will yield more than the organic (Poultry
Manure ) and the inorganic(N.P.K) fertilizer since the
nutrients will be more readily available and adequate for the
sweet pepper growth and yield.
The expected results from the project is foreseen to help
improve the production of sweet pepper in Ghana.
Brechelt, A. (1991): The effects of sterilized and unsterilized
stable manure and compost on the efficiency of VA
mycorrihiza. J. Aron. Crop Sci.,162:113-120.
Christine T. Stephens, Department of botany and plant
pathology-Extension Bulletin E-1815.
Corrales, O.; E. Vorgas and M. A. Moreira (1991):The effects
of organic matter on control of root rot in sweet pepper
(capsicum annum) caused by Phytopthora
capsici.Agronomic-Costarricense,14:9-13.(C.F. Hort. Abstr.
Leja, M., G Wyzgolik and I. Kaminsk Biochemical
Parameters During the Development of Sweet Pepper
Fruits.Mokslo Darbai Journal, 27(2):277-283.
Pepper grader’s manual. 1981.
Shehata, A. M.(1992):The effects of manuring on soil
moisture and the reflection on plant growth.M.Sc. Thesis
Fac. Of Agric.Menoufiya Univ.,Egypt.
Sweet Pepper Production Guide Info Bulletin No.155/1999