W2 Meso& Egypt


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W2 Meso& Egypt

  1. 1. WK2 Agenda • Art Review, Pimai Buddhist Century? • Instant Homework Grading (late work -2/wk) • Discussion • Cuneiform Emoticon Exercise • Lecture Mesopotamian and Egyptian Civilization • Homework and movie club • “Ramses Wrath of God or Man?” Video 1
  2. 2. Art Review 2
  3. 3. Mesopotamia and Egypt 3
  4. 4. Mesopotamia Time Politic, Economic, Knowledge, Art: Painting, Literature, Drama Society Philosophy, Religion Sculpture, Technology Architecture 10000 BCE Started agriculture 4000-3500 BCE Sumerian Polytheistic, Anthropomorphic, Council of the Elders Pantheistic, Ziggurat of Ur, Sumerian wheel, Math Post and lintel construction 3300 BCE Gilgamesh ruled the 1st Cuneiform Writing, Gilgamesh Epic dynasty at Ur, City State Irrigation system 2350 BCE Sargon of Akkad set up the Palace of Sargon at Khorsabad 1st Empire (started to use arch), Guardian of the Gate at Khorsabad Hittites settled in Anatolia. 2000BCE Later invaded Babylon Amorite King, Hammurabi 1792-1750 BCE ruled Babylon Hammurabi Code Assyria empire also covered Asurabanipal built the 1300-626 BCE Babylon biggest library 605-562 BCE Worship Marduk at ziggurat, Hanging garden of Kaldian, Nabopolassar and Babylon, day, year, 12 shift Nebuchadnezzar II reestablish of 120 minutes Babylon as the capital Cyrus II of Persia invaded Babylon. End of Mesopotamia and the area became part of 559-530 BCE the Persian empire. 4
  5. 5. Egypt Time Politic, Economic, Knowledge, Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture Literature and Society Philosophy, Religion Drama Technology 5000 BCE Started agriculture in the Nile river Nomes community Religion: Polytheism, Menes 1st pharaoh combine Upper theocracy, local court, irrigation, and lower Egypt: capital at tax, algebra, trade: linen, crystal, Develop Hieroglyphics then 3200-3100 BCE Memphis fur, oil, and papyrus Hieratic Belief in life after death, Mastaba Osiris: Pyramid temple, Obelisk, Pyramids text, Coffin text, 2667-2648 BCE: Step Pyramid at The Dispute of a 2686 BCE Saqqara by King Djoser, Sphinx, King Man with his Old Kingdom/1st Mega projects Math, pulley, wind, medical for and queen statues Soul Intermediate Cast: slave, farmer, commerce, skilled preserving corpse, anatomy, 2530 BCE Giza pyramid by King (civil war) artisans, elite hieroglyphs, papyrus Khufu, 2040-1720 BCE Amenemhet moved the capital to Abstract, Book of the Dead, temples Middle Thebes, Hyksos invaded Egypt, the end at Karnak The Story of Kingdom/2nd of Middle Kingdom, Ended the isolation Sinuhe, Hymns Intermediate period (songs of praise to (Hyksos) the gods) Ahmose1 drove out Hyksos and created Temple of Amun in Karnak the New Kingdom, Religious center Hatshepsut’s temple (covered 1570-1336 BCE moved from Thebes to Armana, Largest entrance to the royal remains) New Kingdom Empire @Thutmose III Royal Tomb in the Valley of the Kings 1347-1338 BCE Tutankhamen Portrait head of Nefertiti, Delta Ramses II ambitious projects, in war Residence of Piramesse, House of 1304-1237 BCE with Hittites for 20 years Ramses of the Bible Alexander the great conquered Egypt, City of Alexandria, Musieon at 332 BCE Ptolemy I Alexandria library, Rosetta stone Roman destroyed Carthage and 146-30 BCE conquered Egypt (Cleopatra VII)
  6. 6. Discussion • What have you learned? – Location? – Development? – Language? Art? – Need theory? • What do you know about those two civilizations? Any similarity? Any difference? 6
  7. 7. Emoticon Exercise • Guess the meaning of these emoticons. • What about these Cuneiform writing? Do you know the meaning? • Try create your own and ask your friends. 7
  8. 8. Mesopotamia • Fertile Crescent starts at Persian Gulf, goes through the river valley, and ends at the Mediterranean sea. • Greek word meaning “land between the two rivers” • ~1500 years • Sumerian=>Akkadian=> Babylonian Kingdoms 8
  9. 9. Sumerian • King Gilgamesh ruled the 1st dynasty at Ur, City States • Pictograms=>Ideograms=>Phonograms • Cuneiform, in Latin word cuneus means wedge. • Gilgamesh Epic: – heroic adventures: brave when face with danger – human beings are immortal: power of God • Chose friendship with Enkidu rather than love from Ishta. Got punished to watch his friend died and began to search for immortality. – influence the Bible: Noah’s ark 9
  10. 10. Sumerian • Polytheistic: many gods and goddess • Anthropomorphic: human characteristic for animal • Pantheistic: everywhere, in nature and the universe • Ziggurat of Ur – Shrine of the moon god Nanna 10
  11. 11. Sumerian • Flood once a year – Irrigation system • Brick and pottery – Sumerian wheel • Math: ×,÷,square root, number in 60 base (minute, second, 360o ) • Measurement: pound 11
  12. 12. Akkadian • Sargon~Moses story, ruled the 1st empire • Palace of Sargon at Khorsabad – Arch – Guardian of the Gate Do you see anything unusual? 12
  13. 13. Babylonian • King Hammurabi conquered Amorites and ruled Babylon • Hammurabi code “eye for and eye” – 282 sections cover economic provision (prices, tariff, trade, and commerce), family law(marriage and divorce), criminal law (theft and assault), civil law (slavery and debt), – Examples: doctor and patient, architect and homeowner, debtor and wife 13
  14. 14. Babylonian • Hammurabi=>Kassites 400 years=>Assyria until 730 BCE • Nabopolassar and his son Nebuchadnezzar II reestablished Babylon • Hanging gardens of Babylon • Worshiped Marduk; especially during the new year celebration • Divination to predict future with animal internal organ such as kidney of the sheep • Cyrus II of Persia invaded Babylon. End of Mesopotamia and the area became part of the Persian empire. 14
  15. 15. Egypt • Nilotic culture evolved continuously because of its geographic environment: deserts and the Nile river • 40 Nomes with their leaders along the river • Menes 1st pharaoh combine Upper (500 miles) and lower Egypt (200 miles, Delta area), capital at Memphis • 26 dynasties in three kingdoms • Old Kingdom=>Middle Kingdom=>New Kingdom • Intermediate Period between each Kingdom (famine and war) 15
  16. 16. Egypt • Peasant life: domesticating animals, improving irrigation system to plant wheat, barley, and vegetables. • Polytheism: Ex: Thoth (God of wisdom) Ibis, Amen, Anubis • Theocracy: a social system controlled by religious leaders, god on earth 16
  17. 17. Egypt (Old Kingdom) Pharaoh • Hierarchical Society: Elite Skilled artisans • Foreign trade: royal monopoly Merchant – Import: cedar, olive, myrrh Farmer – Export: gold and copper Slave – Carrier of African products: ebony, ivory and animal skin • Other important knowledge: math, algebra, sundial, pulley, medical for preserving corpse, anatomy, hieroglyphics, papyrus • Belief in life after death • Mega projects: – Step Pyramid at Saqqara by King Djoser, Sphinx, King and queen statues – Giza pyramid by King Khufu – Mastaba temples 17
  18. 18. Egypt (Old Kingdom) • Located at Saqqara close to Cairo • For the 2nd king of the 3rd dynasty (King Djoser) • Imhotep: the world 1st architect, doctor, sage, poet, astrologer, chief minister • 60 meters or 197 ft high, Limestone and granite 18
  19. 19. Egypt (Old Kingdom) • For the 4th dynasty Pharaoh Khufu(Cheop), his son and grandson (Khafre and Menkaure) • Mastaba, Sphinx, Temple, Cause way • 3 Chambers • The tallest structure for 3800 years 19
  20. 20. How Mummies are made? Preparing the Organs and The canopic body after life chest Sealed for Wrapping the eternity Reserved for eternity Pharaoh 20
  21. 21. Egypt (Old Kingdom) • Osiris God – Teach Egyptian cultivation – Murdered by God Seth – Pyramid text • What to do and pray • How to behave before the judgment day – Coffin text • Dispute of a man with his soul – Desperate mortal choosing the emptiness of death rather than materialistic and violent world – Meaning? 21
  22. 22. Egypt (Middle Kingdom) • Amenemhet moved the capital to Thebes • Temples at Karnak (the largest ancient religious site) – Pharoah Thutmos III built it as a reminder of winning the war over Mesopotamia – Karnak area: the most selected place – Karnak: precinct of Amun-Re • Hyksos invaded Egypt – Egyptian learned to use chariot – Influenced language and sculptors – End of the middle kingdom and isolation period • Book of the Dead – A collection of hymns – A product of the pyramid text and coffin text – German Egyptologist published a selection of the text – Ancient Egyptian Bible • The Story of Sinuhe – Egyptian prince was exiled from Egypt and became the leader of the barbarian people – Pharaoh permitted him to come back to Egypt after he read Sinuhe’s letter 22
  23. 23. Egypt (New Kingdom) • Ahmose1 drove out Hyksos and created the New Kingdom • Religious center moved from Thebes to Armana • Largest Empire @Thutmose III (17 wars, step son of Hatshepsut) • Ramses II ambitious projects, in war with Hittites for 20 years • Portrait head of Nefertiti Hatshepsut’s temple (covered 23 entrance to the royal remains)
  24. 24. Egypt (New Kingdom) • Tutankhamen • Alexander the great conquered Egypt, Ptolemy I • City of Alexandria • Roman destroyed Carthage and conquered Egypt (Cleopatra VII) 24
  25. 25. Homework • No class on Monday November 16, 2009 • Wednesday evening 4:30-7:30 pm. • Make the tables for Ancient India and China Civilizations for comparison • Join the movie club 25