Reflexes, nervous system ppt

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Reflexes, nervous system ppt

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  2. 2. The Nervous System ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 7 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Jerry L. Cook, Sam Houston University ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY
  3. 3. Functional Classification of Neurons <ul><li>Sensory (afferent) neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry impulses from the sensory receptors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cutaneous sense organs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Motor (efferent) neurons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry impulses from the central nervous system </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. Functional Classification of Neurons <ul><li>Interneurons (association neurons) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in neural pathways in the central nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect sensory and motor neurons </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  5. 5. Neuron Classification Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.6
  6. 6. The Reflex Arc <ul><li>Reflex – rapid, predictable, and involuntary responses to stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Reflex arc – direct route from a sensory neuron, to an interneuron, to an effector </li></ul>Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.11a
  7. 7. Simple Reflex Arc Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 7.11b–c
  8. 8. Types of Reflexes and Regulation <ul><li>Autonomic reflexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth muscle regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heart and blood pressure regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of glands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digestive system regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Somatic reflexes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation of skeletal muscles </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Autonomic Reflexes <ul><li>Abdominal Reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus: light stroking of the abdomen </li></ul><ul><li>Response: Contraction of the abdominal muscles that pull navel towards stimulus </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Segment: T7 - T12 </li></ul>Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Somatic Reflexes <ul><li>Biceps Reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus: tap to tendon of biceps brachii muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Response: Flexion at elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Segment: C5, C6 </li></ul>Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  11. 11. Somatic Reflexes <ul><li>Triceps Reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus: Tap to tendon of triceps brachii muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Response: Extension at elbow </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Segment: C6, C7 </li></ul>Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  12. 12. Somatic Reflexes <ul><li>Patellar Reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus: tap to patellar tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Response: extension at knee </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Segment: L2-L4 </li></ul>Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  13. 13. Somatic Reflexes <ul><li>Ankle-jerk Reflex </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus: Tap to calcaneal tendon </li></ul><ul><li>Response: extension (plantar flexion) at ankle </li></ul><ul><li>Spinal Segment: S1-S2 </li></ul>Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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