Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Modeling Leadership    @SemanticWill
Modeling                  Leadership                       &          Traversing Power Structures@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Outline•   Quick History•   Power, Authority, Influence•   Organizations as Systems•   Modeling Conversation•   Enframed b...
TO PWN A THING,           YOU MUST FIRST GROK A THING@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Governing Dynamics of Social Systems                  Power               Authority               Influence@SemanticWill |...
Let‟s start with a little Frederick Taylor and                 management science@SemanticWill | Will Evans
His ideas about management were      informed by the Prussian Military@SemanticWill | Will Evans
His ideas of control where shaped by the   penal system of discipline & punish@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Taylor‟s ideas about human nature where           informed by Freud…@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Who did an epic amount of coke.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
But also the more sober ideas of Kurt  Lewin – who was first to study group                dynamics                       ...
Three forms of authority distinguished by              Max Weber    Charismatic     Traditional  Rational-Legal@SemanticWi...
Power is “the probability that one actor within asocial relationship will be in a position to carry out          her own w...
Domination is “the probability that a command   within a specific context will be obeyed”@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Authority is „legitimate domination‟@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Authority is more enduring than non-       legitimate forms of domination                    • Authority is related to the...
Foucault and Power@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Authority is predicated on power                    • Power is not a substance. It is not something                      y...
Exercising power is structuring the field          of action of others.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Power and Knowledge                    • Power and Knowledge are intertwingled                    • Every field of power c...
Power is created through 3 axes of               subjectivity  Language (knowledge)     Governance (rules)  Ethics (cultur...
Language enframes process;   Process becomes the Panopticon@SemanticWill | Will Evans
SO WHAT OF INFLUENCE?@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Influence is the ability to affect other‟s  beliefs and behavior without power.    Influence requires a defined context.Th...
Teams are social systems@SemanticWill | Will Evans
As are organizations@SemanticWill | Will Evans
SOCIAL SYSTEMS ARE     SYSTEMS OF CONVERSATION@SemanticWill | Will Evans
We need a model of conversation to understand power dynamics,     decision making, and influence     IF ORGANIZATIONS ARE ...
Cybernetic model of conversation@SemanticWill | Will Evans
One participant starts with a goal or need@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Context must be articulated@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Shared language is negotiated@SemanticWill | Will Evans
A symbolic token is transmitted@SemanticWill | Will Evans
The symbol is interpreted, and sent back@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Which can lead to further exchanges@SemanticWill | Will Evans
And agreement (transaction) can happen@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Yeah, but…@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Kanban creates a shared context..     Using cards as “social objects”       Which allow teams to have             conversa...
ORGANIZATIONS ARE CONVERSATION               SYSTEMS                             A system is defined by boundaries        ...
An organization increases its efficiency   by creating and refining a shared               language.     This common langu...
Yet while language fosters efficiency, it  also limits the organizations ability to                  evolve.@SemanticWill ...
The language and grammar of efficiency is very different from the language of  innovation – yet both are necessary@Semanti...
Constrained by a limited vocabulary, the      organization becomes unable to adapt to         exogenous shocks to the syst...
Unable to adapt, the organization        eventually declines and dies.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
By continually changing its language, and its conversations, an organization may        continually regenerate itself.@Sem...
The Paine Principle                             An outsider introducing new                             language may incit...
Like any organization, TLC is a set of conversations among     people. Like many organizations faced with the market   con...
TLC couldn‟t use it‟s existing language & conversations to change the                       way it handled adversity.  So ...
To support an organizations future viability,  effective decision makers actively introduce  change into the system.  They...
Design Thinking brought about a new way for teams to collaborate and produce value, but italso introduced a new language o...
• For organizations to regenerate itself, it must first recognize  the limitations of its current language. Then it must s...
WHAT IS THE ROLE OF     LEADERSHIP?@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Leaderships role is…  •   About the reduction of uncertainty?  •   About reinforcing shared values?  •   Creating a framew...
It‟s the role of leaders within an       organization to incubate and then            introduce new languages@SemanticWill...
A thought…  • You cannot use the language of the    past to articulate a vision for the    future.  • Current language can...
Stance, Tools & Experiences@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Stance@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Tools@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Use UX tools to explore social graphs                    research   personas      mental models     conceptual models     ...
Experiences@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Review@SemanticWill | Will Evans
So where are we?      ❯Define the problem space      ❯Understand the governing dynamics of social      systems      ❯Defin...
Place all the actors@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Ask the Ten “Who‟s”                1. Who is making the decision?                2. Who else will effect that decision?   ...
Add all salient factors@SemanticWill | Will Evans
Cluster them by context                                                Your team                                          ...
Define their roles                                                  define roles                                          ...
For all primary roles, ask these questions:              1. Who are the actors?              2. What are their roles?     ...
Traverse the Graph@SemanticWill | Will Evans
@SemanticWill | Will Evans
• The task of discovering the requisite    variety of tools and disciplines is iterative.  • The source of new languages i...
As a leader, ask yourself…  • What questions should you be asking?@SemanticWill | Will Evans
As a leader, ask yourself…  • What questions should you be asking?  • What questions are you not supposed to    ask?@Seman...
As a leader, ask yourself…  • What questions should you be asking?  • What questions are you not supposed to    ask?  • > ...
As a leader, ask yourself…  • What questions should you be asking?  • What questions are you not supposed to    ask?  • > ...
As a leader, ask yourself…  • What questions should you be asking?  • What questions are you not supposed to    ask?  • > ...
Thanks!Will Evans | @SemanticWill      tlclabs.co
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Modeling Leadership & Traversing Power Structures

8,930

Published on

Modeling Leadership & Traversing Power Structures

“By its very nature, design is about exploring, about options, about embracing many disciplines and multiple points of view.Within this sometimes confusing and often contradictory diversity, leadership is the ability to discern vistas and pathways.”

This talk started out as a stone in my shoe. I had been reading on the various UX related lists including the IxDA and IA Institutes mailing lists people complaining about the lack of empowerment they felt in their jobs within organizations. Some of these posts bordered on whiny kvetch-fests saying in essence that they had no influence within the organization; their ideas where not considered; engineering had all the power; or they simply had no seat at the table.

This got me thinking about influence and power, because I knew that over the years, the user experience profession had developed a powerful set of tools for understanding problem spaces, and designing innovative solutions to those problems.

Why complain? Not to put too fine a point on it, but why whine like little bitches suffering from Stockholm Syndrome? Why couldn’t we take activities, methods, and processes from UX itself and try to solve for this problem space. This talk presents a history of management theory, and exploration of the philosophy of power, a deep dive into the attributes of successful leaders, and a list of key attributes that designers seeking power can use to become the leaders that have the ability to become.

Published in: Business, Technology
3 Comments
52 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
8,930
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
311
Comments
3
Likes
52
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • For mapping all relations in a social context - you must first understand how the relations are predicated on power, authority or influence...
  • Frederick Taylor - first to start the scientific study of management in organizations.Regarded as the father of scientific management and was one of the first management consultants
  • This is from Michel Foucault’s Discipine and Punish.
  • Freud - influenced the thinking of everything from managers and corporate leaders.The underlying premise is that raging just below the surface, humans are irrational animals filled with rage, desires, and fears that are barely kept in check by the Ego. This lead many early organizational theorists to conclude that man must be controlled, either overtly or through surveillance and hierarchies to ensure that people’s baser instincts were kept in check so that their productivity could be maximized.
  • Freud not only did a vast amount of cocaine - he actively promoted it’s use as a therapeutic drug. The point is that through the evangelism mostly of his nephew, Eddie Bernays, and daughter, Anna, his ideas had a huge influence on marketing, communications, pr, psychology for the last 100 years. He was under the influence of coke. Ergo....
  • Kurt Lewin - Organizational behavior. Founder of social psychology. He was the first to study group dynamics - the first to study leadership, authority and influence. To understand influence as designers, we need to step outside our field. Too often we are ‘inward-facing’ as a discipline - reading and discussing strategies and tactics that may make us better practitioners of our particular craft, but we need tools to understand and influence organizations that is ultimately driven by the need to create customers and sell products at a profit. To do this, we need to understand the nature and needs of business, organizations, and power. We also need to understand the grammatology of influence within social organizations.
  • Max Weber - Weber (1864-1920) Historian, philosopher, sociologistHe historically researched the sources of the formal authority that activates legitimate power, and identified three sources of legitimation, or accordance of social permission, for the activation of power: the charismatic (MLK, Steve Jobs), the traditional (Pope John Paul II), and the rational-legal (Head of Yahoo chick Mary something or another.)
  • Leadership, I would say, is the ability to have a vision of some optimum future state, and to use power, authority, or influence to make that vision a reality by harnessing other people to get shit done. Ironically enough, Margaret Thatcher’s campaign and public relations managers were students of Eddie Bernays and Freud and became masters of speaking to people’s baser instincts in direct contradiction to their more rational self-interest. Thatcher’s win was the ascendance of mass-consumerism marketing brought to politics.
  • For one actor in a social graph to dominate others, those others must have an interest in obedience. In organizations, that interest is usually governed by their paycheck. Weber was interested in power as a factor of domination, based on economic or authoritarian interests. If there is no clearer image of domination, it is the story of Abraham and Isaac in the Torah.
  • The difference between authority and authoritarian - give people the freedomto choose who controls their choices.
  • Let's be honest, sometimes we feel it takes a PhD to understand the discursive theories that are discussed in The Archeology of Knowledge by Michel Foucault. None the less, for the purposes of this talk, I wanted to introduce some of the more relevant ideas that this douchebag postmodernist posited as it relates directly to control, surveillance, power, knowledge, and ultimately (and intimately), leadership. Especially after WWII, when academics including sociologists and political scientists became very interested in theories of power and how it’s exercised in group dynamics - Foucault’s concepts are some of the most interesting, and cited, in this field.
  • Two key insights gained from his book are this: discourse should be viewed as an event, and second is that discourse itself can create power, or the ability to get things done and have them be in a way you deem needed or best.
  • Think about the authority created by the UX / Design body of knowledge. Or those trained at Business Schools….This creates a power relation between doctor and patient. Now - think about the relation between me and you. I’m up here - and you are not - this is a power relation, but if I sit in the audience, I break that. Think also within the fields of UX, or HCI, all of which are specialized bodies of knowledge using language which can then structure, intentionally or not, the power relations between those who speak the language and those that do not. In Agile, the very introduction of Pigs and chickens is the use of language shape the power relations between people. Language then structures what is permissible, what is not, which leads to more silly things – like the term Scrum Scent, which aparently is a pajorative referring to people who act outside their language defined roles.
  • Power is created with 3 axes of subjectivity. Language & Knowledge creates discourse in which power relations are created.Designer & Product OwnerPower & hierarchy (Rules) create discourse which defines relations. You must show up to work at 9am, you must get a doctor’s note signed, you must fill follow traffic rules.Ethics & cultural norms create discourse which defines acceptable behavior - “you cannot fraternize with the help” is a power move where one person uses cultural norms to subjugate another person.Panopticon - from discipline to surveillance - is it any wonder management science came from the prison system.
  • Through Language, Knowledge, Rules and Ethics, we create a virtual Panopticon. Classic Example: The open floor: The language of business, design, Agile - these all create virtual prisons with walls to limit who is in, who is out, and who controls the discourse. But within the heathcare space itself, there are layers of power and surveillance with actors including Insurers, Pharma Companies, Government regulators, with people - patients, being the least powerful in the entire ecosystem. Panopticon - from discipline to surveillance - is it any wonder management science came from the prison system.
  • Social systems are created within a specific context. Social systems define their boundaries through the selection of what is meaningfulSocial systems develop a unique language to govern interactionsSocial Systems are systems of conversation
  • Language structures the field of action, a way in which truth is constructed, a basis for agreement and transaction.
  • Through Language, Knowledge, Rules and Ethics, we create a virtual Panopticon. Classic Example: The emergency room: The language of medicine, the accepted power relations between doctors, nurses, patients, and the rules governing behavior all create power barriers stemming from a body of knowledge and specialized language... this is also true of business, as well as the ux profession itself. These all create virtual prisons with walls to limit who is in, who is out, and who controls the discourse. But within the heathcare space itself, there are layers of power and surveillance with actors including Insurers, Pharma Companies, Government regulators, with people - patients, being the least powerful in the entire ecosystem. Panopticon - from discipline to surveillance - is it any wonder management science came from the prison system.
  • Through Language, Knowledge, Rules and Ethics, we create a virtual Panopticon. Classic Example: The emergency room: The language of medicine, the accepted power relations between doctors, nurses, patients, and the rules governing behavior all create power barriers stemming from a body of knowledge and specialized language... this is also true of business, as well as the ux profession itself. These all create virtual prisons with walls to limit who is in, who is out, and who controls the discourse. But within the heathcare space itself, there are layers of power and surveillance with actors including Insurers, Pharma Companies, Government regulators, with people - patients, being the least powerful in the entire ecosystem. Panopticon - from discipline to surveillance - is it any wonder management science came from the prison system.
  • Transcript of "Modeling Leadership & Traversing Power Structures"

    1. 1. Modeling Leadership @SemanticWill
    2. 2. Modeling Leadership & Traversing Power Structures@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    3. 3. Outline• Quick History• Power, Authority, Influence• Organizations as Systems• Modeling Conversation• Enframed by language• The limits of the grammar of efficiency• The Paine Principle• Stance, Tools, Experiences
    4. 4. TO PWN A THING, YOU MUST FIRST GROK A THING@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    5. 5. Governing Dynamics of Social Systems Power Authority Influence@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    6. 6. Let‟s start with a little Frederick Taylor and management science@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    7. 7. His ideas about management were informed by the Prussian Military@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    8. 8. His ideas of control where shaped by the penal system of discipline & punish@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    9. 9. Taylor‟s ideas about human nature where informed by Freud…@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    10. 10. Who did an epic amount of coke.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    11. 11. But also the more sober ideas of Kurt Lewin – who was first to study group dynamics Who was influenced by Max Weber@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    12. 12. Three forms of authority distinguished by Max Weber Charismatic Traditional Rational-Legal@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    13. 13. Power is “the probability that one actor within asocial relationship will be in a position to carry out her own will despite resistance” @SemanticWill | Will Evans
    14. 14. Domination is “the probability that a command within a specific context will be obeyed”@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    15. 15. Authority is „legitimate domination‟@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    16. 16. Authority is more enduring than non- legitimate forms of domination • Authority is related to the belief in legitimacy • It may persist even if those obeying have a greater material interest in disobeying • Authority is engendered by power@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    17. 17. Foucault and Power@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    18. 18. Authority is predicated on power • Power is not a substance. It is not something you possess • Power is a relation between people • A set of actions on the actions of others • Every relation is a power relation@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    19. 19. Exercising power is structuring the field of action of others.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    20. 20. Power and Knowledge • Power and Knowledge are intertwingled • Every field of power creates a body of knowledge • Every body of knowledge creates a field of power • Power/Knowledge is a flow. • Knowledge is encoded in language@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    21. 21. Power is created through 3 axes of subjectivity Language (knowledge) Governance (rules) Ethics (cultural norms)@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    22. 22. Language enframes process; Process becomes the Panopticon@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    23. 23. SO WHAT OF INFLUENCE?@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    24. 24. Influence is the ability to affect other‟s beliefs and behavior without power. Influence requires a defined context.That context we‟ll call a social system.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    25. 25. Teams are social systems@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    26. 26. As are organizations@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    27. 27. SOCIAL SYSTEMS ARE SYSTEMS OF CONVERSATION@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    28. 28. We need a model of conversation to understand power dynamics, decision making, and influence IF ORGANIZATIONS ARE SYSTEMS OF CONVERSATION@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    29. 29. Cybernetic model of conversation@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    30. 30. One participant starts with a goal or need@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    31. 31. Context must be articulated@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    32. 32. Shared language is negotiated@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    33. 33. A symbolic token is transmitted@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    34. 34. The symbol is interpreted, and sent back@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    35. 35. Which can lead to further exchanges@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    36. 36. And agreement (transaction) can happen@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    37. 37. Yeah, but…@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    38. 38. Kanban creates a shared context.. Using cards as “social objects” Which allow teams to have conversations@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    39. 39. ORGANIZATIONS ARE CONVERSATION SYSTEMS A system is defined by boundaries between itself and its environment Social Systems are created by selecting what is meaningful to reproduce itself (Autopoiesis) An organization creates itself through conversation with practices encoded in language@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    40. 40. An organization increases its efficiency by creating and refining a shared language. This common language helps the organization arrive at decisions more efficiently.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    41. 41. Yet while language fosters efficiency, it also limits the organizations ability to evolve.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    42. 42. The language and grammar of efficiency is very different from the language of innovation – yet both are necessary@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    43. 43. Constrained by a limited vocabulary, the organization becomes unable to adapt to exogenous shocks to the system.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    44. 44. Unable to adapt, the organization eventually declines and dies.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    45. 45. By continually changing its language, and its conversations, an organization may continually regenerate itself.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    46. 46. The Paine Principle An outsider introducing new language may incite radical change Named after Thomas Paine - an outsider to the America colonies, who brought a new language of radical freedom, and gave a voice to the revolution. (He was, in essence, translating Voltaire into the context and vernacular of colonial America)@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    47. 47. Like any organization, TLC is a set of conversations among people. Like many organizations faced with the market conditions it sees itself, it needed to change to meet new challenges.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    48. 48. TLC couldn‟t use it‟s existing language & conversations to change the way it handled adversity. So it sought new languages… and a new grammar for structuring conversations.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    49. 49. To support an organizations future viability, effective decision makers actively introduce change into the system. They do so by generating new language that appropriate groups in the organization come to understand or embrace.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    50. 50. Design Thinking brought about a new way for teams to collaborate and produce value, but italso introduced a new language of collaboration as well as a grammar.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    51. 51. • For organizations to regenerate itself, it must first recognize the limitations of its current language. Then it must seek new language domains, and translate them into conversations the organization may understand and embrace.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    52. 52. WHAT IS THE ROLE OF LEADERSHIP?@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    53. 53. Leaderships role is… • About the reduction of uncertainty? • About reinforcing shared values? • Creating a framework for conversations? • Introduction of new languages? • Strategic reduction (or introduction) of friction?@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    54. 54. It‟s the role of leaders within an organization to incubate and then introduce new languages@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    55. 55. A thought… • You cannot use the language of the past to articulate a vision for the future. • Current language can only write a narrative of futures past.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    56. 56. Stance, Tools & Experiences@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    57. 57. Stance@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    58. 58. Tools@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    59. 59. Use UX tools to explore social graphs research personas mental models conceptual models task flows sketching open card-sorting strategy brief@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    60. 60. Experiences@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    61. 61. Review@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    62. 62. So where are we? ❯Define the problem space ❯Understand the governing dynamics of social systems ❯Defined Power, Authority and Influence within a social graph ❯Stated that social systems are systems of conversation ❯Modeled Conversation ❯Modeled Framing: Stance, Tools, Experience ❯.... mapping influence in organizations@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    63. 63. Place all the actors@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    64. 64. Ask the Ten “Who‟s” 1. Who is making the decision? 2. Who else will effect that decision? 3. Besides those players, are there other players? 4. Who else effects those players? 5. Who supports this outcome? 6. Who is against this outcome? 7. Who benefits? 8. Who loses? Or Who thinks they lose? 9. Who loves the Status Quo? 10.Who hates the Status Quo?@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    65. 65. Add all salient factors@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    66. 66. Cluster them by context Your team External team External Company Country Society@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    67. 67. Define their roles define roles champion boss peer gatekeeper pawn@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    68. 68. For all primary roles, ask these questions: 1. Who are the actors? 2. What are their roles? 3. For each actor, what do they value? 4. What is the very next outcome you need to get close to your goal? 5. Return to 3 6. Traverse across the graph@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    69. 69. Traverse the Graph@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    70. 70. @SemanticWill | Will Evans
    71. 71. • The task of discovering the requisite variety of tools and disciplines is iterative. • The source of new languages is questions – questions that spark new conversations@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    72. 72. As a leader, ask yourself… • What questions should you be asking?@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    73. 73. As a leader, ask yourself… • What questions should you be asking? • What questions are you not supposed to ask?@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    74. 74. As a leader, ask yourself… • What questions should you be asking? • What questions are you not supposed to ask? • > Ask those.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    75. 75. As a leader, ask yourself… • What questions should you be asking? • What questions are you not supposed to ask? • > Ask those. • Ask questions that don‟t come easy.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    76. 76. As a leader, ask yourself… • What questions should you be asking? • What questions are you not supposed to ask? • > Ask those. • Ask questions that don‟t come easy. • Ask the questions that are tough, awkward, taboo.@SemanticWill | Will Evans
    77. 77. Thanks!Will Evans | @SemanticWill tlclabs.co
    1. A particular slide catching your eye?

      Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

    ×