JIM CROW <ul><li>Alicia N. Fields – IDT 7062 – Web Based Slidecast </li></ul>(Photo Courtesy of Library of Congress)
Jim Crow (Photo Courtesy of Library of Congress) “ The term “Jim crow” originated with the character in a popular minstrel show of the 1830’s who did a song and dance routine to a song called Jump Jim Crow.” As a historical term, it defines the practice of legal and extralegal racial discrimination through segregation against African Americans” (Lowery, 2003, Vol. 1, p. 245). “ Segregation is the policy or practice of imposing isolation of a race, class, or ethnic group, in schools, housing, and industry especially discriminating practices against nonwhites in a predominantly white society” (Lowery, 2003, Vol. 2, p. 476).
Subject Headings (Photo Courtesy of NYPL Digital Gallery) A subject heading is a term that is used as a keyword to find material pertaining to a certain subject. Subject headings can be used to find information by looking in indexes of books, search engines, databases, and library catalogs. Subject headings can be used together as well as separate. Below are subject headings that can help with finding information on Jim Crow. Jim Crow Race Relations Civil Rights Discrimination Southern States Race Identity Segregation 19 th Century 20 th Century United States History African American History
Dewey Decimal Classification <ul><li>Dewey Decimal Classification is a systematical way to find materials in a library. Below are common areas where you can find information on Jim Crow, Civil Rights, Segregation and African American History. </li></ul>(“List of Dewey Decimal classes,” January 2009) List of Dewey Decimal classes 300 Social Sciences 305 Social Groups 323 Civil & Political Rights 342 Constitutional & Administrative Law 900 Geography, History, Biography 973 General History Of North America
Fiction <ul><li>All fiction books are shelved alphabetically by the authors’ last name. </li></ul><ul><li>For Example: </li></ul><ul><li>If the authors name is hyphenated the book would be filed under the authors first last name </li></ul><ul><li>For Example: </li></ul>Author’s Name Filed Under Charles Dickens Under The D’s Alice Walker Under The W’s Author’s Name Filed Under Olivia Newton-John Under The N’s Jackie Joyner-Kersee Under The J’s
Non-Fiction <ul><li>All Non-Fiction books are classified using the Dewey Decimal System (See Slide 4) . The number s are always filed in order numerically. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, if the book you are searching for is non-fiction make sure that you know the call number. </li></ul><ul><li>A call number is located on the spine of the book or the on the front of the book in the lower left corner. </li></ul>
Encyclopedias Non-Fiction Books Fiction Books Documentaries Feature Films Websites Places to Visit RESOURCES ON JIM CROW
Subject Encyclopedias Brown, N., & Steniford, B. M. (Eds.). (2008). The Jim Crow Encyclopedia (Vols. 1-2) . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. 275 entries engagingly define the court cases, state laws, historical figures, social concerns, and terminology of this century-long period of legalized discrimination. (Library Journal Review) Call Number - 305.896073 J61 Lowery, C.D., Marszalek, J.F., & Upchurch, T. A. (2003). The Greenwood encyclopedia of African American civil rights : From emancipation to the twenty-first century (Vols. 1-2). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. This reference chronicles the history of African American civil rights from the earliest colonial days to the present. Subject matter covered includes individuals, organizations, books, events, concepts, and court cases, arranged in alphabetical order and cross-referenced in boldface throughout. (Book News Reference) Call Number - 323.196073 G816
Subject Encyclopedias Altman, S. (1997). The encyclopedia of African American heritage . New York : Facts On File. It provides a wealth of information on individuals, peoples, places, events, movements, groups, legal cases, and terms. The emphasis is on African-American political and intellectual history. It has an extensive, up-to-date bibliography and accurate index concluding the volume. (School Library Journal) Call Number - 973.049607 A468en Wright, K. (Ed.). (2001). The African-American archive : The history of the Black experience in documents . New York :Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers. A collection of documents detailing the experience of African Americans that speaks on and about every facet of African American life. The book includes letters, articles, and government pamphlets and reports. Call Number - 973.049607 A25813
Subject Encyclopedias Estell, K. (Ed.). (2008). The African-American almanac . (10th ed.) Detroit, MI: Gale Research. This almanac contains a wealth of information about African Americans. There is a section in the almanac that is specifically dedicated to Civil rights and there are other areas that talk about segregation in all areas such as: business, education, law, sports, media, military, and etc. Call Number - 973.049607 A258a2 Ciment, J. (2007). Atlas of African-American history (Rev. Ed.). New York: Facts On File. The book covers the slave trade through to the Civil War and its aftermath, discussing slaves' contributions to this country, Reconstruction, the Civil Rights Movement, and black political and cultural leaders. This text supplies a great deal of information and is a solid choice. (School Library Journal) Call Number - 973.049607 C573at2
Subject Encyclopedias NO IMAGE AVAILABLE Kurian, G. (Ed.). (2001). Encyclopedia of American studies (Vols. 1-4). New York: Grolier Educational. Has a great article on Jim Crow and Segregation. Each article gives a lengthy explanation of each topic. Jim Crow - Vol. 2 & Segregation - Vol. 4 Call Number - 973.03 E565 NO IMAGE AVAILABLE Salzman, J. (Ed.). (2001). African-American culture and history: a student's guide (Vols. 1-4). New York: Macmillan Reference USA. This is a four volume set dedicated to seventh graders and above that need to know more about African American history. This encyclopedia set is easy to read and understand. Call Number - 973.049607 A25818
Subject Encyclopedias (Photo Courtesy of NYPL Digital Gallery) NO IMAGE AVAILABLE Rasmussen, R. K. (Ed.) (2001). The African American encyclopedia (Vols. 1-10). New York: Marshall Cavendish . This encyclopedia is dedicated to all things about African American history. There are articles that range from all types of topics . However there are specific articles on Jim Crow, discrimination, and segregation. Call Number - 973.049607 A25814a2
Non-Fiction Books Klarman, M.J. (2004). From Jim Crow to civil rights : The Supreme Court and the struggle for racial equality . Oxford: Oxford University Press. Demonstrates the historical consequences and context of race relations policy decisions in a wide variety of venues-e.g., transportation, education, jury service, and voting rights. (Library Journal Review) Call Number - 342.730873 K63f Packard, J.M. (2002). American nightmare : The history of Jim Crow. New York: St. Martin's Press. Chronicles the history of Jim Crow. The book details how Jim Crow laws pervaded all aspects of Southern social life including schools, churches, restaurants, libraries, and even cemeteries. The book is essentially a summation of important people, events, and court cases that led to the end of legalized Jim Crow. (Library Journal Review ) Call Number - 973.049607 P119am
Non-Fiction Books Chafe, W.H., Gavins, R., & Korstad, R.R. (2001). Remembering Jim Crow : African Americans tell about life in the segregated South . New York: New Press. Based on about 1200 interviews and in-depth research in 25 communities and ten different states. This remarkable book-and-CD set offers intimate views into the thoughts, activities, and anxieties of black Americans and at the same time strengthens our understanding of the Jim Crow era. (Library Journal Review) Call Number - 305.896073 R386 George, C. (2000). Life under the Jim Crow laws . San Diego: Lucent Books. A discussion of racial segregation and the ways in which whites in this country contrived to keep African Americans at a subservient level. Describes daily life, schools, jobs, and the lack of civil rights under these repressive laws. (School Library Journal Review ) Call Number - 305.896075 G347L
Non-Fiction Books Wormser, R. (2003). The rise and fall of Jim Crow. New York: St. Martin's Press. The book includes more than 100 images and graphics, with historical commentary and eyewitness accounts of the Jim Crow era. A powerful look at a shameful chapter in American history and heroic efforts to end Jim Crow's career. (Book List Review) Call Number - 323.196073 W928r Fremon, D.K. (2000). The Jim Crow laws and racism in American history . Berkeley Heights, NJ: Enslow Publishers . This book gives a chronology view of civil rights over one hundred and fifty years. Has a number of black and white photos that accompany the text. Call Number - 305.896073 F872j
Non-Fiction Books (Photo Courtesy of NYPL Digital Gallery) Woodward, C. V. (2002). The strange career of Jim Crow . Oxford: Oxford University Press. This book is a reprint of the first edition that was published in 1955. This book gives a descriptive history of Jim Crow in the 1890’s. Woodard gives evidence that segregation started after the 1890’s. Call Number - 305.896073 W899s4
Fiction Books Johnson, D. (2008). The air between us . New York: Amistad Press. This book provides a simplified history of the 1960’s, zeroing in on the race and class hatred that divided communities throughout the South. In addition, it assesses violence as a tactic and asks if its use is ever justified, a theme that will have resonance in classrooms. (Library Journal Review) Devoto, P. (2005). The summer we got saved . New York: Warner Books. The novel has three points of view and the thought-provoking story takes place in Alabama and Tennessee during the early 1960’s. All three lives are dramatically changed by the events of one summer. The stories converge when the main characters experience the tragic consequences of their involvement with integration. (School Library Journal)
Fiction Books Stockett, K. (2009). The help . New York : Amy Einhorn Books. The story is set in Jackson, MS, in the early 1960s. A white aspiring writer who wants to create a series of interviews with two local black maids and publish the story about their life. Even if they're published anonymously, the risk is great. As tension rises the maids still agree to participate. (Library Journal Review) Short stories of the civil rights movement : an anthology . (2006). Athens : University of Georgia Press. This book has a total of twenty nine stories that focus around the civil rights movement. The book is broke down into five chapters: School Desegregation, Sit-ins, Marches and Demonstrations, Acts of Violence, and Retrospective. At the beginning of each chapter there is a little history about each chapter’s title.
Fiction Books Draper, S.M. (2007). Fire from the rock . New York: Dutton Children's Books. The story takes place in 1957 and Sylvia Faye is chosen to be one of the first black students to enter Central High School in the racially charged town of Little Rock, AR. She is excited and honored but also very scared. (School Library Journal Review) McCarthy, S.C. (2004). True fires . New York: Bantam Books. The book is set in the early 1950s, where laws in Florida could prohibit children who were one-eighth African American or more from attending schools. The story is told from several viewpoints and tells about the limitations blacks had in the fifties. (School Library Journal)
Fiction Books (Photo Courtesy of NYPL Digital Gallery) Kidd, R. (2008). On Beale street . New York: Simon & Schuster Children's Publishing. Set in Memphis, TN, during the summer of 1954, the city is on the brink of the Civil Rights Movement and the rock-and-roll era. Johnny Ross, a 15-year-old white boy discovers the blues and the music scene on Beale Street where he begins to question the racial boundaries that he has taken for granted all his life. (School Library Journal)
Documentaries Wormser, R. (Director). (2002). The rise and fall of Jim Crow [Motion Picture]. United States: Quest Productions. A PBS miniseries that tells the legal segregation that occurred in the United states. Gives information about the laws and the effect it had on the United States. It s a four part miniseries. Hampton, H. (Director). (1999). Eyes on the prize: PBS mini series [Motion Picture]. United States: PBS Home Video. A seven volume PBS documentary on the Civil Rights Movement. Volumes 1-3 discuss segregation a between the years 1954-1965. There are interviews and historical information given throughout the documentary.
Feature Films Lewis, B., Taulbert, C.L., Chapman, F., Bennett, M., & Millichap, P. (Producer) & Reid, T. (Director). (1996). Once upon a time… when we were colored . [Motion Picture]. United States: Republic Pictures. This film tells the story of a community where segregation is all around them. You will see how the community overcomes hardships and begins to fight for their rights. Stevens, G. (Director). (1991). Separate but equal . [Motion Picture]. United States: Republic Pictures This film tells the story of the NAACP’s challenge to destroy school segregation. This is a film documented and based on the trial Brown. V. Board of Education.
Feature Films Barry, P., Rosenberg, R., & Christiansen, R. (Producer), Korty, J. (Director). (1974). The autobiography of Miss Jane Pittman [Motion Picture]. United States: Columbia broadcasting system. This film follows a woman through her life as an African American woman born in the 1850’s. She was born into slavery and lived into the Civil Rights Movement. Seitz, C., Fowles, J., & Esparza, M. (Producer), Burnett C.(Director). (1999). Selma, Lord, Selma . [Motion Picture]. United States: Walt Disney Home Entertainment. When a young girl hears a speech by Martin Luther King she decides that she wants to be an activist for herself and her family. However, she comes across many adversities that try to stop her on her journey from Selma to Montgomery.
Websites <ul><li>The History of Jim Crow </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia at Ferris State University </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.ferris.edu/htmls/news/jimcrow/menu.htm </li></ul><ul><li>The Rise and Fall of Jim Crow </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/wnet/jimcrow/ </li></ul>
Websites <ul><li>Jim Crow Laws- Separate is not Equal </li></ul><ul><li>http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/1-segregated/jim-crow.html </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow Laws- Wikipedia </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Crow_laws </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow Laws </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Jim_Crow_laws </li></ul>
Museums & Exhibits <ul><li>The National Civil Rights Museum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>405 Mulberry Street, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Memphis, TN 38103 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone: 901-521-9699 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.civilrightsmuseum.org </li></ul></ul>
References <ul><li>Audio provided by Internet Archive. Retrieved from http://ia301519.us.archive.org/0/items/Scott_JoplinThe_Entertainer/entertainer.mp3 </li></ul><ul><li>Audiovisual material photos courtesy of IMDB (Internet Movie Database). </li></ul><ul><li>Call Number Photos taken on February 3, 2009. </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia, Non-Fiction, and Fiction Resource photos courtesy of Memphis Public Library. </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow . (2003). Lowery, C.D., Marszalek, J.F., & Upchurch, T. A. The Greenwood encyclopedia of African American civil rights : emancipation to the twenty-first century (p. 345, Vol. 1 ) . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. </li></ul><ul><li>List of Dewey Decimal Classes. (January 2009). Wikipedia online . Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Dewey_Decimal_classes </li></ul><ul><li>National Civil Rights Photo taken May 2007. </li></ul>