Chapter 8 – Promoting Healthy Eating<br />HH330 – Unit 3 – AoS2<br />
Key Knowledge<br />The role of Australia’s governments in promoting healthy eating through:<br />the information provided ...
Key Skills<br />explain and draw informed conclusions about the role of government and non-government agencies in promotin...
WHAT WE WILL BE COVERING<br />Government role in promoting healthy eating<br />Nutrition surveys<br />Nutrient reference v...
Governments role<br />We know that healthy eating is a major way to improve our health and maintain a healthy lifestyle. I...
Nutrition Surveys<br />Why? To monitor and assess what we are eating. Once we know this, we can identify problems, fun app...
Quick Review – Name 3 Surveys<br />National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey<br />Food Consumption Survey...
National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NCNPA)<br />Specifically aimed at children. Why important?<br ...
Food Consumption Survey<br />Measures how much food is available.<br />Measures consumption of different food groups.<br /...
National Nutrition Survey<br />All age groups<br />Detailed survey including physical measurements, recall of food intake ...
Healthy Food Basket Survey<br />The healthy food basket is a set selection of healthy food that is typically available all...
Nutrition Surveys Questions<br />Use the information from the previous slides and your text book (pp216-223) to complete t...
Activity 8.3<br />1. Identify a major trend in Figure 8.9.<br /> <br />A major trend in Figure 8.9 is that shopping for he...
Activity 8.3<br />4. Referring to graph, identify foods that you think are nutritious and those that you would consider le...
Nutrient reference values (NRVs)<br />nutrients required on daily basis for physiological function<br />prevention of defi...
Nutrient Reference Values<br />Detailed research into the requirements of the human body.<br />Reference to measure what w...
4 Reference values<br />EAR – Estimated average requirement<br />Estimated to meet the needs of half the healthy individua...
4 Reference values<br />AI – adequate intake<br />Sometimes an RDI cannot be determined. When this is the case, the averag...
Beneficial?<br />Health professionals can use as a guide when prescribing treatments.<br />Meal planning by individuals or...
Limitations<br />They are recommendations for healthy people. People already sick, elderly and infants or people with spec...
Activity 8.4<br />1. Using the data in this table, compare the intake of the eight-year-old female (with a high activity l...
Activity 8.4<br />2. Consider the functions of the nutrients for which the girl is deficient. Describe the possible conseq...
Poor mental function
Lack of stamina</li></ul>A lack of carbohydrates will result in:<br /><ul><li>Tiredness or fatigue
Poor mental function
Lack of stamina</li></li></ul><li>Activity 8.4<br />3. Identify appropriate food sources for the vitamins and minerals for...
Poor mental function
Lack of stamina</li></ul>A lack of carbohydrates will result in:<br /><ul><li>Tiredness or fatigue
Poor mental function
Lack of stamina</li></li></ul><li>Activity 8.4<br />4. Referring to appendices relating to the Nutrient Reference Values o...
Government Programs<br />Australian Guide to Healthy Eating<br />Dietary Guidelines<br />
Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE)<br /><ul><li>Funded by Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services and...
Aim is to help people understand the relationship between nutrients and food, so they have the necessary knowledge to choo...
Provides general information that can be used by population as a whole rather than specific conditions.</li></li></ul><li>...
AGHE<br />Divides foods into 5 main food groups and provides 4 main recommendations;<br />Eat from each food group each da...
Benefits/Limitations<br />Benefits<br />Applies to everybody<br />Easy to remember the recommendations<br />Contains infor...
Dietary Guidelines<br />Guidelines have been developed by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) for the pas...
What are the Guidelines?<br />Enjoy a wide range of nutritious foods<br />Same ideas as AGHE.<br />Be physically active an...
NHMRC is currently reviewing the following:<br />Core food groups: The scientific basis for developing nutrition education...
Benefits/Limitations<br />Benefits<br />More than just what to eat. Involves what  to do with our food as well as managing...
Food Standards Legislation<br />The government is responsible for ensuring the country has a safe food supply.<br />There ...
Food standards code.<br />To sell something as ‘food’, there is a minimum standard of quality which must be reached.<br />...
Food labelling<br />Any food product must contain a list of information. <br />Name/description of the food<br />Name and ...
Your turn!<br />What do you think would happen if these laws were not in place?<br />What would the effects of this be?<br...
Examples<br />Kid has allergy. Parent only buys food with no nuts.<br />Person is counting calories – allows them to monit...
Nutrient and Health Claims<br />To sell food, people need a reason to buy it. Often food will be promoted as either tasty,...
Examples of nutrient claims<br />Once you put a claim on your food, their are nutritional requirements you need to reach.<...
Health claims<br />Health claims tell us that if we eat the food, we will have a decreased rick of certain diseases.<br />...
TPS<br />Discuss the Think Pair Share on p245 with the person next to you?<br />
The role of non-government organisations in promoting healthy eating<br />Non-government organisations (NGOs) provide:<br ...
services to improve healthy eating</li></ul>Some NGOs have a vested interest in changing dietary patterns (such as the Aus...
Non-government Programs<br />Non-government agencies are funded largely by private donations. While governments are concer...
Nutrition Australia<br />Founded in 1979 to promote educate about nutrition using scientifically based information.<br />O...
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Chapter 8 power point

  1. 1. Chapter 8 – Promoting Healthy Eating<br />HH330 – Unit 3 – AoS2<br />
  2. 2. Key Knowledge<br />The role of Australia’s governments in promoting healthy eating through:<br />the information provided by nutrition surveys and how it is used<br />the purpose of Nutrient Reference Values to guide dietary intake<br />the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and Dietary Guidelines<br />legislation developed by Food Standards Australia and New Zealand governing the safety and quality of food;<br />The role of Australia’s non-government agencies, including Nutrition Australia and the Heart Foundation, in providing dietary advice to promote healthy eating.<br />
  3. 3. Key Skills<br />explain and draw informed conclusions about the role of government and non-government agencies in promoting healthy eating.<br />
  4. 4.
  5. 5. WHAT WE WILL BE COVERING<br />Government role in promoting healthy eating<br />Nutrition surveys<br />Nutrient reference values<br />Government agencies to promote healthy eating<br />Australian Guide to Healthy Eating<br />Dietary Guidelines<br />Food standards legislation<br />Non-Government role in promoting healthy eating<br />Nutrition Australia<br />Heart Foundation<br />
  6. 6. Governments role<br />We know that healthy eating is a major way to improve our health and maintain a healthy lifestyle. It also reduces costs associated with treating many diseases.<br />The Australian government addresses public health nutrition through health promotion activities.<br />They conduct surveys, provide standardised recommendations for nutrients, fund awareness programs and make laws for what people can say about their food.<br />
  7. 7. Nutrition Surveys<br />Why? To monitor and assess what we are eating. Once we know this, we can identify problems, fun appropriate programs and develop public policy that addresses these concerns.<br />We can monitor changes in eating habits over time, to measure the success of programs and modify.<br />Example: Finding – children in all age groups exceed recommended sodium intake.<br />Solution?<br />Mandatory declaration of sodium content<br />Education/awareness about recommended levels<br />Tax on junk food<br />
  8. 8. Quick Review – Name 3 Surveys<br />National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey<br />Food Consumption Survey<br />National Nutrition Survey<br />Healthy Food Basket Survey<br />
  9. 9. National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NCNPA)<br />Specifically aimed at children. Why important?<br />Addresses both exercise and food intake. Why?<br />Age 5-16<br />Participants recalled what they had eaten in the last 24 hours.<br />Participants wore pedometers to measure incidental exercise. Why?<br />
  10. 10. Food Consumption Survey<br />Measures how much food is available.<br />Measures consumption of different food groups.<br />Works on the ‘apparent consumption’ – the amount of food being produced and sold divided by the amount of people.<br />Look at the graphs on ppp220-221. what can you say overall about the amount of food we have available to eat?<br />
  11. 11. National Nutrition Survey<br />All age groups<br />Detailed survey including physical measurements, recall of food intake and profile of eating habits.<br />Compares what people are eating to RDI’s<br />Data from this survey can highlight population groups at risk to enable special programs<br />Longitudinal capacity<br />
  12. 12. Healthy Food Basket Survey<br />The healthy food basket is a set selection of healthy food that is typically available all over Australia. It contains the nutritional and energy requirements for a family of 6 for 2 weeks.<br />The survey involves testing to see how much this basket costs to purchase in different parts of the country.<br />The more it costs, the less likely you are to eat healthily.<br />
  13. 13. Nutrition Surveys Questions<br />Use the information from the previous slides and your text book (pp216-223) to complete these questions;<br />Why do governments use nutrition surveys? What are their potential benefits?<br />Identify and describe 3 nutrition surveys – who are they aimed at, what do they aim to do, what benefits have they provided?<br />What limitations are there for using nutrition surveys?<br />
  14. 14. Activity 8.3<br />1. Identify a major trend in Figure 8.9.<br /> <br />A major trend in Figure 8.9 is that shopping for healthy food is more expensive the further you are away from a major city. <br /> <br /> <br />2. What was the cost of a ‘healthy food basket’ for the state of Queensland? How does this compare with the regions identified?<br /> <br />The cost of a healthy food basket for the state of QLD was $457.46. It is average for cities and regional areas but cheaper than outer region and remote areas.<br /> <br /> <br />3. Describe the impact the increased cost for food could have on the population of the area with the highest cost.<br /> <br />The impact the increased cost of food could have on the population of the area with the highest cost is that being on a lower income already healthier food will become more expensive.<br />
  15. 15. Activity 8.3<br />4. Referring to graph, identify foods that you think are nutritious and those that you would consider less nutritious. Justify your answer.<br /> <br />..... Page 220-221?<br /> <br />5. What did the survey results indicate regarding the costs of the nutritious and less nutritious foods?<br /> <br />The survey results indicate that the price of healthy food has increased more than it’s less nutritious alternatives.<br /> <br /> <br />6. Describe the impact of this on the health of the population group in the region with the highest cost for the food basket.<br /> <br />The region with the highest cost for the food basket is the very remote population group, who have the least access to health care services, including doctors, specialists, hospitals, preventative health care and health screening, yet they will be eating the least nutritious foods because they are more affordable.<br />
  16. 16. Nutrient reference values (NRVs)<br />nutrients required on daily basis for physiological function<br />prevention of deficiency or chronic disease<br />Dietary Guidelines<br />offer nutritional advice to target specific groups in the community<br />advice to reduce risk of diet-related disease<br />↓<br />Australian Guide to Healthy Eating<br />based on the NRVs and the Dietary Guidelines<br />range of multicultural foods<br />5 groups based on nutrient content<br />recommends serve sizes<br />improves knowledge and skills base for healthier diet<br />
  17. 17. Nutrient Reference Values<br />Detailed research into the requirements of the human body.<br />Reference to measure what we are putting into our body against.<br />NRV is the ‘amount of nutrients required on an average daily basis for adequate physical functioning and the prevention of disease.<br />
  18. 18. 4 Reference values<br />EAR – Estimated average requirement<br />Estimated to meet the needs of half the healthy individuals in a particular demographic.<br />RDI – recommended dietary intake<br />Sufficient to meet the needs of nearly all individuals in a demographic. As not everyone has the same needs, this figure accounts for a wider range of people<br />
  19. 19. 4 Reference values<br />AI – adequate intake<br />Sometimes an RDI cannot be determined. When this is the case, the average intake of this nutrient is used.<br />UL – upper limit<br />Most nutrients are useful but cannot be consumed in unlimited quantities. UL is the most you can consume without increasing the risk of health problems.<br />
  20. 20. Beneficial?<br />Health professionals can use as a guide when prescribing treatments.<br />Meal planning by individuals or organisations.<br />Food labelling – people have informed choices.<br />Helps empower people. ______ model of health.<br />
  21. 21. Limitations<br />They are recommendations for healthy people. People already sick, elderly and infants or people with special needs need individual advice.<br />Designed to be used by health professionals, not individuals as they are very detailed and require some knowledge of nutrition.<br />Complete activity 8.4<br />
  22. 22. Activity 8.4<br />1. Using the data in this table, compare the intake of the eight-year-old female (with a high activity level) with the RDIs. Identify nutrients that the child is deficient in, and those that she is having an excess of.<br /> <br />According to the table, nutrients the child is deficient in are:<br />Vitamin C - less than the RDI<br />Calcium – almost half the RDI<br />Calcium – less than half of the RDI<br />CHO % of total energy intake – only 60% of RDI<br /> <br />Nutrients the child is consuming in excess are:<br />Protein – in excess of 2.5 times the RDI<br />Thiamin – Almost twice the RDI<br />Niacin – 2.5 times the RDI<br />Vitamin A – Nearly 9 times the RDI<br />Fat % of total energy intake – almost two times the RDI<br />
  23. 23. Activity 8.4<br />2. Consider the functions of the nutrients for which the girl is deficient. Describe the possible consequences of these deficiencies if they occur regularly.<br />A regular lack of vitamin C may result in:<br />Increase in colds<br />Increase in infections<br />Slow wound healing<br />Lack of energy due to less effective iron absorption<br />A regular lack of calcium may result in:<br />Less growth and strengthening of bones<br />Less ability for the body to build strong teeth<br />Risk of developing osteoporosis<br />A lack of carbohydrates will result in:<br />Tiredness or fatigue<br />Poor mental function<br />Lack of stamina<br />A lack of carbohydrates will result in:<br /><ul><li>Tiredness or fatigue
  24. 24. Poor mental function
  25. 25. Lack of stamina</li></ul>A lack of carbohydrates will result in:<br /><ul><li>Tiredness or fatigue
  26. 26. Poor mental function
  27. 27. Lack of stamina</li></li></ul><li>Activity 8.4<br />3. Identify appropriate food sources for the vitamins and minerals for which the girl is deficient.<br />Examples of food sources that could improve the girl’s deficiencies are:<br />dairy foods - such as milk, yoghurt and cheese<br />fruits and vegetables – such as oranges, broccoli, tomatoes and capsicum<br />A lack of carbohydrates will result in:<br /><ul><li>Tiredness or fatigue
  28. 28. Poor mental function
  29. 29. Lack of stamina</li></ul>A lack of carbohydrates will result in:<br /><ul><li>Tiredness or fatigue
  30. 30. Poor mental function
  31. 31. Lack of stamina</li></li></ul><li>Activity 8.4<br />4. Referring to appendices relating to the Nutrient Reference Values on the Student CD.<br />a) Identify the changes in recommended quantities that occur as the girl continues through the lifespan.<br /> <br />Protein – the RDI for protein increases as a girl moves through the lifespan and increases further during pregnancy and lactation <br /> <br />Fibre – the RDI for fibre increases as a girl moves through the lifespan and increases further during pregnancy and lactation<br /> <br />Vitamin C – the RDI for Vitamin C increases as a girl moves through the lifespan and increases further during pregnancy and lactation<br /> <br />Vitamin A – the RDI for Vitamin A increases as a girl moves through the lifespan and increases further during pregnancy and lactation<br /> <br />Iron – the RDI for Iron increases as a girl moves through the lifespan, until the age of 50 years when it decreases. The RDI for iron increases significantly during pregnancy and falls significantly during lactation.<br /> <br />Iodine – The RDI for Iodine increases slightly at aged 15 and remains constant throughout the rest of the life span. There is also a significant increase in the RDI for iodine during pregnancy and a further increase during lactation.<br /> <br />Calcium – The RDI for calcium decreases between the ages of 19 and 50 when in again increases to 1300mg<br /> <br />b) Define each of the abbreviations that are used in the Nutrient Reference Values.<br /> <br />RDI – Recommended dietary intake<br />UL – Upper level of intake<br />AI – Adequate intake<br />EAR – Estimated Average Requirement<br /> <br /> <br />c) Referring to the website with the Nutrient Reference Values, is the girl above the ‘upper<br />intake limit’ for any of the nutrients? Why might this be a problem for her health?<br /> <br />Niacin – she exceeds the UL for Niacin by 5mg<br />Vitamin A – she exceeds the RDI for Vitamin A by 2600mg<br />Protein – she exceeds the RDI by 30 g, however no UL provided<br />
  32. 32. Government Programs<br />Australian Guide to Healthy Eating<br />Dietary Guidelines<br />
  33. 33. Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE)<br /><ul><li>Funded by Commonwealth Department of Health and Family Services and was first published in 1998.
  34. 34. Aim is to help people understand the relationship between nutrients and food, so they have the necessary knowledge to choose a healthy diet.
  35. 35. Provides general information that can be used by population as a whole rather than specific conditions.</li></li></ul><li>AGHE<br />
  36. 36. AGHE<br />Divides foods into 5 main food groups and provides 4 main recommendations;<br />Eat from each food group each day;<br />Choose a variety of foods from within each food group;<br />Lots of plant based foods, moderate animal based foods, and minimal human constructed foods.<br />Drink lots of water.<br />Do these sound general, and easy to remember, or specific and complicated.<br />What do you think the benefits and limitations of this program are?<br />
  37. 37. Benefits/Limitations<br />Benefits<br />Applies to everybody<br />Easy to remember the recommendations<br />Contains information about quantities of each food<br />Visual – easy to digest<br />Limitations<br />Not specific to individuals, age groups, ethinic groups, activity levels etc.<br />
  38. 38. Dietary Guidelines<br />Guidelines have been developed by National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) for the past two decades.<br />Most recent guidelines published in 2003.<br />Aims to promote benefits of healthy living and eating. Distils into 4 guidelines that allow you to be a healthy adult. <br />
  39. 39. What are the Guidelines?<br />Enjoy a wide range of nutritious foods<br />Same ideas as AGHE.<br />Be physically active and balance energy input and output.<br />Care for your food<br />Food bourne illnesses are common.<br />Encourage and support breast-feeding.<br />- Best nutritional start to life.<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42. NHMRC is currently reviewing the following:<br />Core food groups: The scientific basis for developing nutrition education tools (1994)<br />Dietary Guidelines for Australian Adults (2003)<br />Dietary Guidelines for Children and Adolescents incorporating the Infant Feeding Guidelines for Health Workers (2003)<br />Dietary Guidelines for Older Australians (1999)<br />The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (1998)<br />In addition, NHMRC is developing new dietary guidelines for pregnant and breastfeeding women<br />
  43. 43. Benefits/Limitations<br />Benefits<br />More than just what to eat. Involves what to do with our food as well as managing food intake and output – more holistic.<br />Much more detail than AGHE – explains why we need to do certain things.<br />Age appropriate<br />Limitations<br />Less accessible – harder/more effort to understand<br />
  44. 44. Food Standards Legislation<br />The government is responsible for ensuring the country has a safe food supply.<br />There are rules for farming, manufacturing, recalling food, monitoring imports and labelling.<br />Ain Australia, we have a Food Standards Code, which aims to;<br />Protects public safety,<br />Provides information to consumers<br />Prevents misleading and deceptive conduct<br />
  45. 45. Food standards code.<br />To sell something as ‘food’, there is a minimum standard of quality which must be reached.<br />Each type of food has a particular set of standards which cover, microorganism levels, nutritional content, and labelling requirements.<br />
  46. 46. Food labelling<br />Any food product must contain a list of information. <br />Name/description of the food<br />Name and address of manufacturer<br />Allergy warnings and advice<br />Ingredients list<br />Net weight<br />Nutritional info panel<br />Used by or best before date<br />Country of origin<br />Lot number<br />Percentage labelling<br />Food additives<br />
  47. 47. Your turn!<br />What do you think would happen if these laws were not in place?<br />What would the effects of this be?<br />How do these laws promote healthy eating?<br />Educates/empowers people – gives us control<br />Eg. <br />Kid has allergy. Parent only buys food with no nuts.<br />Person is counting calories – allows them to monitor intake<br />Person has iron deficiency<br />
  48. 48. Examples<br />Kid has allergy. Parent only buys food with no nuts.<br />Person is counting calories – allows them to monitor intake<br />Person has iron deficiency – needs to eat foods high in iron.<br />Write down one way that you could use food labelling to improve your own health.<br />
  49. 49. Nutrient and Health Claims<br />To sell food, people need a reason to buy it. Often food will be promoted as either tasty, cheap, healthy or a combination of these.<br />Your cereal may say ‘calcium is good for strong bones’, which is true. This is a nutrient claim and is allowed.<br />Why would the cereal box say this?<br />What do you think about the cereal without reading anything else?<br />What else should you read on the box?<br />How can the government restrict claims like this?<br />
  50. 50. Examples of nutrient claims<br />Once you put a claim on your food, their are nutritional requirements you need to reach.<br />To say ‘low cholesterol’ you must have less than 20mg per 100g of food.<br />Many food companies attempt to deceive us, which is why these requirements are in place.<br />‘light’ can mean light in colour, not fat.<br />Food is advertised as ‘fat free’ because it has lots of sugar.<br />Because nutrient are permitted they are difficult to control.<br />
  51. 51. Health claims<br />Health claims tell us that if we eat the food, we will have a decreased rick of certain diseases.<br />To say this – there must be clear, proven, reliable evidence that this is true.<br />As this is much more complicated, there is only one health claim allowed – the benefit of folate during pregnancay to protect against defects.<br />
  52. 52. TPS<br />Discuss the Think Pair Share on p245 with the person next to you?<br />
  53. 53. The role of non-government organisations in promoting healthy eating<br />Non-government organisations (NGOs) provide:<br /><ul><li>advice and information to improve eating habits
  54. 54. services to improve healthy eating</li></ul>Some NGOs have a vested interest in changing dietary patterns (such as the Australian Dairy Corporation). <br />Other NGOs receive government funding, which means that their policies must be in line with those of the government.<br />
  55. 55. Non-government Programs<br />Non-government agencies are funded largely by private donations. While governments are concerned with everybody, non-government organisations are funded by people with specific interests, so they target specific causes<br />Examples include – cancer council, Australian Dieticians Association diabetes Australia, Nutrition Australia, Heart Foundation<br />What do you think each of these organisations tries to do?<br />
  56. 56. Nutrition Australia<br />Founded in 1979 to promote educate about nutrition using scientifically based information.<br />Offers services like funding for research, seminars, consults with food industry, menu assessments<br />Developed the Healthy Living Pyramid.<br />
  57. 57. Healthy Living Pyramid<br />
  58. 58. Benefits<br />Very easy to interpret and remember. Even if you are too busy to try and manage individual nutrients, everyone can remember three groups of food and ‘eat most, moderately and least’.<br />Based on dietary guideline – simplifies it.<br />Pictorial – foods can be swapped depending on audience.<br />Incorporates exercise.<br />
  59. 59. Limitations<br />No serving sizes – people can still eat too much or not enough.<br />Because it is simplified, it is difficult to place some combination foods. A fruit tart could go in eat most because of the fruit or in eat least because of the fat and sugar.<br />
  60. 60. Heart Foundation<br />Aims to improve heart health and reduce disability and death from heart disease.<br />Promotes and conducts research for prevention and treatment<br />Promoting and influencing behaviour to improve heat health. Also produce publications.<br />Their message is;<br />Enjoy healthy eating<br />Be active<br />Don’t smoke<br />Go to the doctor<br />
  61. 61. Tick Program<br />The Heart Foundation tick of approval is printed on foods that are low in nutrients that promote heart disease and high in one that reduce it. <br />What could these be<br />Low saturated fat, trans fat, energy, salt<br />High fibre, calcium<br />What effects do you think the <br /> tick has had on food quality?<br />
  62. 62. Benefits<br />Easy to identify foods that are more healthy – without having to specifically read nutrition info – someone we trust has done the work for us!<br />Often we have a selection of items in the same category. The one with the tick usually represents a healthier choice.<br />It is now a well known institution. People care about their health and will purchase the tick product. Manufacturers are changing their products to conform to the standards so they can print the tick, which makes them healthier for us.<br />
  63. 63. Limitations<br />Commercial investment required<br />Healthier options without tick?<br />
  64. 64. Research another NGO that promotes health and write a report detailing how they promote healthy eating. <br />Include information on the use and limitations of the programs and support they provide. <br />You must also include contact information and highlight who this organisation is targeting their message and services at.<br />

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