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The Media And School Violence


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EDUC 246 Spring I 2010 Patricia Williams and Courtney Waid

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The Media And School Violence

  1. 1. The Media and School Violence<br />Patricia Williams<br />Courtney Waid<br />EDUC 246 <br />Spring 2010<br />
  2. 2. Agenda<br />Introduction<br />Media Violence is to Blame for School Violence<br />Media Violence is not to Blame for School Violence<br />Conclusion<br />Resources<br />
  3. 3. Click this link to view an introductory video on school violence<br />
  4. 4. Media Violence is to Blame for School Violence<br />
  5. 5.
  6. 6. Felson (1996)<br /> Watching violence is a popular form of entertainment. A crowd of onlookers enjoys a street fight just as the Romans enjoyed the gladiators. Wrestling is a popular spectator sport not only in the United States, but in many countries in the Middle East. People enjoy combat between animals, e.g., cock fights in Indonesia, bullfights in Spain and dog fights in rural areas of this country. Local news provide extensive coverage of violent crimes in order to increase their ratings. <br />
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  9. 9. Phillips (1983) found an increase in the number of homicides after highly publicized heavyweight championship fights. <br />
  10. 10. What demographic is affected the most?<br />Bell and Jenkins (1993) suggest that violence is not evenly distributed across all neighborhoods and demographic groups. Evidence suggests that it occurs at a higher rate in low-income/on income neighborhoods, especially among the young, and in public places.<br />
  11. 11. Felson (1996) concludes that exposure to television violence probably does have a small effect on violent behavior for some viewers, possibly because the media directs viewers attention to novel forms of violent behavior that they would not otherwise consider. <br />Click on this link to view a short presentation<br />
  12. 12. Media Violence is Not to Blame for School Violence<br />
  13. 13. Trends in Media Violence<br />
  14. 14. Trends in Youth Violence<br />
  15. 15. Trends in School Violence<br />
  16. 16. Inconclusive Research<br />Researchers have conducted a number of experiments in an attempt to prove a correlation between media violence and youth violence with inconclusive results<br /> - laboratory research<br /> - field experiments<br />
  17. 17. Natural Experiments<br />Compared three Canadian towns in the 1970s<br />Television was introduced into one town during the experiment; the other two already had television<br />Results showed equal increase in violent behavior<br /> “To accept the findings, one must assume that the community without television at the beginning of the study had more aggressive children than the other communities for other reasons, but that this effect was counteracted in the first phase by the fact that they were not exposed to television. That assumption implies that there are other differences between the communities and thus casts doubts on the findings of the study” (Felson, 1996, pp. 107-108)<br />
  18. 18. Findings of the Safe School Initiative<br /><ul><li> Examined the perpetrators of 37 incidents of targeted school violence
  19. 19. Found no useful profile
  20. 20. Most common trait was a history of suicide attempts and suicidal behavior</li></li></ul><li>Effects of the Environment<br />Exposure to community violence<br />Violence in every day life<br />Lack of social capital and support networks<br />
  21. 21. Weapons Availability and Violence<br />
  22. 22. Media Violence is not to Blame<br />No evidence to indicate a correlation between viewing violent media and perpetrating acts of school violence<br /> - contradictory statistical evidence<br /> - Flawed and inconclusive research<br /> - influence of other factors<br />
  23. 23. Conclusion<br />
  24. 24. References<br />American Psychological Association. (1993). Volume I: Summary report of the American Psychological Association Commission on Violence and Youth. Washington, DC:Author. <br />Anderson, C.A., & Bushman, B.J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analysis review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359. <br />Buchman, B.J., & Anderson, C.A. (2001). Media violence and the American public: Scientific facts versus media misinformation. American Psychologist, 56, 477-489<br />Ceballo, R., Dahl, T.A., Artakis, M.T., & Ramirez, C. (2001). Inner-city children’s exposure to community violence: How much do parents know? Journal of Marriage & Family, 63 (4), 927-941.<br />Center for Communications and Social Policy. (1998). National television violence study (vol.3). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. <br />Centerwall B.S. 1989. Exposure to television as a cause of violence. In Public Communication and Behavior, ed. G. Comstock, 2:1-58. Orlando: Academic<br />Felson, R.B., (1996). Mass media effects on violent behavior. Annual Review of Sociology,Vol. 22, 103-128<br />Gabrino, J., Kosteleny, K., & Dubrow, C. (1991). What children can tell us about living in danger. American Psychology, 46, 376-383. <br />Hearold S. 1986. A synthesis of 1043 effects of television on social behavior. In Public Communication and Behavior, ed. G. Comstock, 1:65-133. San Diego, CA: Academic. <br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Jipguep M.C., Sanders-Phillips K., (Autumn, 2003). The context of violence for children of color: violence in the community and in the media: The Journal of Negro Education. Vol. 72, No. 4 379-395<br />National Television Study. (1998). National Television Study (vol. 3) Santa Barbara: University of California, Santa Barbara, Center for Communication Social Policy. <br />Rosenthal, B.S. (2000). Exposure to community violence in adolescence: Trauma symptoms. Adolescence, 35, 271-284.<br />Wiegman O, Kuttschreuter M, Baarda B, 1992. A longitudinal study of the affects of television viewing on aggressive and antisocial behaviors. Br. J. Soc. Psychol. 31:147-64<br /><br />
  25. 25. References (cont’d)<br />Anderson, C. A., Berkowitz, L., Donnerstein, E., Huesmann, L. R., Johnson, J. D., Linz, D., et al. (2003). The influence of media violence on youth. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 4(3) , 81-110. <br />Blumstein, A. (2002). Youth, guns, and violent crime. The Future of Children, 12(2) , 39-53. <br />Ceballo, R., Dahl, T. A., Aretakis, M. T., & Ramirez, C. (2001). Inner-city children&apos;s exposure to violence: How much do parents know? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63(4) , 927-940. <br />Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Media violence facts and statistics. Retrieved January 30, 2010, from National Youth Violence Prevention Resource Center:<br />Dinkes, R., Kemp, J., and Baum, K. (2009). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2009 (NCES 2010–012/NCJ 228478). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC.<br />Felson, R. B. (1996). Mass media effects on violent behavior. Annual Review of Sociology, 22, 103-128. <br />Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2009). Juvenile Arrest Rates by Age, Sex, and Race (1980-2008). Retrieved January 30, 2010, from OJDP Statistical Briefing Book:<br />Olson, C. K. (2004). Media violence research and youth violence data: Why do they conflict? Academic Psychiatry, 28(2), 144-150. <br />Puzzanchera, C. (2009). Juvenile justice bulletin: Juvenile arrests 2008. Washington, D.C.: Office of Justice Programs. <br />Siegel, A. E. (1958). The influence of violence in the mass media upon children&apos;s role expectations. Child Development, 29(1), 35-56. <br />US Surgeon General. (2001). Youth violence: A report of the surgeon general. Washington, D.C.: Department of Health and Human Services. <br />Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., Reddy, M., Borum, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2002). The final report and findings of the safe school initiative: Implications for the prevention of school attacks in the United States. Washington, D.C.: US Department of Education, Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program, and US Secret Service, National Threat Assesment Center.<br />Wright, D. R., & Fitzpatrick, K. M. (2006). Social Capital and adolescent violent behavior: Correlates of fighting and weapon use among secondary school students. Social Forces, 84(3) , 1435-1453. <br />