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This slides are prepared to introduce the public on the IT Technology which has gain a lot of attention by either small and big companies. It is not only gain attention but also being used by big companies such as Google, Twitter, Facebook and Amazon. The technology is called Free Software or also known as Open Source Software. The concept behind this technology is SHARING. Through sharing, This concept has been here nearly 40 years ago. Internet is one the examples that use this technology. The main concept is about FREEDOM.

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  1. 1. FREE, OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE (FOSS) : Enabling Technology Through Freedom of Choice and Open Innovation Professor Dr R.Badlishah Ahmad Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) February 2014
  2. 2. Introduction ● ● ● ● ● IT is advancing and changing at rapid pace because of Internet (TCP/IP) Access to Internet become necessity.. from fiber optic to 3G, 4G, WiMAX etc Everybody is getting connected and make themselves available and accessible anytime and anywhere This is achieved through advanced in software applications and technology use by Google, Twitter, Facebook etc.. What are the software technology behind this? 2 Of 70
  3. 3. Internet (Based on TCP/IP) 1965: Two computers at MIT Lincoln Lab communicate with one another using packet-switching technology 1968: Beranek and Newman, Inc. (BBN) unveils the final version of the Interface Message Processor (IMP) specifications. BBN wins ARPANET contract 1972: BBN’s Ray Tomlinson introduces network email. The Internetworking Working Group (INWG) forms to address need for establishing standard protocols 1973: Global networking becomes a reality as the University College of London (England) and Royal Radar Establishment (Norway) connect to ARPANET. The term Internet is born. 3 Of 70
  4. 4. Internet (Based on TCP/IP) 1974: Vinton Cerf and Bob Kahn (Fathers of the Internet) publish "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection," which details the design of TCP 1982: TCP and IP, as the protocol suite, commonly known as TCP/IP, emerge as the protocol for ARPANET. (IPv4 to IPv6) 1987: The number of hosts on the Internet exceeds 20,000. Cisco ships its first router 1990: Tim Berners-Lee, develops HyperText Markup Language (HTML) 1991: World Wide Web is introduced to the public 4 Of 70
  5. 5. Transmission Medium ● coaxial cable, the first broadband transmission medium, invented by AT&T in 1929 for Ethernet (Local Area Network (LAN)): – – ● at 400MHz, Cable Loss 5.5dB/100ft at 20GHz, Loss ~ 100dB/100ft Data Rate of 10-100Mbs 5 Of 70
  6. 6. Transmission Medium ● Twisted Pair cabling: – ● Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) & Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) UTP: most popular network cable in data networks for short/medium length (up to 100 meters or 328 feet) BW ~ 1GHz – Loss ~20dB/100m at 100MHz – Data Rate of 40Gbs (50m) – 1 pair of cable – 100Gbs (15m) – 1 pair of cable – 1 Gigabit Ethernet (GE) – 250Mb/s per pair (there are 4 pairs) – 10GE? Heavier, difficult to maintain → Fibre is the best option 6 Of 70
  7. 7. Transmission Medium ● Fiber Optic – ● ● BW 1THz, Loss ~ 0.93dB/1km 26 Terabit/s in 1 Wavelength channel at 50km Explosive of mass data! -> Internet of Things (IoT) ** Fiber Optics is chosen NOT because of signal speed in compare to any copper based medium.. speed of electron and photon are similar!! * It is chosen because of BW and low loss. 7 Of 70
  8. 8. Internet Evolution (Video) 8 Of 70
  9. 9. Freedom of Choice, Open Innovation and Open Access: In terms of Content, Knowledge and Technology 9 Of 70
  10. 10. Examples of Open Content and Knowledge 10 Of 70
  11. 11. Education Gets IT & OPEN ● ● ● Massachusetts Institute of Technology is leading the way MIT Open Courseware (OCW) shares free lecture notes, exams, and other resources from more than 1,700 courses spanning MIT's entire curriculum 40 million visits from virtually every country on earth 11 Of 70
  12. 12. Education Gets IT & OPEN ● ● ● educational materials from its undergraduate- and graduate-level courses online, partly free and openly available to anyone, anywhere funded by the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, and MIT October 2012, over 2180 courses were available online 12 Of 70
  13. 13. Open Courseware (OCW) ● ● ● OpenCourseWare Consortium is a worldwide community of hundreds of higher education institutions and associated organizations committed to advancing open education and its impact on global education OCW Consortium helps to solve social problems through expansion of access to education 13 Of 70
  14. 14. Open Courseware (OCW) ● ● about free and open sharing Free, meaning no cost, and open, which refers to the use of legal tools (open licenses) that give everyone permission to reuse and modify educational resources ● Free and open sharing increases access to education and knowledge for anyone, anywhere, anytime 14 Of 70
  15. 15. Open Courseware (OCW) ● ● People want to learn free and open access to education and knowledge, people can fulfill these desire – Workers can learn something that will help them on the job – – Teachers can find new ways to help students learn – People can connect with others they wouldn’t otherwise meet to share information and ideas – Materials can be translated, mixed together, broken apart and openly shared again, increasing access and allowing new approaches – Anyone can access – New Term: MOOC (Massive Online Open Courses) Faculty can exchange material and draw on resources from all around the world 15 Of 70
  16. 16. In Terms of Open St andard 16 Of 70
  17. 17. Important of an Open Standard? Standards, instructions or “blueprints” that are created and maintained in an open manner. Using a democratic approach where no single individual or company controls the standard. Open standards provide choice and interoperability between systems. * Note: Examples of media formatting, .doc, .docx, odt, mp3, mp4, ogg) 17 Of 70
  18. 18. In Terms of Open Technology 18 Of 70
  19. 19. Open Source Software (OSS) or Free Software (FS)? ● ● OSS == FS (at this moment..) A type of software defined by its collaborative development model, accessibility of code and distribution models. – ● Examples are GNU/Linux OS, gcc, LibreOffice, Xpdf, GIMP etc. This is in contrast with proprietary software which is only available in a binary or “closed” format and typically carries a license fee. – Examples are Microsoft Mobile, Windows XP, Vista, 8 Microsoft Visual C/C++, Borland C, MS Office 2007, Adobe Photoshop etc. 19 Of 70
  20. 20. Binary Format: 20 Of 70
  21. 21. Source Code (in C language): # include <stdio.h> int main (void) { Printf ("hello, world!n"); return 0; } 21 Of 70
  22. 22. Examples (THE BEST) 22 Of 70
  23. 23. 23 Of 70
  24. 24. GNU GNU Project to implement a completely free Unix-like operating system GNU is Not Unix (a recursive acronym!) ● ● ● Started by Richard Stallman in 1984, an MIT researcher, in a time when Unix sources were researcher no longer free. Initial components: C compiler (gcc), make (GNU make), Emacs, C library (glibc), coreutils (ls, cp ...) However, in 1991, the GNU project was still missing a kernel and was running only on proprietary unice, until the invention of Linux kernel!! Richard Stallman 24 Of 70
  25. 25. Linux ● Linus Torvald ● ● ● Free Unix-like kernel created in 1991 by Linus Torvalds Linux is a kernel (a software that managing hardware and user applications) GNU + Linux = GNU/Linux OS The fastest growing OS in the whole world. 25 Of 70
  26. 26. History of GNU and Linux 1980 1970 2000 1990 FreeBSD BSD family OpenBSD BSD (Berkeley Software Distribution) Bill Joy Time NetBSD Bill Joy SunOS (Stanford University Network) NextStep Bell Labs (AT&T) GNU MacOS X GNU / Linux Richard Stallman Ken Thompson Dennis Ritchie (C language created to implement a portable OS) Linus Torvalds IRIX (SGI) SRV5 Ritchie, Thompson System V family HP­UX Sun Solaris  AIX (IBM) 26 Of 70
  27. 27. Linux Kernel Evolution (video from Linux Foundation) 27 Of 70
  28. 28. Distributions (Distros) * Most of them using GNU/Linux OS 28 Of 70
  29. 29. What is it? Complete distribution of software/packages ● ● ● ● GNU/Linux OS word processing, spreadsheet & presentation Thunderbird+Lightning: email & calendaring Firefox, Chrome: Web browsing → try the add-ons! ● Pidgin: instant messaging ● Gimp: image manipulation, animations ● Blender: 3D imaging, rendering and animations ● Exaile: music manager and player ● VLC: video & music player ● Many more... ** Compare to proprietary, 1 CD for 1 software/applications (e.g. MS Windows, MS Office, Adobe Photoshop etc) 29 Of 70
  30. 30. More Sample of FOSS 30 Of 70
  31. 31. GIMP The GNU Image Manipulation Program ● License: GPL ● Main developers: community ● Extremely powerful image processor Similar to Photoshop ● Platforms: Unix/Linux/MacOS, Windows ● Extensible and scriptable through plugins ● Alternative to Adobe Photoshop 31 Of 70
  32. 32. LibreOffice (latest version 4.2) ● Main developer: The Document Foundation ● A fork of ● use Open Document Format (ODF) to provide freedom ● ● LibreOffice has been downloaded approximately 7.5 million times since its first stable launch in January 2011. Default office suite in many different Linux distributions, such as Fedora, Linux Mint, openSUSE and Ubuntu. ● Google also supports the LibreOffice project ● LibreOffice is licensed under the terms of the LGPLv3 ● Alternative to Microsoft Office 32 Of 70
  33. 33. Inkscape A vector graphics editor ● License: GNU GPL ● Developers: community ● ● Supported platforms: Linux/Unix, Windows and MacOS X Alternative to Corel Draw and Adobe Illustrator 33 Of 70
  34. 34. Mozilla Firefox Most advanced and friendly web browser & No 1 browser ● ● ● ● ● License: MPL (copyleft type) Main developers: Mozilla Foundation, community Supported platforms: Unix / Linux, Windows, MacOS X Market share (March 2007): 24% in Europe. It even reaches 44% in Slovenia, 41% in Finland and 36% in Germany! More statistics on Alternative to IE 34 Of 70
  35. 35. Eclipse ● ● ● ● Integrated development environment (IDE) for computer programming written mostly in Java and able to compile JAVA other programming languages including Ada, C, C++, COBOL, Fortran, Haskell, JavaScript, Lasso, Perl, PHP, Python, R, Ruby (including Ruby on Rails framework), Scala, Clojure, Groovy, Scheme, and Erlang Alternative to Borland C/C++, Visual Basic, Microsoft Visual 35 Of 70
  36. 36. Scilab ● ● ● Alternative to MATLAB cross-platform numerical computational package high-level, numerically oriented programming language 36 Of 70
  37. 37. KiCAD ● ● software suite for electronic design automation (EDA) integrated environment for all of the stages of the design process: – – PCB layout – ● Schematic Capture Gerber file generation/visualization and library editing cross-platform program, written with wxWidgets to run on – ● GNU/Linux, Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X Alternative to OrCAD 37 Of 70
  38. 38. Android ● A software platform and operating system (OS) for mobile devices ● Based on the Linux kernel ● Found way back in 2003. ● Developed in Palo Alto, California. ● ● ● ● Developed by the Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White. Purchased by GOOGLE in AUGUST, 2005 for $50million GNU/Linux != Android but using the same kernel Alternative to MS Mobile, IOS, Blackberry 38 Of 70
  39. 39. Android Market Share 39 Of 70
  40. 40. Android - Open Handset Alliance (OHA) ● ● ● It’s consortium of several companies. This group of companies are allowed to use source code of Android and develop applications. Nokia, Blackberry and Apple - not part of OHA. 40 Of 70
  41. 41. FOSS only for PC and Smartphone? 41 Of 70
  42. 42. FOSS is used in Embedded System Beagle Board Rasberry Pie Arduino using GNU/Linux MAS Infotainment System Astro Beyond... 42 Of 70
  43. 43. So Why FOSS? Cost? 43 Of 70
  44. 44. Free Software (Open Source Software) Free Software grants the below 4 freedoms to the user: ● ● ● ● The freedom to run the program, for any purpose The freedom to study how the program works, and adapt it to one's needs The freedom to redistribute copies to help others The freedom to improve the program, and release one's improvements to the public See 44 Of 70
  45. 45. Proprietary Software Microsoft & EULA (End User License Agreement) ● ● You give up all rights You accept all obligations placed on you for limited benefit ● You may not share the software ● You may not change the software ● You do not own the software ● You may only install the software to one device ● ● We reserve the right to change the license for any reason or purpose at any time You may only run the software as specifically spelled out in the EULA 45 Of 70
  46. 46. It is because of FREE!! Not because free of Cost BUT FREEDOM! 46 Of 70
  47. 47. Government Adoption Trends ● ● ● Worldwide, 265 government policy initiatives ranging from pilot projects to preferences (and even mandates) for the use of OSS (Center for Strategic and International Studies – April 2006) Most OSS policy initiatives are in Europe (47%), Asia (27%), LATAM (15%) followed by N. America (9%) Local/state level more likely to be approved by council/legislative action ***Data taken from CSIS Study on Government Open Source Policies * Policy for N. America is low but the usage is HIGH 47 Of 70
  48. 48. U.S. Federal Government OSS users ● U.S. Air Force ● DHS ● DISA ● NOA ● Army ● Census Bureau ● Navy ● DOJ ● Marine Corp ● GSA ● Coast Guard ● Energy ● NASA ● PTO ● FAA ● U.S. Courts 48 Of 70
  49. 49. Sampling of 5,000+ users in the U.S. ● City of New York DoITT ● Connecticut DoIT ● City of Chicago ● Indiana University ● Penn State University ● Florida EPA ● University of Michigan ● NC DPI ● City of Houston ● Minnesota DOT ● Louisiana Health & Human Services ● Pennsylvania OIT City of Philadelphia ● ● DeKalb County, GA Los Angeles County ● ● NC University System State of North Carolina ITS ● ● Henrico County, VA ● Minnesota Department of Natural Resources City of Seattle ● ● Purdue University ● Arizona State University ● University of Phoenix MIT ● CUNY & SUNY ● Miami-Dade County, FL ● University of Texas ● University of Chicago ● Florida Department of Health ● Massachusetts ITD ● Carnegie Mellon University ● Wisconsin DET ● Baltimore County, MD ● Georgia University System ● Emory University ● NY State Insurance Dept. ● City of Los Angeles ● MD Anderson ● ● ● California DOJ Johns Hopkins University 49 Of 70
  50. 50. Why US Governments move to open source ● ● ● ● ● Public sector organizations must cut costs in an environment of software upgrades, security issues and piracy The level of acceptance of open source has been raised The need to provide increased access for business and people To promote a local software industry The software can be shared 50 Of 70
  51. 51. Brazil's government ● Many ministries have switched to Linux and other OSS – “The number one reason for this change is economic” - Sergio Amadeu, National Institute for Information Technology (BBC, 2005) ● Plan open source when digitizing the Federal court system ● State of Parana – ● “The world of technology is opening up; there are hundreds of thousands of people working to improve free software. The old, closed model must adapt in order to survive.” – ● ● adopting eGroupWare, MySQL solution for its 10,000 users Cerqueira Cesar, Head of IT, Banco do Brasil Many ministries have switched to Linux and other OSS All Schools will be using Linux PC (825,000 installation – 2008), 2009 another 150,000 – LXF Magazine July 2008. 51 Of 70
  52. 52. India's government ● State Government of Kerala – – ● ● ● Announced in 2006 it will be a completely FLOSS zone Deploying linux in 12,500 schools Goa, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal using Linux to save costs on e-governance Sam Pitroda, National Knowledge Commission: “... we must actively encourage wherever possible open source software implementations and open standards.” Several national and local government projects to distribute OSS freely in local languages 52 Of 70
  53. 53. Malaysia's government ● ● ● ● ● Approved by the Government IT and Internet Committee on 19th February 2004 Announcement of OSS Master Plan 16th July 2004 Formulated through consultative process involving government agencies, institutions of higher learning, nonprofit organizations Institute of Microelectronic Systems established OS R&D group; maintain Asian Open Source Centre Administration Modernization and Management Planning Unit created Open Source Competency Centre (OSCC) and wrote a governmentapproved OSS plan – ● Migration roadmap for e-mail, browsers first, then databases 2014, OSCC is closed: no more budget (organization should be ready and self sustain) 53 Of 70
  54. 54. Does FOSS cut cost? 54 Of 70
  55. 55. FOSS in Education - 1/2 Examples of large scale adoption of Linux in education include the following: ● ● The OLPC XO-1 (previously called the MIT $100 laptop and The Children's Machine), is an inexpensive laptop running Linux, which will be distributed to millions of children as part of the One Laptop Per Child project, especially in developing countries. Republic of Macedonia deployed 5,000 Linux desktops running Ubuntu across all 468 public schools and 182 computer labs (December 2005). Later in 2007, another 180,000 Ubuntu thin client computers were deployed. 55 Of 70
  56. 56. FOSS in Education - 2/2 ● ● ● ● Schools in Bolzano, Italy, with a student population of 16,000, switched to a custom distribution of Linux, (FUSS Soledad GNU/Linux), in September 2005. Brazil has around 20,000 Linux desktops running in elementary and secondary public schools. Government officials of Kerala, India announced they will use only free software, running on the Linux platform, for computer education, starting with the 2,650 government and government-aided high schools. 22,000 students in the US state of Indiana had access to Linux Workstations at their high schools in 2006. 56 Of 70
  57. 57. 57 Of 70
  58. 58. It took 10 years (2003-2013) to do the transformation 58 Of 70
  59. 59. FOSS do cut cost..... (only if you plan it well) 59 Of 70
  60. 60. Linux Foundation Report 2010 ● Linux is poised for growth in the coming years (2011): – 77% of companies are planning to add more GNU/Linux servers in the next twelve months – only 41% of respondents are planning to add Windows servers in the next year – while 44% say that they will decreasing or maintaining the number of Windows servers in their organizations over the same time period – over the next five years, 80% of respondents plan on adding more GNU/Linux, relative to other operating systems, compared to only 21% planning on adding more Microsoft servers in the same period. 60 Of 70
  61. 61. Microsoft Commitment ● (Microsoft Malaysia presentation at Malaysian Open Source Conference (MOSC) 2011) – to achieve Openness and Interoperability with OSS – designing products to support OSS – collaboration with OSS vendors to ensure interoperability between products – contributing to OSS projects – releasing some technologies under approved Open Source licenses 61 Of 70
  62. 62. Summary of FOSS • Everybody wants to SHARE • Free Software provide FREEDOM • provide access, choice and allows innovations • Internet (TCP/IP) is FOSS • FOSS technology been around for ~ 40 years • FREEDOM best describe as Free Software and not Open Source Software • Software is Free ($$) but services (installation, training, consultation) is not! • The world is accepting FOSS and going towards “Openness” • avoid unethical attitude if using PIRATE SOFTWARE 62 Of 70
  63. 63. Next Slide (if we have more time) is on FOSS Licences (Brief) 63 Of 70
  64. 64. FOSS Licences Copyright is a set of exclusive rights granted to the author or creator of an original work: ● includes the right to copy, reproduce, distribute and adapt the work. Copyright owners have the exclusive right to: ● ● ● exercise control over copying and other exploitation of the works for a specific period of time. Anyone requiring to exploit and use any copyrighted work requires permission to use that work. Can grant permission and grant license for exploitation of the work. 64 Of 70
  65. 65. FOSS Licences Copyleft is a term used in respect of FOSS licensing which is used for copyright: ● Copyleft is a practice of using copyright law to offer the right to distribute copies and modified versions of a work and requiring that the same rights be preserved in modified versions of the work. Main idea behind copylefting the open source software was: ● ● to not let the product fall into the domain of proprietary software. If open source software is put into public domain with no copyright, people can make the said software proprietary and it would defeat the whole purpose of open source freedom. To guarantees that every user has the freedom. 65 Of 70
  66. 66. FOSS Licences Copyright law has been used to withhold permission: ● to copy, modify or distribute software, Copyleft ensures that the project remains free, and all modified and extended versions of the program remains free as well. Proprietary software developers use copyright to: ● take away the users' freedom; Copyleft guarantees their freedom. That's why the name has been reversed from “copyright” to “copyleft” 66 Of 70
  67. 67. FOSS Licences FOSS licenses are categorized as: ● strong, ● weak or ● with no copyleft provisions Non-copyleft licenses, also known as permissive licenses, allows those using the software to relicense it under any terms as they want. The most popular copyleft license is GPL. The most popular non-copyleft license is BSD style. These licenses place no restriction on licensing for modified works. 67 Of 70
  68. 68. FOSS Licenses - Copyleft The strength of the copyleft governing a work is an expression of the extent that the copyleft provisions can be efficiently imposed on all kinds of derived works 68 Of 70
  69. 69. FOSS License - Copyleft 69 Of 70
  70. 70. THE END THANK YOU... 70 Of 70