What is the difference between a solution to a problem
and a problem solving process?
•Today’s essential questions:
1.)What types of hazards make up interior
2.)How can we forecast their occurrences and
reduce their negative impacts?
•Determining mitigating processes
•Quiz likely on Friday
•If you haven’t taken your test yet,YOU NEEDTO! People
are waiting to get their tests back!Tests taken after Friday
are an automatic 10% off.
Mitigating natural disasters
•When scientists want to solve a problem, they need to
•define the problem
•Once a problem is defined, scientists must
• In order to gain an understanding of the nature of the problem
data must be
•Once data has been collected and interpreted,
•corrective action must be identified and applied
Defining the Problem
•Be thinking ahead to this week’s project. Is there a
particular hazard that resonates with you?What
problem would you like to solve?
Defining a problem means asking a specific question.
Ex: What measures could be put into place that would
reduce the human death toll fromTornadoes?
•To answer your question, you need to collect data in
order to know how to tackle the problem.
•Scientists do this in many ways;
•placing probes in the paths ofTornadoes
•placing buoys in the ocean to measure forTsunamis
•placing seismographs along fault lines to measure
•Once you have collected the data, it must be interpreted
– raw data is nothing without interpretation!
•This involves asking yourself
•What commonalities or trends am I noticing?
•What connections can I make with these trends?
•Once you have searched through the data for meaning,
scientists begin the process of applying that knowledge
to form a solution
•Now that I know everything I can about the problem,
how do I use that knowledge to fix it?
•Hazards that stem from actions inside the earth
Interior Hazards: EarthquakeGeneral Facts
•Earthquakes General facts:
•It is estimated that there are several million earthquakes on
the planet per year (most are tiny)
•The USGS expects roughly 18 magnitude 7 or above per
•Measured by the Richter scale. Low casualties from R2-5.9.
Casualty possibility climbs dramatically from R6.0-9.0+.
•At 9.0+, nothing is left standing.
Interior Hazards: Earthquake Hazards
•Liquefaction – occurs when an earthquake's violent shaking
suddenly turns loose, soft soil into liquid mud
•Falling debris/collapsed buildings – injuries from falling
debris during a quake, having buildings collapse either
during or after the quake
•Secondary Hazards – flooding and fires can break out as
water pipes break, dams and levees break and fires can’t be
Interior Hazards: Earthquake Hazards
•Earthquake Hazard Map:What do you notice?
Interior Hazards: Volcano General Facts
•Volcanoes General facts:
•Volcanoes are usually located where tectonic plates
•The “Ring of Fire” is an area around the Pacific
Ocean where over 75% of the volcanoes on Earth
•There are roughly 550 volcanoes that have been
active in recorded history.
Interior Hazards:Volcano Hazards
1.) Eruption Columns
• Large rocks called “bombs” from
the eruption can fall up to two miles
• Large amounts of ash can fall on
buildings and collapse them
• Sulfur dioxide can mix with water to
form acid rain
3.) Lava Flows
• Molten rock can be 800C-1000C or
1500-2000 degrees F
4.) Pyroclastic flows
• High speed avalanches of hot ash, rock
fragments and gas – can reach 1500F
and speeds of 150mph
• Eruptions can cause large amounts of
rock and soil to spill down the sides.
Mostly composed of mud rock and water
(think wet concrete)
Speeds of 20-40mph, can travel up to 50
One of the deadliest volcano hazards.
Interior Hazards: Volcano Case Study
November 13, 1985
23,000 Deaths almost all
due to Lahars
Disaster was predicted in
Public generally unaware
Hazard maps poorly
ruined last minute
Interior Hazards: Sinkholes General Facts
•Sinkholes General facts:
•The majority of sinkholes in America stem from Karst rock.This
is limestone or Dolomite that is eaten away by groundwater.
•Sinkholes occur in different locations all across the US, but are
most recently prevalent in Florida.
•Property damage from sinkholes is skyrocketing. Claims from
Florida alone reached 1.4 BILLION from 2006-2010.
•Deaths from sinkholes are rare.
•With your new shoulder partner, draw a visual chart
showing the relationships between these words in your
•Interior Hazard Karst Pyroclastic flow
•Volcano Liquifaction Ring of Fire
•Sinkholes Tectonic Plates
•Magma Richter scale
Interior Hazards: Visual Chart