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Gender and Development

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Chapter 7 of Social Dimensions of Education

Gender and Development

  1. 1. Chapter VII Gender & Development By: Sheila Mae Rosali d.N. Lavapie
  2. 2. Introduction •Gender -one of the universal dimensions on which status differences are based. -is a social construct specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow.
  3. 3.  Sex -is a biological concept.
  4. 4. Theories of Gender Development • Social Learning Theory • Cognitive-Developmental Theory • Gender Schema Theory
  5. 5. Social Learning Theory • Proponents of this theory believe that parents, as distributors of reinforcement, reinforce appropriate gender role behavior.
  6. 6. Cognitive-Developmental Theory • This is derived from Kohlberg's speculations about gender development. • Children begin the process of acquiring gender-appropriate behavior.
  7. 7. Stage Characterized by: Sensori-motor (Birth-2 yrs) Differentiates self from objects Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally. Pre-operational (2-7 years) Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words. Concrete operational (7-11 years) Can think logically about objects and events Classifies objects according to several features and can order them in series along a single dimension such as size. Formal operational (11 years and up) Becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future, and ideological problems
  8. 8. Gender Schema Theory -helps a child to develop gender identity & formulate an appropriate gender role.  Schema - is a mental blueprint for organizing information, and children develop and formulate an appropriate gender.
  9. 9. What is Gender Stereotyping?  Gender Stereotyping -is defined as the beliefs humans hold about the characteristics associated with males and females.
  10. 10. Problems in Gender Stereotyping • When characteristics associated with a particular gender have a negative image. • When a unique individual is assumed to have all the characteristics associated with his/her gender.
  11. 11. Gender Ideologies -attitude toward men & women role. • Traditional Gender Ideology • Egalitarian Gender Ideology • Transitional
  12. 12. Traditional Gender Ideology • Maintains that men sphere is work and women sphere is the home. • The implicit assumption is that men have greater power than women.
  13. 13. Egalitarian Gender Ideology • Maintains that power is distributed equally between men and women and that each group identifies equally with the same spheres.
  14. 14. Transitional • It is acceptable for women to devote energy to both work and family domains but women should proportionally more responsibility for the home and men should focus proportionally more their energy on work.
  15. 15. Gender and Equality • Gender Equality -between women and men is a worthy goal that is central to progress in human development.
  16. 16.  “The Creation of Patriarchy” by Gerda Lerner -gender is the “costume, a mask, a straitjacket in which men & women dance their unequal dance.”  “The Gender Question” by Alan Wolfe -”of all the ways that one rooted than the way men have subordinated women.”
  17. 17. Gender Inequality
  18. 18. 4 themes characterize feminist theorizing of gender inequality:  Men & Women are situated in society unequally.  Organization of society.  No significant pattern of natural variation distinguishes the sexes.  All inequality theories assume fairly easily & naturally to more egalitarian social structures.
  19. 19. Gender and Power  Gender -refers to the different ways men & women play in society, & to the relative power they wield.  Power -is a basic fabric of society & is possessed in varying degrees by social actors in diverse social categories.
  20. 20.  “Essays in Sociology” by Max Weber -he defined power as the likelihood a person may achieve personal ends despite possible resistance from others.
  21. 21.  Status resources  Experience  Self-confidence Determinants of power:
  22. 22. Gender and Education  Investing in Education is seen as one of the fundamental ways in which nation states and their citizens can move toward long-term development goals and improve both social and economic standards of living.
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Chapter 7 of Social Dimensions of Education


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