Introduction:- Transactional analysis, commonly known as TA to its adherents, is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and psychotherapy . It is described as integrative because it has elements of psychoanalytic, humanist and cognitive approaches. TA was developed by Canadian-born US psychiatrist, Eric Berne, during the late 1950s.Definitions“Transactional analysis is a technique used to help people betterunderstandtheir own and other’s behaviour, especially ininterpersonal relationship.
Level of self awernessOpen Self:Open Self is known as Public area. This quadrantindicates informationabout self is known to oneself andalso to others. The information relates to feelings,motivation and behaviour of an individual, which he is willingto share with thosewhom he comes in contact. The individual behaves in a straight forward mannerand issharing. In an organizational setting, because of theopenness of the individualthe chances of conflict are reduced to minimum.
Blind Self:This quadrant is related to information is not known toself but knownto others, who interact with you, knowmore about you. This is known as blindarea. It isimportant that an individual should reduce blind area tothe minimumby interacting with people more intimatelyand by asking questions about self. Forexample, anindividual may not be aware of the fact that he isextremely taskoriented and employees do not like it. Inother words, others know and perceive the individual as a hard task master and dislike him because of this.This is blind areathat a person is blind to the fact thathe interacts with others in the professionalmanne
Hidden Self:Certain aspect of personality has formed this quadrant. Selfknowsinformation but others do not know it. There are certainaspects, which are private.Individual therefore does not want to share it with subordinates and wants to keephidden. The area is alsocalled Private Area.Unknown Self:This area is characterized by facts unknown to the self andtoothers. This is dark area, which is not pregnable. There isnothing much that canbe done about it. It should be an endeavorto improve upon one self by obtainingfeed back from others aboutself. Individual should carry out improvement andperceive one selfcorrectly so that one perceives each person in the right manner
EGO STATE Ego state is an important part of transactional analysis, itexplains psychological behaviour pattern of an individual. Studyof ego state is related to the way an individualthinks, his feelingsand subsequent behaviour. People interact with each other interms of psychological positions of behaviour known as ego state. Sigmund Freud was the first toadvocate that in everyindividual there are three ego states residing within him i.e.parentego, adult ego and child ego. They stimulate, monitor andcontrol individual behaviour.The ego state is not related to the age of an individual. He further states that a person canchangeego state depending upon situation and modify his behaviour.
Parent EgoParent Ego refers to the personality attributes like value, attitude andbehaviour of parentlike people, inherited by a person when he was child. Thisbehavioural pattern becomesbasics for behaviour as individual copy parent figures like teacher, father, mother, brotheror any other person who is elderlyand displays an advisory behaviour, which is copied bya child and subsequently displayed in his lifetime when such situations arise. Parent egocan be of two types.(a)Nurturing parentsNurturing parent ego is characterized by over protectiveness, helpful, distant,dogmatic,indispensable and upright parent behaviour. When such behaviouris displayed to a child,he inherits the same pattern of behaviour.(b)Critical parentsCritical parents ego state is characterized with the behaviour, which is hurtful,wagingfinger at the other and conveys displeasures. The behaviour is strictwhich usually quotesrules, laws and has great reliance on successful people.
Adult Ego Adult Ego is based on reasoning, seeking fromsubordinates and providing information. Apersonhaving adult ego views people equal, worthy ofundertaking any job and responsible.They behaverationally and think logically. Physical signs canidentify their behaviour,which displays controllingtype. People with adult ego, verify their behaviour andupdatetheir parent and child ego continuously. Theyblock parent and child ego state based onexperience.The person updates data to determine what is validthus he controls emotionalexpression. Adult ego isconsidered to be valid ego state comparatively
Child EgoChild ego state is inner feelings, experience and adaptation. Person having childegogenerally displays creativity in his action. He conforms to the situation and peoplewhointeract with him and displays anxiety, depression, dependence, fear and hate. .These are:-(a)Natural ChildNatural child generally displays following behavioural pattern•Affectionate•Does whatcome in the way•Fearful•Self-indulgent•Self-centered(b)Adaptive child Adaptive child is psychologically trained in obeying instructions from parents thoughnotto his liking and does whatever because parents insist to do so. It has thetendency to getinvolved in NOT OK transaction. Rebellion, frustration becomes partof his personality.(c)The little professoarThe little professor is intuitive, creative and manipulative. He believes in magic andusesthis ego state with adult ego state and achieves good interpersonal relationship.He respondsto non-verbal communication and play hunches. He is imaginative
Life Positions Child develops life philosophy by experience. As child grows he tries to develop philosophyfor itself based on self-identity, sense of worth and an ability to perceive people in the rightsense. Harris identified life positions where individual knows about himself and theperception of people about him. T ransactional analysis constructs the following four lifepositions.e) I am Okay you are Okay.b ) I am Okay you are not Okay.c ) I am not Okay you are Okay.d ) I am not Okay you are not Okay
1. I am Okay your Okay (C) This is an ideal life position because this position is rationally chosen one. In this positionindividual behaves rationally and accept significance of others. People feel happy and lifeis worth living. Individual with this life position expresses confidence in his subordinates,work with high level of delegatation of authority, and believes in give and take. Managesenjoys good c ommunication network, work with confidence and there is work sharing andpositive attitude towards work. People remain happ y and have high level of job satisfaction.People work with adult ego state. There is no conflict situation and there is totalunderstanding among subordinates and peer group. An Ideal life position
2.I am Okay, you are not okay (B)This is distrustful psychological life position taken by individualwho feel that others arewrong. They blame others for their failure.People who have been neglected by parents intheir childhood take this position. They generally operate from rebellion child ego statethat feel victimized and blame others for their miseries. Mangers lack trust, confidence inthe intellectual level, skills and talent intheir subordinates and do not believe in delegationof authority.They perceive delegation as threat to their personal existence.Managers arecritical, oppressive and point out flaws in the working of subordinates. They operate fromcritical parent ego state andrarely give positive remarks. They feel their workers lazy,irresponsible and find them as stated in theory X of Mc Gregor.
I am not okay, you are okayThis life position is common to persons who feelpowerless in comparison to others. Personsin this lifeposition always grumble and feel at the mercy of others. They have tendency towithdraw and at times experience depression that may lead to suicide in extreme cases.People with this life position operate from child egostate. Managers tend to give andreceive bad feelings. They are unpredictable and display erratic behaviours. Itis not agood life position. People are diffident in this lifeposition
4.I am not okay, you are not okayThis is the worst life position in which individual feeldefeated and sees whole world asmiserable. It is a desperate life position where people loose interest in living. In extremcases people commit suicide or homicide. This position iscaused due to children havingbrought up by servants andvery scant or no attention having been paid by the parents.At managerial level, no decision is taken in time and managers make mistakes.Manager with this position look to othersfor final decision and often delegate in-appropriately.“I am okay your are okay”is the best life position All-individual must try and modify life position in varioussituations.
1. Adult – Adult Transaction Both individuals are transacting from adult ego state. The stimulus and response are based on logical thinking and rationale. This type of communication is considered mo stideal in any organization. There is least chance of conflict among the workers. See figures2.Adult – Parent Transaction In adult – parent ego state, manager speaks from adult ego state which is rational andbacked by rules and regulations while theemployees speak from the parent ego statewhich is authorization, is not likely to smoothin the long run. Parent ego state (workers)will try to control and dominate the manager. The employees may develop hostile attitudetowards the boss. See figure belo3. Adult – Child ego state TransactionsThis type of transaction is effective if child ego is of little professor categorywhereemployees can work with certain amount of creativity. Manager in this type ofsituationhas to keep guiding and tolerating childlike behaviour of employees which ischaracterizedby loose control, and lot of fun and enjoyment, which is not productive forthe organization
4. Parent–Parents transactionsParent ego state is characterized by admonitions, rewards, and work by rule, praiseandpunishment. If both i.e., the manager and employees have the abovecharacteristics of egostate, the stimuli and response will be dominating from either side. While manager wouldput forward his ideas, the employees would reject it and put upa fresh idea and wouldwant to be accepted by the manager.5. Parent – Adult ego stateThe boss is transacting from parent ego while hesubordinate is responding from adult egostate. Such typeof relationship may not last long. Employees rational and logical thinkingwill be marred by parent ego state, which may diminish good working relationship parties.6. Parent – Child ego stateThis transaction is workable in the organization where the manager will get the workdonefrom subordinates by advising, guiding, and by assigning rewards for good workandpunishment for non-performance. The subordinates (Child ego) will listen to managerandlook forward for advice, guidance, and assistance at each stage of production cycle.