04 human impacts day 4


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04 human impacts day 4

  1. 1. PHYSICAL SCIENCE Human Impacts
  2. 2. Bell Ringer What is the difference between a solution to a problem and a problem solving process?
  3. 3. Objectives ForToday: •Today’s essential questions: 1.)What types of hazards make up interior processes? 2.)How can we forecast their occurrences and reduce their negative impacts?
  4. 4. Agenda/Notifications •Bell Ringer •Determining mitigating processes •New Seats •Interior Hazards •Quiz likely on Friday •If you haven’t taken your test yet,YOU NEEDTO! People are waiting to get their tests back!Tests taken after Friday are an automatic 10% off.
  5. 5. Mitigating natural disasters •THE PROCESS: •When scientists want to solve a problem, they need to •define the problem •Once a problem is defined, scientists must •collect data • In order to gain an understanding of the nature of the problem data must be •interpreted •Once data has been collected and interpreted, •corrective action must be identified and applied
  6. 6. Defining the Problem •Be thinking ahead to this week’s project. Is there a particular hazard that resonates with you?What problem would you like to solve? Defining a problem means asking a specific question. Ex: What measures could be put into place that would reduce the human death toll fromTornadoes?
  7. 7. Collecting Data •To answer your question, you need to collect data in order to know how to tackle the problem. •Scientists do this in many ways; •placing probes in the paths ofTornadoes •placing buoys in the ocean to measure forTsunamis •placing seismographs along fault lines to measure movement
  8. 8. Interpreting Data •Once you have collected the data, it must be interpreted – raw data is nothing without interpretation! •This involves asking yourself •What commonalities or trends am I noticing? •What connections can I make with these trends?
  9. 9. Applying Data •Once you have searched through the data for meaning, scientists begin the process of applying that knowledge to form a solution •Now that I know everything I can about the problem, how do I use that knowledge to fix it?
  10. 10. Interior Hazards •Remember: •Interior Processes: •Hazards that stem from actions inside the earth
  11. 11. Interior Hazards: EarthquakeGeneral Facts •Earthquakes General facts: •It is estimated that there are several million earthquakes on the planet per year (most are tiny) •The USGS expects roughly 18 magnitude 7 or above per year. •Measured by the Richter scale. Low casualties from R2-5.9. Casualty possibility climbs dramatically from R6.0-9.0+. •At 9.0+, nothing is left standing.
  12. 12. Interior Hazards: Earthquake Hazards •Earthquake Hazards •Liquefaction – occurs when an earthquake's violent shaking suddenly turns loose, soft soil into liquid mud •Falling debris/collapsed buildings – injuries from falling debris during a quake, having buildings collapse either during or after the quake •Secondary Hazards – flooding and fires can break out as water pipes break, dams and levees break and fires can’t be put out.
  13. 13. Interior Hazards: Earthquake Hazards •Earthquake Hazard Map:What do you notice?
  14. 14. Interior Hazards: Earthquake 101
  15. 15. Interior Hazards: Volcano General Facts •Volcanoes General facts: •Volcanoes are usually located where tectonic plates meet. •The “Ring of Fire” is an area around the Pacific Ocean where over 75% of the volcanoes on Earth are found. •There are roughly 550 volcanoes that have been active in recorded history.
  16. 16. Interior Hazards:Volcano Hazards 1.) Eruption Columns • Large rocks called “bombs” from the eruption can fall up to two miles away • Large amounts of ash can fall on buildings and collapse them 2.)Volcanic Gases • Sulfur dioxide can mix with water to form acid rain 3.) Lava Flows • Molten rock can be 800C-1000C or 1500-2000 degrees F 4.) Pyroclastic flows • High speed avalanches of hot ash, rock fragments and gas – can reach 1500F and speeds of 150mph 5.)Volcano Landslides • Eruptions can cause large amounts of rock and soil to spill down the sides. 6.) Lahars Mostly composed of mud rock and water (think wet concrete) Speeds of 20-40mph, can travel up to 50 mi. One of the deadliest volcano hazards.
  17. 17. Interior Hazards: Volcano 101
  18. 18. Interior Hazards: Volcano Case Study Armero Disaster Columbia, November 13, 1985 23,000 Deaths almost all due to Lahars Disaster was predicted in September Public generally unaware Hazard maps poorly distributed Communication failures ruined last minute evacuation attempts.
  19. 19. Interior Hazards: Sinkholes General Facts
  20. 20. Interior Hazards: SINKHOLES
  21. 21. Interior Hazards: Sinkholes General Facts •Sinkholes General facts: •The majority of sinkholes in America stem from Karst rock.This is limestone or Dolomite that is eaten away by groundwater. •Sinkholes occur in different locations all across the US, but are most recently prevalent in Florida. •Property damage from sinkholes is skyrocketing. Claims from Florida alone reached 1.4 BILLION from 2006-2010. •Deaths from sinkholes are rare.
  22. 22. Interior Hazards: Sinkholes General Facts
  23. 23. Interior Hazards: Sinkholes General Facts
  24. 24. •With your new shoulder partner, draw a visual chart showing the relationships between these words in your notebook: •Interior Hazard Karst Pyroclastic flow •Volcano Liquifaction Ring of Fire •Earthquakes Lahar •Sinkholes Tectonic Plates •Magma Richter scale Interior Hazards: Visual Chart
  25. 25. Interior Hazards: Visual Chart