Classification of reflexes


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Classification of reflexes

  1. 1. Types of classification Anatomical No. of synapses Conditional/ Unconditional Functional classification Clinical
  2. 2. Clinical classification 1- Superficial reflexes: * initiated by stimulating appropriate receptors of skin or mucous membrane. * Are usually multisynaptic . * Are usually involving moving away from stimulus * E.g. plantar response, corneal and conjunctival reflexes.
  3. 3. 2- Deep reflexes: * Stimulating receptors deep in muscles. * Are basically stretch reflexes * Are also called tendon reflexes * E.g. knee jerk, ankle jerk etc.
  4. 4. 3- Visceral reflexes: * Are the reflexes where at least one part of the reflex arc is autonomic nerve * Stimulatin receptors in viscera. * E.g, pupillary reflex, carotid sinus reflex.
  5. 5. 4- Pathological reflexes: * Are not found normally * Presence indicates pathological condition within the body * E.g., Babiniski’s sign.
  6. 6. Anatomical classification 1- Segmental reflexes: * In these end of afferent neuron and beginning of efferent neuron are in the same segment of spinal cord (i.e. reflex arc pass through one anatomical segment). * e.g. Knee jerk reflex.
  7. 7. 2- Intersegmental reflexes: * End of afferent neuron and beginning of efferent neuron are in the spinal cord but in different segments, (i.e. it involves more than one segment). * e.g. Crossed extensor response. 3- Suprasegmental reflexes: * centre for such reflex lies above the spinal cord, involves interaction with suprasegmental components. * e.g. Postural reflex (head-limb)
  8. 8. Number of synapses 1- Monosynaptic * The sensory neuron comes in and directly synapses on the motor neuron. (SN -----< MN) * E.g. Stretch reflex. 2- Bisynaptic * It requires that one interneuron be interposed between the sensory neuron and motor neuron (SN -----< IN -----< MN) * E.g. Reciprocal innervation. 3- Polysynaptic * It has more than two synapses in the spinal cord (SN -----< IN -----< IN -----< MN) * E.G. Superficial reflex
  9. 9. Physiological classification 1- Flexor reflexes: * They are produced when nociceptive stimulus is applied. * Stimulus causes flexion of joint. •E.g thorn prick to a sole causes flexion of knee, hip joints. 2- Extensor reflexes: * These reflexes cause extension of the joints. * Stretch reflexes are extensor reflexes which are the basis of tone and posture.
  10. 10. Depending upon inborn or acquired reflexes Unconditioned reflexes: * These are inborn reflexes. * E.g. The smell of food is an unconditioned stimulus, a feeling of hunger in response to the smell is a unconditioned response Conditioned reflexes: * These are reflexes that develop after birth. * E.g. The sound of a whistle is the conditioned stimulus. The conditioned response would be feeling hungry when you heard the sound of the whistle.