Food choices and nutrition basics


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Food choices and nutrition basics

  1. 1. Nutrition Terms <ul><li>Nutrition is a science that studies the interactions between living organisms and food. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients and energy are provided by food. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is measured in calories. </li></ul><ul><li>Essential nutrients must be provided by diet </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients are substances in foods required by the body for energy, growth, maintenance, and repair. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Nutrient Density
  3. 3. Nutrient Density <ul><li>MyPyramid does not clearly define low-fat and low-calorie food choices. </li></ul><ul><li>When making choices in each food group, nutrient dense foods are the best choice. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient density: the relative amount of nutrients per calorie of food. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Phytochemicals <ul><li>Phytochemicals: substances found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting properties </li></ul>
  5. 5. Functional Foods <ul><li>Functional foods: foods that have health-promoting and/or disease-preventing properties beyond basic nutritional functions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Food or Dietary Supplement?
  7. 7. What influences food choices?
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Traditional and ethnic foods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philosophical factors </li></ul></ul>What influences food choices?
  9. 9. Classes of Nutrients: Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Protein
  10. 10. Classes of Nutrients: Macronutrients: Carbohydrates <ul><ul><li>Primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide 4 kcal per gram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates are found in grains (wheat, rice), vegetables, fruits, and legumes, and milk </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Classes of Nutrients: Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Protein
  12. 12. Classes of Nutrients: Macronutrients: Lipids <ul><ul><li>Are composed of lipids, molecules that are insoluble in water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide 9 kcal per gram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are an important energy source during rest or low intensity exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are found in butter, margarine, vegetable oils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are source of fat-soluble vitamins and essential fatty acids </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Classes of Nutrients: Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Lipids and Protein
  14. 14. Classes of Nutrients: Macronutrients: Protein <ul><ul><li>Proteins are chains of amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can supply 4 kcal of energy per gram, but are not a primary energy source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are an important source of nitrogen </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Classes of Nutrients: Micronutrients: Vitamins, Minerals and Water <ul><li>Micronutrients provide no energy but are necessary for proper functioning of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals. </li></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients are very important for good health, but are required in small amounts. </li></ul><ul><li>Micronutrients can be found in most fresh foods. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What Nutrients Do
  17. 17. What Nutrients Do
  18. 18. What Nutrients Do: Provide Energy <ul><li>Working together, macronutrients and micronutrients help the body stay healthy. </li></ul><ul><li>Biochemical reactions in the body help to release the energy contained in carbohydrates, fats and proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is used to maintain body functions, fuel physical work and to repair the body. </li></ul><ul><li>If more energy is consumed than is needed, over time, body weight will increase. </li></ul>
  19. 19. What Nutrients Do: Form Structures <ul><li>Most of the weight of the body is due to water, fat and protein. </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrients help to form and maintain the shape and structure of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins form ligaments and tendons that hold bones together and attach muscles to bones. </li></ul><ul><li>At the cellular level, lipids and proteins make up the membranes that surround cells. </li></ul>
  20. 20. What Nutrients Do: Regulate Body Processes <ul><li>All the reactions that occur in the body are called metabolism . </li></ul><ul><li>The proper regulation of metabolism is called homeostasis . </li></ul><ul><li>Each nutrient plays a role in helping to maintain homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>Water helps to regulate temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Protein, vitamins and minerals help to speed up or slow down metabolic reactions. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Diet and Health: Undernutrition
  22. 22. Diet and Health: Overnutrition
  23. 23. Health: Genetics and Lifestyle
  24. 24. Choosing a Healthy Diet: Calories In = Calories Out
  25. 25. What Should I Eat? <ul><li>Eat a variety of foods </li></ul><ul><li>Snack on something other than chips. Try trail mix that contains fruit and nuts. </li></ul><ul><li>Add almonds and dried cranberries to your salad. </li></ul><ul><li>Try a new vegetable or fruit each week. Tired of carrots? Try jicama. </li></ul><ul><li>Vary your protein sources. Have fish one day and beef the next, or skip the meat and have beans. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance your choices </li></ul><ul><li>Going out to dinner? Have a salad for lunch. </li></ul><ul><li>Add a vegetable instead of pepperoni to your pizza. </li></ul><ul><li>When you have cookies for a snack, have fruit for dessert. </li></ul><ul><li>Had soda with lunch? Have milk with dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice moderation </li></ul><ul><li>Push back from the table before you are stuffed and go for a walk. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce your portions by using a smaller bowl. </li></ul><ul><li>Skip the seconds or split your restaurant meal with a friend. </li></ul><ul><li>If you eat some extra fries, take some extra steps. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nutrition is a Science <ul><li>Nutrition is a science. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing an understanding of the processes in nutritional science will help us to understand the relationship between nutrition and health. </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding nutritional processes will help us to make wise nutrition decisions. </li></ul>
  27. 27. The Scientific Method <ul><li>Advances in nutrition are made using the scientific method. </li></ul><ul><li>The scientific method uses an unbiased approach to examine the interaction of food, nutrients and health. </li></ul><ul><li>The steps in the scientific method are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. The Scientific Method
  29. 29. What makes a valid experiment? <ul><li>A well-conducted experiment requires: </li></ul><ul><li>Quantifiable Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Can we measure the information in a scientific manner? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Appropriate Experimental Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Is the population large enough and pertinent to the study? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper Controls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Can we ensure that the population ate or drank what we said they did? </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Types of Nutrition Studies
  31. 31. Types of Nutrition Studies
  32. 32. Identifying Reliable Nutrition Information <ul><li>For example, can you really lose forty pounds in one week </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the information make sense? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where did the information come from? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information from personal testimony or from one health care professional is probably not reliable. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Identifying Reliable Nutrition Information
  34. 34. How does this meal fit into a healthy diet?