Food Choices and Human Health

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Food Choices and Human Health

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Food Choices and Human Health

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Food Choices and Human Health Nutrition: Concepts & Controversies, 12e Sizer/Whitney
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Discuss how particular lifestyle choices can either positively impact or harm overall health. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the term nutrient and be able to list the six major nutrients. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the five characteristics of a healthy diet and give suggestions for using them. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Summarize how a particular culture or circumstance can impact a person’s food choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and give an example of the major types of research studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss why national nutrition survey data are important for the health of the population. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives <ul><li>List the major steps in behavior change and devise a plan for making successful long-term changes in the diet. </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize misleading nutrition claims in advertisements for dietary supplements and in the popular media. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Studying nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Why care about nutrition? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are the nutrients in food? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What constitutes a nutritious diet? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do we know what we know about nutrition? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How do people go about making changes? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. A Lifetime of Nourishment <ul><li>Chosen foods have a cumulative effect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good health and poor health </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your body continuously renews itself </li></ul><ul><li>Best foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support your body’s growth & maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Malnutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Diet and Health Connection <ul><li>Influential lifestyle habits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tobacco use, alcohol use, nutritional choices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chronic diseases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connection with poor diet </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Genetics and Individuality <ul><li>Genetics and nutrition affect diseases to varying degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Human genome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Other Lifestyle Choices <ul><li>Tobacco & alcohol use </li></ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Physical activity </li></ul><ul><li>Sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors </li></ul>
  10. 10. Health People 2010: Nutrition Objectives for the Nation <ul><li>U.S. Department of Health </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition and food-safety objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improvements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Foodborne infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some cancers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Declines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart disease </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overweight people diagnosed with diabetes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. The Human Body and Its Food <ul><li>Your body uses energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comes indirectly from the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Six kinds of nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four are organic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contain carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Three provide energy </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Elements in the Six Classes of Nutrients
  13. 13. Meet the Nutrients <ul><li>Human body & food </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different arrangements </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Meet the Nutrients <ul><li>Energy-yielding nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates – 4 cal/g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fats – 9 cal/g </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins – 4 cal/g </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vitamins and minerals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide no energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are essential </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientists calculate needs </li></ul>
  15. 15. Can I Live on Just Supplements? <ul><li>Elemental diets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administered to severely ill people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Real food” is superior to supplements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient interactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phytochemicals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical contributions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological contributions </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Abundance of Foods to Choose From <ul><li>Whole foods </li></ul><ul><li>Typical consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of foods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast, processed, functional, staple </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. How, Exactly, Can I Recognize a Nutritious Diet? <ul><li>Five characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calorie control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intakes should not exceed need </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not abstinence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Why People Choose Foods <ul><li>Eating is an intentional act </li></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing food-related choices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional and ethnic foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophical factors </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. The Science of Nutrition <ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Field of knowledge composed of organized facts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active, changing, and growing body of knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The scientific approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic process to answer questions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Scientific challenge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theories </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. The Scientific Method
  21. 21. Types of Studies <ul><li>Case study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epidemiological study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Correlation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intervention study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blind studies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laboratory study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Examples of Research Design
  23. 23. Can I Trust the Media to Deliver Nutrition News? <ul><li>Training of news media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensationalism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be a trend watcher </li></ul><ul><li>Read news with an educated eye </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Published in peer-reviewed journal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Description of research methods & subjects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Findings presented in context of previous research </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. National Nutrition Research <ul><li>National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What people eat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recording of health status </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What people eat for two days </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparing foods eaten with recommendations </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. A Guide for Behavior Change <ul><li>Behavior change takes substantial effort </li></ul><ul><li>Six stages of change </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment and goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Realistic goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obstacles to change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Stages of Behavior Change
  27. 27. Adequate Nutrients Without Excessive Calories <ul><li>Evaluate nutrient density </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetables have high nutrient density </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Time for food preparation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Options to save time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foods to avoid </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Combining foods into meals </li></ul>
  28. 28. A Way to Judge Which Foods Are Most Nutritious
  29. 29. Sorting the Imposters from the Real Nutrition Experts Controversy 1
  30. 30. Information Sources & Costs of Wrong Choices <ul><li>Quackery </li></ul><ul><li>Sources of nutrition information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Television and magazines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrition-related products and services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Billions in customer dollars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identifying quackery </li></ul>
  31. 31. Earmarks of Nutrition Quackery
  32. 32. Identifying Valid Nutrition Information <ul><li>Characteristics of scientific research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly designed scientific experiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequacy of anecdotal evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal findings applied to humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful with generalizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Report of findings in scientific journals </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Credible Source of Nutrition Information <ul><li>American Dietetic Association </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www. eatright .org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Council Against Health Fraud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www. ncahf .org </li></ul></ul><ul><li>American Council on Science and health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>www. acsh .org </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Nutrition on the Net <ul><li>Judging website credibility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is responsible for the site? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the names and credentials of information providers appear? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are links with other reliable information sites provided? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the site updated regularly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the site selling a product or service? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the site charge a fee to gain access? </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. True Nutrition Experts <ul><li>American Dietetic Association (ADA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Registered dietitian (RD) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certified diabetes educator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Public health nutritionist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietetic technician </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dietetic technician registered </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. True Nutrition Experts <ul><li>Credentials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accredited institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Licensing </li></ul></ul>

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