2. What we will cover…• Background• What is a prototype?• Why use prototypes?• A brief look at the toolkit• Prototyping principles
3. What is the User Experience (UX)?user experience:n. the overall experience and satisfaction a user has when using aproduct or system
4. A User-Centred Design (UCD) process Concept/Plan Design • Contextual Analysis • Wireframing • User Profiling/Persona • Prototyping development • IA Analysis • User Needs Analysis • Co-Design Workshops • Competitor Analysis Live Support Evaluate • Customer Surveys • Usability Testing • Analytics • Expert Evaluation • A/B Testing • Eye-tracking • Multi-variate Testing • Accessibility Audits
5. Where are we…?• Background• What is a prototype?• Why use prototypes?• A brief look at the toolkit• Prototyping principles
6. What is a prototype?“An approximation of a product (or system) or its components, in some form, for a definite purpose in its implementation” (Chua, Leong & Lim) “A visualisation of the requirements” (Arnowitz) “A representative model or simulation of the final system” (Warfel)
7. What is a prototype?
8. What is a prototype?Three dimensions: 1. Scope (Distinct aspect Entire product/service) 2. Form (Abstract Tangible) 3. Fidelity (Rough representation Exact representation)
10. Where are we…?• Background• What is a prototype?• Why use prototypes?• A brief look at the toolkit• Prototyping principles
11. The goal of prototyping “The goal of prototyping is to convince yourself and others of an idea” An idea has no value Unless it can be communicated! (Raskin)
12. Why use prototypes?“My perspective is that the bulk of our industry is organized around the demonstratable myth that we know what we want at the start, and how to get it, and therefore build our process assuming that we will take an optimal, direct path to get there. Nonsense. The process must reflect that we dont know and acknowledge that the sooner we make errors and detect and fix them, the less (not more) the cost.” (Bill Buxton)
13. Why use prototypes?Prototyping allows us to...  Brainstorm  Design  Create  Test  Communicate ...interaction design concepts and user interfaces, early in the design process and in a cost effective manner.
14. Why use prototypes?Benefits  They help to generate ideas  They can communicate aspects of the design that cannot be adequately communicated by other artefacts  They increase understanding, add clarity and reduce misinterpretation  They can be updated quickly to reflect changes  They can enable quicker identification of mistakes and risks When applied early and often, the use of prototypes can save time and effort, reduce waste and ultimately save money
15. Where are we…?• Background• What is a prototype?• Why use prototypes?• A brief look at the toolkit• Prototyping principles
16. A look at some tools #1 Paper #2 Office tools #3 Vector drawing tools #4 Web based tools #5 Purpose-built prototyping tools #6 HTML
17. #1 - PaperPaper, pen, scissors, tape & post-its (Blue Peter prototyping) Best use: To test specific interactions or competing concepts Advantages: Fast, cheap, computer-less, lack of realism/aesthetics Disadvantages: Not easily distributed, lack of realism/aesthetics
18. #2 – Office toolsPowerPoint, Excel, Keynote Best use: To add basic interaction to flat designs, dashboards (Excel) Advantages: Cheap, easy to pick up, easy to import graphics, some interactivity, basic data/graph incorporation (Excel) Disadvantages: Largely linear, limited editing/drawing
19. #3 – Vector drawing toolse.g. MS Visio, Omnigraffle, Adobe InDesign, etc. Best use: Medium/high-fidelity screen mock-ups Advantages: Use of stencils, precise layout, potential richer interactivity Disadvantages: More cost, interactivity requires coding knowledge
20. #4 – Web-based toolse.g. Protoshare, Mockingbird, Protonotes Best use: For distributed teams Advantages: Online, collaborative, easily shared Disadvantages: Less rich interactions, no HTML export
22. #5 – Prototyping toolse.g. Axure RP Pro, iRise, MockupScreens, Balsamiq, Fireworks Best use: More complete/complex models Advantages: Fast, rich interaction, collaboration, generate specs, HTML export Disadvantages: Costly, longer to pick up, not (always) reusable
23. #5 – Prototyping toolsExample: Axure RP ProFeatures: Drag-and-drop Custom widgets and masters Rich interactions Multiple platform templates Mobile prototypes Collaboration/version-control Export to HTML Word/PDF specs
24. #6 - HTMLFully-fledged web pages Best use: For finalising design decisions Advantages: Full interaction, expandable, easily transportable Disadvantages: Time and effort, requires expertise
25. Where are we…?• Background• What is a prototype?• Why use prototypes?• A brief look at the toolkit• Prototyping principles
26. Six Prototyping principles (Raskin)#1 Your first try will be wrong.• No matter how good you are, there is no substitute for trying it out• Budget for it• Design for it
27. Six Prototyping principles (Raskin)#2 Aim to finish a usable artifact in a day• This helps you focus and scope• Do less• Don’t be afraid to start again
28. Six Prototyping principles (Raskin)#3 You are making a touchable sketch• Do not fill in all the blanks• Focus on key contentelements• Remember the goal of the prototype
29. Six Prototyping principles (Raskin)#4 You are iterating your understanding ofthe problem as well as your solution• Use the process to evaluate, validate and clarify your requirements• Be prepared to admit you were wrong!• Establish a tight feedback loop
30. Six Prototyping principles (Raskin)#5 Borrow liberally• Don’t reinvent the wheel• Don’t waste time with the painting and decorating
31. Six Prototyping principles (Raskin)#6 Tell a story with your prototype• Think about your personas• Think about your user’s journey• It isn’t just a set of features• Sell the idea!
32. Other resources Prototyping Paper Prototyping Effective Prototyping Sketching User Todd Zaki Warfel Carolyn Snyder Jonathan Arnowitz Experiences Bill BuxtonA few web resources:• Prototyping Tools Review (http://goo.gl/QHI6m)• “Prototypically speaking” prototyping blog (http://softwareprototyping.net/)• Effective Prototyping site (http://www.effectiveprototyping.com/)
33. Eye trackingQuestions?
34. Thank You Stephen Denning Senior User Experience Consultant User Vision 55 North Castle Street Edinburgh EH2 3QA T: 0131 225 0850 E: email@example.com W: www.uservision.co.uk