Unit 11 epidemiology intrafamily violence
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Unit 11 epidemiology intrafamily violence

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Unit 11 epidemiology intrafamily violence Unit 11 epidemiology intrafamily violence Presentation Transcript

  • The Epidemiology of Intra-family Violence
  • Methodological Issues (1)
    • Lack of consensus on definitions of family violence (inclusion of physical, emotional, sexual abuse, neglect)
    • Data sources
      • Clinical data
        • Tend to be small, non-representative samples
      • Administrative data (child protective services, police departments, etc.)
        • Abuse tends to be underreported
        • Substantiated cases may vary based on resources available to investigate
        • More frequent contact with public sector services (e.g., welfare, housing) may result in greater surveillance and disproportionate identification
    Source: Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs. R Chalk and PA King, eds; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1998.
  • Methodological Issues (2)
    • Data sources ( ctnd .)
      • Surveys
        • May find higher rates of violence than administrative data
        • But sensitive and taboo nature of the topic may lead to underreporting
        • Results vary by question wording and context
    Source: Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs. R Chalk and PA King, eds; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1998.
  • Prevalence of Child Abuse and Maltreatment
    • Reported abuse rates: 1,180 per 100,000 children (1999)
      • Highest rates for children ≤3 years
      • 1.62 deaths per 100,000 children
    • Child maltreatment in the past year: 41.6 per 1,000 (NIS-3 government survey)
    Source: US Department of Health and Human Services. Child Maltreatment 1999: Reports from the States to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2001. Source: Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs. R Chalk and PA King, eds; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1998.
  • Risk Factors for Child Abuse
    • Low income
    • Low maternal education
    • Young maternal age
    • Nonwhite ethnicity
    • Large family size
    • Single parent household
    • Parental psychiatric disturbance
    • Presence of a step-father
    Source: Nygren P, Nelson HD, Klein J. Screening children for family violence: A review of the evidence for the US Preventive Services Task Force.
  • Prevalence of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women
    • Lifetime prevalence: 25-30%
    • Annual prevalence: 2-12%
    • 31% of female homicide victims were killed by intimate partners (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1993)
    Source: Wathen CN, MacMillan HL. Interventions for violence against women: Scientific review. JAMA 2003;289:589-600.
  • Prevalence of Family Violence
    • Against men:
      • Past year rate: 1.4 per 1,000
    • Against the elderly:
      • Past year rate: 20 per 1,000
    Source: Wathen CN, MacMillan HL. Interventions for violence against women: Scientific review. JAMA 2003;289:589-600.
  • Risk Factors for Perpetrators of Family Violence
    • Young age (18-30 years)
    • Low socioeconomic status
    • Personality disorders (especially antisocial personality and borderline personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder)
    • High levels of marital conflict and stress
    • Social isolation
    • Alcohol use
    Source: Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs. R Chalk and PA King, eds; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1998.
  • Risk Factors for Victims of Family Violence
    • History of violence between spouses
    Source: Violence in Families: Assessing Prevention and Treatment Programs. R Chalk and PA King, eds; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, 1998.