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  1. 1. 11
  2. 2. Group Members: 1. Phong Vichith 2. Ken Sibony 3. Try Vichet 1 2
  3. 3. I. IntroductionII. Accepted Concept of FossilizationIII. Classification of FossilizationIV. Type of FossilizationV. Causal Factors of FossilizationVI. Fossilization ReductionVII. Conclusion 1 3
  4. 4.  What is Fossilization?  Fossil Fossilize Fossilization › a permanent cessation of IL learning before the learner has attained TL norms at all levels of linguistic structure and in all discourse domains in spite of the learner‟s positive ability, opportunity, and motivation to learn and acculturate into target society. 1 4
  5. 5.  What is Fossilization? › backsliding, › stabilized errors, › learning plateau, › typical error, › persistent non-target-like performance, › de-acceleration of the learning process, › ingrained errors, 1 5
  6. 6.  What is Fossilization? › systematic use of erroneous forms, › cessation of learning, › structural persistence, › ultimate attainment, › long-lasting free variation, › persistent difficulty, › and inability to fully master TL features describing the similar meaning, which lead to confusion for quite a long time. 1 6
  7. 7. 1. it may appear at different language levels2. it may occur at different learning stages among age groups;3. it may be either structure fossilization or competence fossilization;4. it is usually manifested as the deviant forms from the TL norms;5. there are soft and hard degrees of fossilization. 1 7
  8. 8. • Individual fossilization and group fossilization1. • Temporary fossilization and permanent fossilization2. 1 8
  9. 9. - The inappropriate Error interlanguage structures that are thought to have been reappearance corrected but continue to appear regularly. Individualfossilization and groupfossilization - The plateau in the Language development of L2 learners’ competence phonological, grammatical, fossilization lexical and pragmatic competence. 1 9
  10. 10. Pervasive fossilized language competence in a community Group fossilization A new dialect 1 10
  11. 11. • also called stabilization, indicates that fossilized interlanguage consists of learningTemporary plateausfossilization • where development of given TL features is simply ‘arrested’ or ‘inhibited’ for shorter or longer periods of time. • takes place as a result of social, Permanent psychological and interactive variablesfossilization 1 11
  12. 12. Phonological fossilizationTypes of Fossilization Morphological fossilization Syntactic fossilization Semantic fossilization Pragmatic fossilization 1 12
  13. 13.  Phonological Fossilization: › the repetition of phonological errors which result from the incorrect acquisition of pronunciation of L2, usually affected by L1. › Example: [ө] does not exist in Chinese. 1 13
  14. 14.  Morphological Fossilization: › The most common problems lay in two aspects:  inflectional morpheme  and article. 1 14
  15. 15.  Syntactic Fossilization: › Different languages have their own syntactic rules.  Example: Chinese does not have obvious tense differentiation, whereas English has present tense and past tense in general. 1 15
  16. 16.  Semantic Fossilization: › refers to the use of language forms that exist in TL but do not represent the meanings L2 learners intend to express in the context. 1 16
  17. 17.  Pragmatic Fossilization: › A pragmatic deviance = pragmatic failure. › Thomas (1983) views pragmatic failure takes place in the cross- cultural communication and refers to the “inability to understand what is meant by what is said”. › Inappropriate language use results in misunderstanding, embarrassment, and even insult. 1 17
  18. 18. Language transfer Training Others transfer 6 common factorsOvergener Learning alization strategy Communic -ation strategy 1 18
  19. 19. 1. Language Transfer:  The errors in the use of L2 result mainly from L1, and the difference between L1 and the L2 is the reason for the occurrence of errors. 1 19
  20. 20. The Transfer of L1 Positive Negative The differences The similarities between L1 andshared by the L1 L2 that interfereand L2 help SLA SLA 1 20
  21. 21. 2. Training Transfer: › The lack of formal instruction in English fossilization of incorrect language forms › “Fossilization often occurs among „street‟ learners › Their errors becomes systematized and are almost impossible to eradicate” › “Street” learners are never corrected, nor do they correct themselves. 1 21
  22. 22. 3. Learning Strategy: › not only to the overall strategies but also to the explicit methods the learner adopts in the process of SLL › Incorrect Learning strategies fossilization of some features (phonological, morphological, syntactic, lexical, psycholinguistic, or socio-cultural).” 1 22
  23. 23. 4. Communication Strategy: › A systematic skill a speaker resorts to while having difficulties in expression to keep the communication going on. › Successful use of communication strategies will prevent acquisition” › The learner inclines to simplify the target language › Pays too much attention to the fluency but neglects the accuracy 1 23
  24. 24. 5. Overgeneralization › language overgeneralization always indicates the ignorance of rule restrictions, including semantic restrictions of lexis or other linguistic items › For instance, using the -ed suffix to indicate past tense for verbs like "go“ and "think." 1 24
  25. 25. 6. Others: › The causal factors fall into the following categories: environmental, cognitive, neurobiological, and socio- affective. › These causal factors can be put into two groups: internal factors and external factors 1 25
  26. 26. 2. Reduction of1. Adoption of proper negative transfer of learning strategies L1 3. Exposure to TL and TL culture 1 26
  27. 27. 1. Adoption of proper learning strategies › “good” learning strategies › Appear use strategies more frequently and in qualitatively different ways › Involve attention to both form and meaning. › Different kinds of learning strategies may contribute to different aspects of L2 proficiency 1 27
  28. 28. 2 Reduction of negative transfer of L1: › Not to use TL too early until the learners‟ oral competence is facilitated with sufficient input and without relying on their native language (Krashen,1983)) › abundant input of TL can lessen the negative transfer of the native language 1 28
  29. 29. 3. Exposure to TL and TL culture  Allow them to stay for some time in the native environment abroad  Multimedia instruments  Textbooks with original passages by foreign authors 1 29
  30. 30.  Fossilization is an inevitable state in and has significance influence on second language acquisition. It needs our attention and research to solve fossilization problems in all aspects of language. 1 30