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The Influence Of The ‘Casa Per Il
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The Influence Of The ‘Casa Per Il

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    • 1. ‘ Casa per il Mezzogiorno’ EU’s ‘Integrated Mediterranean Programme’
    • 2. Casa per il Mezzogiorno
      • Set up: 1950
      • Aim: To raise southern living standards to those of Northern Italy
      • How: 1. Land Reform
      • 2. Encourage industry – e.g. steel works at Taranto, chemical industry
    • 3.
      • Land Reform
      • Took over land of absentee landowners
      • Made peasant farmers landowners – gave incentive to improve farm
      • Farm could be used as security for loans
      • Farmers given enough land to be self sufficient
      • Small plots consolidated :
        • Less travelling time spent
        • Easier to use machinery
        • Easier to irrigate
    • 4. Changes in farming practices HYV seeds used irrigation New crops e.g. salad crops and citrus fruits tractors Bulk purchasing – co-operatives Food processing on the farms - sell for higher value
    • 5. Describe the physical geography of the Mezzogiorno What is the impact of this on Farming?
    • 6. Casa per il Mezzogiorno (= fund for the south)
    • 7. Farming – 56%
      • To finance the land reform programme
      • Land take from absentee landlords and broken up into small plots
      • Small farmers were given cheap loans for land improvements
      • Agricultural colleges were set up to teach new farming skills
      • Reforestation schemes and river control schemes were introduced to reduce flooding and soil erosion
    • 8. 2003 Farming in the Mezzogiorno has changed as aresult of the work of the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno and, more recently, the Integrated Mediterranean Programme. Explain how the work of the Cassa and the IMP has improved farming in the Mezzogiorno (6 marks)
    • 9.
      • 2003
      • Farming in the Mezzogiorno has changed as a result of the work of the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno and, more recently, the Integrated Mediterranean Programme.
      • Explain how the work of the Cassa and the IMP has improved farming in the Mezzogiorno (6 marks)
      • L1 – Basic (1-3)
      • Description of changes without linking to improvements
      • e.g. they have brought in electricity, rivers have been straightened, started to grow new crops.
      • L2 Clear (4-6)
      • Detail and explanation of one or more points. Must be variety and real depth for 4 marks.
      • More explanation + how the farmers have been helped.
      • May include:
      • new agricultural colleges set up teaching more modern methods of farming, machinery, grants – more efficient farming – increased productivity – profits.
      • Improvements to communications and infrastructure which means that farmers can grow a larger variety of crops, improved access to wider markets, crops arrive in better quality and can command a higher price.
      • Rivers have been straightened and marshland drained which had reduced spread of malaria and created new farm land.
      • Attracted new industries – tourism – diversification for farmer – more income.
    • 10. June 98 Name the organisation responsible for improvements to the Mezzogiorno (1) State three improvements to the Mezzogiorno and explain how each has affected the standard of living of local people
    • 11. Infrastructure – 20%
      • To build roads linking the farming areas to the towns and the South to the North – farmers could get fresher produce to a wider market
      • To provide a water supply
      • Provide an electricity supply which could be used to work sprinklers and irrigation pumps
    • 12. Autostrada
    • 13. Industrial development (industry, education and health =24%)
      • INDUSTRY
      • To help build factories processing agricultural products e.g. tinned tomatoes. – this increases market for farmer and provides employment for people living in the South who cannot find jobs in agriculture.
      • To increase employment opportunities by encouraging industries not related to agriculture
      • To help develop tourism to provide additional jobs and a market for some of the agricultural produce
      • EDUCATION AND HEALTH
      • To improve schools
      • To improve medical facilities
    • 14. Use of IMP Funds
    • 15. 40% of budget goes directly into farming
      • To improve the quality of olives, vines and animal products so that they fetch a higher price
      • Improve animal care , especially through better veterinary care
      • To improve marketing so that farmers can sell more produce
    • 16. 33% - creating jobs away from farming
      • such as craft activities and small scale industry and tourism
      • Other opportunities for employment Grants given for development. e.g. Small hotels, campsites
      • Enables farmers to diversify to increase their income so they can modernise . Farmers will have a larger market .
    • 17. 27%:-
      • Improving fishing by modernising ports and buying new boats
      • Extending forestry and reducing soil erosion to produce more fertile farming areas which will increase yields.
      • Education and training
    • 18. Successes Limitations Increased agricultural productivity More people employed outside farming Increased tourism Stemed migration to North Plot size too small to be profitable – debt, bankruptcy IMP funding is small compared to CAP subsidies Still problems of erosion, landslides and earthquakes Competition from Spain for crops Little growth in number of small scale private industries Money doesn’t reach farmers - corruption Increased mechanisation has led to increased unemployment South still poorer than north - emigration farmers tends to be done by older generation -unwilling to modernise
    • 19. June 2000 Suggest two reasons for the farmer’s opinion (4 marks) 1998 During the last 40 years the Mezzogiorno has not developed as much as many people had hoped. Suggest reasons why. (4 marks) 2002 The changes made to the Mezzogiorno have affected some areas/people more than others. Explain why. (6 marks)