Dv training unit 2 10.18.11

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Dv training unit 2 10.18.11

  1. 1. Unit 2: Epidemiology of Domestic Violence Rosa Maria Gonzalez-Guarda, PhD, MPH, RN, CPH Assistant Professor School of Nursing & Health Studies University of Miami [email_address]
  2. 2. Epidemiology- Domestic Violence <ul><li>Domestic violence occurs across classifications of gender, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>However, disparities in domestic violence victimization do exist, with women being overrepresented as victims </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 in every 4 women will experience domestic violence in her lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>85% of domestic violence victims are women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An estimated 1.3 million women are victims of physical assault by an intimate partner each year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historically, females have been most often victimized by someone they knew </li></ul></ul>(CDC, 2000, 2003; Department of Justice, 2003, 2005, 2006)
  3. 3. Epidemiology- Family Violence <ul><li>Between 1998 and 2002, family violence accounted for approximately 11% of all crimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>49% were crimes against spouses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>11% were sons or daughters victimized by a parent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>41% were crimes against other family members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most cases of domestic violence are never reported to the police </li></ul>(U.S. Department of Justice, 2005)
  4. 4. Epidemiology- Intimate Partner Homicide <ul><li>Intimate Partner Homicide, the most extreme form of IPV, sometimes results </li></ul><ul><li>Almost one-third of female homicide victims that are reported in police records are killed by an intimate partner </li></ul><ul><li>In 70-80% of intimate partner homicides, no matter which partner was killed, the man physically abused the woman before the murder </li></ul>(Campbell et al., 2003; FBI, 2001)
  5. 5. Disparities Exists <ul><li>Women are more likely the victims of domestic violence and suffer from more severe consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Unemployment and education have been associated with an increase in risk </li></ul><ul><li>There is conflicting data on the epidemiology of IPV across racial/ethnic groups in the U.S., nevertheless more recent data suggest that Hispanics and Blacks are twice as likely to report IPV than non-Hispanic Whites </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic minorities have been found to suffer from more severe violence and more negative consequences, including homicide </li></ul>(Caetano et al., 2005; Tjaden & Thoennes, 2000)
  6. 6. Consequences <ul><li>Health, social and economic consequences affect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Victim </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perpetrator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who witness violence </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Health Consequences <ul><li>Psychological consequences of abuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suicide, low self-esteem, satisfaction with life and quality of health, less preventative behaviors, alcohol and drug abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Death, injury, chronic pain (back & head), gastrointestinal problems, gynecological problems, problems with pregnancy and fetal development, risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections </li></ul></ul>(Campbell, 2002; CDC 2010)
  8. 8. Consequences <ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children who witness violence are more likely to perpetrate and be victimized, intergenerational transmission, transmission to societal violence (e.g., drug use, gang violence), loss of human potential and capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The cost of intimate partner violence exceeds $5.8 billion each year, $4.1 billion of which is for direct medical and mental health services </li></ul></ul>CDC, 2010
  9. 9. References <ul><li>Campbell, J. (2002). Health consequences of intimate partner violence. Lancet, 359 , 1331-1336. </li></ul><ul><li>Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, CDC (2010). Intimate partner violence: Definitions. Retrieved on August, 8 2011, from http://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/intimatepartnerviolence/definitions.html </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2010). Homicide trends in the United States. Retrieved on June 7, 2010, from http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/homicide/homtrnd.cfm </li></ul><ul><li>Tjaden, P., and N. Thoennes. (2000). Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey. Research Report. Washington, DC, and Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. </li></ul>

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