1- Superficial reflexes:
* initiated by stimulating
appropriate receptors of skin
or mucous membrane.
* Are usually multisynaptic .
* Are usually involving
moving away from stimulus
* E.g. plantar response,
corneal and conjunctival
2- Deep reflexes:
* Stimulating receptors
deep in muscles.
* Are basically stretch
* Are also called tendon
* E.g. knee jerk, ankle jerk
3- Visceral reflexes:
* Are the reflexes where at
least one part of the reflex arc
is autonomic nerve
* Stimulatin receptors in
* E.g, pupillary reflex, carotid
* Are not found normally
* Presence indicates
condition within the body
* E.g., Babiniski’s sign.
* In these end of afferent
neuron and beginning of
efferent neuron are in the
same segment of spinal
(i.e. reflex arc pass through
one anatomical segment).
* e.g. Knee jerk reflex.
2- Intersegmental reflexes:
* End of afferent neuron and beginning of efferent neuron are in
the spinal cord but in different segments, (i.e. it involves more
than one segment).
* e.g. Crossed extensor response.
3- Suprasegmental reflexes:
* centre for such reflex lies above the spinal cord, involves
interaction with suprasegmental components.
* e.g. Postural reflex (head-limb)
Number of synapses
* The sensory neuron comes in and directly synapses on the motor neuron.
(SN -----< MN)
* E.g. Stretch reflex.
* It requires that one interneuron be interposed between the sensory
neuron and motor neuron
(SN -----< IN -----< MN)
* E.g. Reciprocal innervation.
* It has more than two synapses in the spinal cord
(SN -----< IN -----< IN -----< MN)
* E.G. Superficial reflex
1- Flexor reflexes:
* They are produced when
nociceptive stimulus is applied.
* Stimulus causes flexion of
•E.g thorn prick to a sole causes
flexion of knee, hip joints.
2- Extensor reflexes:
* These reflexes cause extension
of the joints.
* Stretch reflexes are extensor
reflexes which are the basis of
tone and posture.
Depending upon inborn or acquired
* These are inborn reflexes.
* E.g. The smell of food is an unconditioned
stimulus, a feeling of hunger in response to
the smell is a unconditioned response
* These are reflexes that develop after
* E.g. The sound of a whistle is the
conditioned stimulus. The conditioned
response would be feeling hungry when
you heard the sound of the whistle.