Land take from absentee landlords and broken up into small plots
Small farmers were given cheap loans for land improvements
Agricultural colleges were set up to teach new farming skills
Reforestation schemes and river control schemes were introduced to reduce flooding and soil erosion
2003 Farming in the Mezzogiorno has changed as aresult of the work of the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno and, more recently, the Integrated Mediterranean Programme. Explain how the work of the Cassa and the IMP has improved farming in the Mezzogiorno (6 marks)
Farming in the Mezzogiorno has changed as a result of the work of the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno and, more recently, the Integrated Mediterranean Programme.
Explain how the work of the Cassa and the IMP has improved farming in the Mezzogiorno (6 marks)
L1 – Basic (1-3)
Description of changes without linking to improvements
e.g. they have brought in electricity, rivers have been straightened, started to grow new crops.
L2 Clear (4-6)
Detail and explanation of one or more points. Must be variety and real depth for 4 marks.
More explanation + how the farmers have been helped.
new agricultural colleges set up teaching more modern methods of farming, machinery, grants – more efficient farming – increased productivity – profits.
Improvements to communications and infrastructure which means that farmers can grow a larger variety of crops, improved access to wider markets, crops arrive in better quality and can command a higher price.
Rivers have been straightened and marshland drained which had reduced spread of malaria and created new farm land.
Attracted new industries – tourism – diversification for farmer – more income.
June 98 Name the organisation responsible for improvements to the Mezzogiorno (1) State three improvements to the Mezzogiorno and explain how each has affected the standard of living of local people
Industrial development (industry, education and health =24%)
To help build factories processing agricultural products e.g. tinned tomatoes. – this increases market for farmer and provides employment for people living in the South who cannot find jobs in agriculture.
To increase employment opportunities by encouraging industries not related to agriculture
To help develop tourism to provide additional jobs and a market for some of the agricultural produce
Improving fishing by modernising ports and buying new boats
Extending forestry and reducing soil erosion to produce more fertile farming areas which will increase yields.
Education and training
Successes Limitations Increased agricultural productivity More people employed outside farming Increased tourism Stemed migration to North Plot size too small to be profitable – debt, bankruptcy IMP funding is small compared to CAP subsidies Still problems of erosion, landslides and earthquakes Competition from Spain for crops Little growth in number of small scale private industries Money doesn’t reach farmers - corruption Increased mechanisation has led to increased unemployment South still poorer than north - emigration farmers tends to be done by older generation -unwilling to modernise
June 2000 Suggest two reasons for the farmer’s opinion (4 marks) 1998 During the last 40 years the Mezzogiorno has not developed as much as many people had hoped. Suggest reasons why. (4 marks) 2002 The changes made to the Mezzogiorno have affected some areas/people more than others. Explain why. (6 marks)