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COPYRIGHT
A part of Intellectual Property Right
By Gagan Varshney
1
Contents
 Definition & scope of copyright
 Indian Copyright Act & Its perspective
 Assignment of copyright
 Infringement to Copyright
 Remedies for infringement
 Limitation to copyright
2
What is Copyright ?
“The exclusive right given by law for a certain term of
years to an author, composer etc. (or his assignee) to
print, publish and sell copies of his original work”
(Oxford English Dictionary)
3
What can be Protected ?
 literary or dramatic work
 a musical work
 an artistic work
 a cinematograph film
 a sound recording
 a photograph
 a computer generated work
4
Whose Rights are protected ?
 Copyright protects the right of Author, i.e. creator
of Intellectual Properties.
 He/She is also called the First Owner of Copyright.
 However, in course of employment, the employer is
the first owner of these rights.
Work Creator of work
Literary or dramatic work Author
Musical work Composer
Cinematograph Producer
Sound recording Producer
Photograph Photographer
5
Why Copyright ?
Favour
• Rewards creative
efforts.
• Protects interest of
the creator
Against
• Protects corporate
interests only
• Criminalizing
legitimate use
6
Copyright: National Vs International
 No single “international copyright” for whole world.
 The Copyright Act of each country is compliant with
most international conventions and treaties.
 In India, the Copyright Act, 1957 is compliant with
these international conventions and treaties-
 Berne Convention of 1886
 Universal Copyright Convention of 1951
 Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
(TRIPS)
7
Indian Copyright Act, 1957
 First right in India in 1914
 Now, Indian Copyright Act,1957; w.e.f. 1958
 Further amendments in 1983,1984,1992,1994,1999
 adopted many English provisions, introduced new ideas and
concepts.
 Created Copyright Office and Copyright Board
 Introduced civil and criminal remedies against infringement
8
Indian Perspective on Copyright
The Copyright Act, 1957 confers copyright protection
in the following two forms:
Economic Rights
Moral Rights
9
Economic Rights
Several exclusive rights typically attach to the holder of a copyright:-
 to produce copies or reproductions of the work and to
sell those copies (including, typically, electronic copies)
 to import or export the work
 to create derivative works (works that adapt the
original work)
 to perform or display the work publicly
 to sell or assign these rights to others
 to transmit or display by radio or video
10
Moral Rights
(i) Right of paternity
to claim authorship of work and to prevent all others
from claiming authorship of his work.
(ii) Right of integrity.
to prevent distortion, mutilation or other alterations of
his work, or any other action in relation to said work,
which would be prejudicial to his honour or reputation.
11
Term of Copyright
The general rule is that copyright lasts for 60 years.
It is counted-
• Literary
• Dramatic
• Musical
• Artistic work
From the death of the author
• Cinematograph films
• Sound recordings
• Photographs
• Posthumous publication
• Works of government & international organizations
From the date of publication
12
Registration of Copyright
 Berne Convention: registration is not needed
 Acquisition of Copyright is automatic with the
creation the work
 Registration as prima facie evidence
13
Copyright Symbol ©
 Use of the "©" symbol
 Anyone who claims copyrights can use it
 not necessary to have a registration to use the
designations
 highly advisable to incorporate a copyright notice
 Example:
Copyright © 2009 Microsoft Corporation
14
Assignment of Copyright
 The owner of the copyright may assign to any
person the copyright either wholly or partially.
 Duration, in case of default
 5 years
 The moral rights are independent of the author’s
copyright and remains with him even after
assignment of the copyright.
15
Counterfeiting to Copyright
• the production of certain brand bags by
putting a false label, and sold at low prices.Counterfeit mark:
• copies of articles, similar to the original
under a different name
Counterfeit
products:
• copy for both the model and brand. Ex.
Fake Louis Vuitton bags or Rolex watches
for instance.
Infringement
"mixed :
• copying or using the work of another
creator, without his prior permission
Infringement of
copyright :
16
Acts resulting Infringement
 Making infringing copies for sale or hire;
 Permitting any place where performance constitutes
infringement of copyright;
 Distributing infringing copies for the purpose of trade;
 Public exhibition of infringing copies by way of trade;
and
 Importation of infringing copies.
17
Remedies for Copyright Infringement
Remedies for
Copyright
Infringement
Civil Criminal Administrative
18
Civil Remedies
 Civil remedies
 Injunction
 Damages
 Accounts
 Delivery of infringing copy
 Damages for conversion
 Jurisdiction in District Court
19
Criminal Remedies
 Criminal offences, if done knowingly
 Imprisonment
 6 months – 3years

 Fine
 Rs.50,000 – Rs.200,000
 Seizure of infringing copies
20
Limitations to Copyright
 Idea-expression dichotomy
 protects only the original expression of ideas, and not
the ideas themselves
 The first-sale doctrine
 does not restrict the owner of a copy from reselling
legitimately obtained copies of copyrighted works
21
Limitations to Copyright (contd..)
 Fair use and fair dealing
 For the purpose of research or private study
 For learning & teaching in a class room
 For criticism or overview
 For reporting current events
 In connection with judicial proceeding
 Performance to non-paying audience
 Other specific conditions
22
Limitations to Copyright (contd..)
 Some Government works are exempted in India
 Act of a Legislature.
 Report of a committee, commission, council, board or
other like body appointed by the Government.
 Judgement or order of a court, tribunal or other judicial
authority
23
Summary
 Each country has own law compliant to any international convention
 Copyright prevents distribution of Idea, not Idea itself
 It safeguards interest of the creators
 It encourages people to create something new
 Registration is not compulsory
 Economic rights can be assigned to another person
 Infringement is a criminal offence, if done knowingly
24
25
Warning
26
Copyright © 2013 Gagan Varshney
All rights reserved with the author. Commercial use of this presentation, or its
any part, is prohibited.

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Copyright (presentation)

  • 1. COPYRIGHT A part of Intellectual Property Right By Gagan Varshney 1
  • 2. Contents  Definition & scope of copyright  Indian Copyright Act & Its perspective  Assignment of copyright  Infringement to Copyright  Remedies for infringement  Limitation to copyright 2
  • 3. What is Copyright ? “The exclusive right given by law for a certain term of years to an author, composer etc. (or his assignee) to print, publish and sell copies of his original work” (Oxford English Dictionary) 3
  • 4. What can be Protected ?  literary or dramatic work  a musical work  an artistic work  a cinematograph film  a sound recording  a photograph  a computer generated work 4
  • 5. Whose Rights are protected ?  Copyright protects the right of Author, i.e. creator of Intellectual Properties.  He/She is also called the First Owner of Copyright.  However, in course of employment, the employer is the first owner of these rights. Work Creator of work Literary or dramatic work Author Musical work Composer Cinematograph Producer Sound recording Producer Photograph Photographer 5
  • 6. Why Copyright ? Favour • Rewards creative efforts. • Protects interest of the creator Against • Protects corporate interests only • Criminalizing legitimate use 6
  • 7. Copyright: National Vs International  No single “international copyright” for whole world.  The Copyright Act of each country is compliant with most international conventions and treaties.  In India, the Copyright Act, 1957 is compliant with these international conventions and treaties-  Berne Convention of 1886  Universal Copyright Convention of 1951  Agreement on Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) 7
  • 8. Indian Copyright Act, 1957  First right in India in 1914  Now, Indian Copyright Act,1957; w.e.f. 1958  Further amendments in 1983,1984,1992,1994,1999  adopted many English provisions, introduced new ideas and concepts.  Created Copyright Office and Copyright Board  Introduced civil and criminal remedies against infringement 8
  • 9. Indian Perspective on Copyright The Copyright Act, 1957 confers copyright protection in the following two forms: Economic Rights Moral Rights 9
  • 10. Economic Rights Several exclusive rights typically attach to the holder of a copyright:-  to produce copies or reproductions of the work and to sell those copies (including, typically, electronic copies)  to import or export the work  to create derivative works (works that adapt the original work)  to perform or display the work publicly  to sell or assign these rights to others  to transmit or display by radio or video 10
  • 11. Moral Rights (i) Right of paternity to claim authorship of work and to prevent all others from claiming authorship of his work. (ii) Right of integrity. to prevent distortion, mutilation or other alterations of his work, or any other action in relation to said work, which would be prejudicial to his honour or reputation. 11
  • 12. Term of Copyright The general rule is that copyright lasts for 60 years. It is counted- • Literary • Dramatic • Musical • Artistic work From the death of the author • Cinematograph films • Sound recordings • Photographs • Posthumous publication • Works of government & international organizations From the date of publication 12
  • 13. Registration of Copyright  Berne Convention: registration is not needed  Acquisition of Copyright is automatic with the creation the work  Registration as prima facie evidence 13
  • 14. Copyright Symbol ©  Use of the "©" symbol  Anyone who claims copyrights can use it  not necessary to have a registration to use the designations  highly advisable to incorporate a copyright notice  Example: Copyright © 2009 Microsoft Corporation 14
  • 15. Assignment of Copyright  The owner of the copyright may assign to any person the copyright either wholly or partially.  Duration, in case of default  5 years  The moral rights are independent of the author’s copyright and remains with him even after assignment of the copyright. 15
  • 16. Counterfeiting to Copyright • the production of certain brand bags by putting a false label, and sold at low prices.Counterfeit mark: • copies of articles, similar to the original under a different name Counterfeit products: • copy for both the model and brand. Ex. Fake Louis Vuitton bags or Rolex watches for instance. Infringement "mixed : • copying or using the work of another creator, without his prior permission Infringement of copyright : 16
  • 17. Acts resulting Infringement  Making infringing copies for sale or hire;  Permitting any place where performance constitutes infringement of copyright;  Distributing infringing copies for the purpose of trade;  Public exhibition of infringing copies by way of trade; and  Importation of infringing copies. 17
  • 18. Remedies for Copyright Infringement Remedies for Copyright Infringement Civil Criminal Administrative 18
  • 19. Civil Remedies  Civil remedies  Injunction  Damages  Accounts  Delivery of infringing copy  Damages for conversion  Jurisdiction in District Court 19
  • 20. Criminal Remedies  Criminal offences, if done knowingly  Imprisonment  6 months – 3years   Fine  Rs.50,000 – Rs.200,000  Seizure of infringing copies 20
  • 21. Limitations to Copyright  Idea-expression dichotomy  protects only the original expression of ideas, and not the ideas themselves  The first-sale doctrine  does not restrict the owner of a copy from reselling legitimately obtained copies of copyrighted works 21
  • 22. Limitations to Copyright (contd..)  Fair use and fair dealing  For the purpose of research or private study  For learning & teaching in a class room  For criticism or overview  For reporting current events  In connection with judicial proceeding  Performance to non-paying audience  Other specific conditions 22
  • 23. Limitations to Copyright (contd..)  Some Government works are exempted in India  Act of a Legislature.  Report of a committee, commission, council, board or other like body appointed by the Government.  Judgement or order of a court, tribunal or other judicial authority 23
  • 24. Summary  Each country has own law compliant to any international convention  Copyright prevents distribution of Idea, not Idea itself  It safeguards interest of the creators  It encourages people to create something new  Registration is not compulsory  Economic rights can be assigned to another person  Infringement is a criminal offence, if done knowingly 24
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  • 26. Warning 26 Copyright © 2013 Gagan Varshney All rights reserved with the author. Commercial use of this presentation, or its any part, is prohibited.