Sheila Mae Rosali d.N. Lavapie
-one of the universal dimensions
on which status differences are
-is a social construct specifying the
socially and culturally prescribed
roles that men and women are to
Theories of Gender
• Social Learning Theory
• Cognitive-Developmental Theory
• Gender Schema Theory
Social Learning Theory
• Proponents of this theory believe that
parents, as distributors of
reinforcement, reinforce appropriate
gender role behavior.
• This is derived from Kohlberg's
speculations about gender
• Children begin the process of
Stage Characterized by:
Differentiates self from objects
Recognizes self as agent of action and
begins to act intentionally.
Learns to use language and to represent
objects by images and words.
Can think logically about objects and events
Classifies objects according to several
features and can order them in series along
a single dimension such as size.
(11 years and up)
Becomes concerned with the hypothetical,
the future, and ideological problems
Gender Schema Theory
-helps a child to develop gender identity
& formulate an appropriate gender role.
- is a mental blueprint for organizing
information, and children develop and
formulate an appropriate gender.
What is Gender Stereotyping?
-is defined as the beliefs humans hold
about the characteristics associated
with males and females.
Problems in Gender Stereotyping
• When characteristics associated with
a particular gender have a negative
• When a unique individual is assumed
to have all the characteristics
associated with his/her gender.
-attitude toward men & women role.
• Traditional Gender Ideology
• Egalitarian Gender Ideology
• Maintains that men sphere is work
and women sphere is the home.
• The implicit assumption is that men
have greater power than women.
• Maintains that power is distributed
equally between men and women
and that each group identifies equally
with the same spheres.
• It is acceptable for women to devote
energy to both work and family
domains but women should
proportionally more responsibility for
the home and men should focus
proportionally more their energy on
Gender and Equality
• Gender Equality
-between women and men is a worthy
goal that is central to progress in
“The Creation of Patriarchy” by Gerda
-gender is the “costume, a mask, a
straitjacket in which men & women
dance their unequal dance.”
“The Gender Question” by Alan Wolfe
-”of all the ways that one rooted than the
way men have subordinated women.”
4 themes characterize feminist
theorizing of gender inequality:
Men & Women are situated in society
Organization of society.
No significant pattern of natural
variation distinguishes the sexes.
All inequality theories assume fairly
easily & naturally to more egalitarian
Gender and Power
-refers to the different ways men &
women play in society, & to the relative
power they wield.
-is a basic fabric of society & is
possessed in varying degrees by social
actors in diverse social categories.
“Essays in Sociology” by Max Weber
-he defined power as the likelihood a
person may achieve personal ends
despite possible resistance from others.
Determinants of power:
Gender and Education
Investing in Education is seen as one
of the fundamental ways in which nation
states and their citizens can move
toward long-term development goals
and improve both social and economic
standards of living.