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Problems Of Farmers In Mezzogiornov2

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Problems Of Farmers In Mezzogiornov2

  1. 1. Problems of farmers in Mezzogiorno
  2. 2. How has relief affected farming? <ul><li>High Mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Steep sided limestone mountains 200 – 1500m high – difficult to use machinery , rapid surface run off, soil erosion, dirt tracks so crops reach market in poor condition and therefore low value </li></ul><ul><li>Deep, steep sided valleys with fast flowing streams – soil erosion – poor soils - low nutrient level for crops – poor quality crops, </li></ul><ul><li>Little flat land - so … limited space for using machinery, animals kept on steeper slopes, olive trees grown on slope </li></ul><ul><li>Natural vegetation – garrigue – low bushes, drought resistant and evergreen </li></ul><ul><li>Area used for grazing sheep </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>On steep slopes soils are usually thin because: Water runs off easily because of the slope and erodes the soil In summer most rain occurs in heavy downpours  soil erosion Vegetation cover is poor due to overgrazing by sheep and goats  fast run off. Few roots to hold soil in place Shortage of flat land means that if steep land is ploughed – this loosens soil and allows it to be washed away easily
  3. 3. <ul><li>Hillsides </li></ul><ul><li>Originally vegetated with trees but now largely cleared. </li></ul><ul><li>Terraces cut into hillside to increase amount of flat land </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat and vegetation are grown on flat land in valleys with olives and vines on terraces </li></ul><ul><li>Steep slopes – hard to use machinery </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow twisting road so crops reach market in poor conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Coastal plain </li></ul><ul><li>Flat land with thicker soils. Area used for commercial production of grapes, olives, citrus fruits and tobacco </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence farming of wheat and fruit, grazing of sheep and goats </li></ul>
  4. 4. How has climate affected farming? <ul><li>Summers are hot up to 25 o C– partly due to the sun being at a high angle in the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Air is dry and stable prevailing winds blow from warm land </li></ul><ul><li>Area is dominated by high pressure air masses and winds from the east. Long periods of cloudless skies. Any rainfall is convectional. </li></ul><ul><li>Summer drought gives poor quality grazing and crop failure. Convectional storms gives soil erosion, need to store water from winter – capital needed </li></ul><ul><li>Winter – Low pressure - rainfall westerly winds blow from Atlantic - wet </li></ul><ul><li>Mild temperatures more that 10 o C due to southerly latitude. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Effects on farming <ul><li>Low rainfall in summer results in drought conditions – poor pasture and crop failure </li></ul><ul><li>High summer temps evaporate rain so it is not available to plants </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy convectional rainfall – rapid surface run off – soil erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Low total rainfall means rivers dry up so not available to irrigate crops </li></ul>
  6. 6. Soils <ul><li>Thin, alkaline soils. Easily eroded. Result in low yields because: </li></ul><ul><li>Roots cannot anchor in shallow material </li></ul><ul><li>Thin soil contains few nutrients for crop growing and gives poor quality grazing for sheep and goats </li></ul><ul><li>Steep slopes, deforestation and sudden heavy rainstorms  soil is easily eroded. </li></ul><ul><li>Eroded soil is deposited in rivers  flooding </li></ul>
  7. 7. Traditional organisation … <ul><li>Farms were organised under a system called Latifundia . </li></ul><ul><li>Land was divided into large estates owned by landlords who lived away from the area in the cities. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharecroppers were allocated 1/3 of the land on the estate and each worked a tiny plot to grow subsistence crops for his family in his spare time. </li></ul><ul><li>The rest of the estate was divided into large fields and worked as one unit by the sharecroppers. </li></ul><ul><li>In return for their labour the share croppers were provided with seed, fertilizers, tools, and draught animals by the owner, and received a small share of the proceeds when the owner’s crops were sold. </li></ul><ul><li>Wheat was the main crop grown in rotation with beans. </li></ul><ul><li>Day labourers braccianti were also employed in the estates. </li></ul><ul><li>Sharecroppers and braccianti lived in large, slum-ridden hilltop villages from which they walked up to 13km to their place of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Peasant farmers rented plots which were often small and scattered </li></ul>
  8. 8. Effect on farming … <ul><li>Low yields due to : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Absentee landlords paid little attention to land, appointed agents to run the latifundi and did not invest in new farming techniques </li></ul><ul><li>2. Share- croppers plots were too small to assure a decent living and payments for work on the owners fields were very small. </li></ul><ul><li>3. After paying rent peasant farmers did not have money to invest in the land </li></ul><ul><li>4. Braccianti were often unemployed because they were used only for seasonal work such as sowing and harvesting. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Too many peasants trying to get a living from the small amount of fertile land available. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Little incentive for peasant farmers to improve land </li></ul>
  9. 9. * poor *unable to afford machinery *high % crops given to landlord *steep slopes *small farm size *young adults migrate *semi – subsistence agriculture *fragmented land *poor quality land *land tenure not farm ownership * Stony soils * Poor crop yields Summer drought * Pull factors – bright lights of city * Remote from markets *doesn’t rain for 5 months *time wasted walking to fields Problems faced by farmers
  10. 10. Exam Q’s <ul><li>Fig 2 shows that there is badly eroded land. Suggest why it is badly eroded (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and explain the causes of two other problems that farmers have in areas shown as that in Fig 2 (4) </li></ul><ul><li>What evidence is there on Fig 2 that some improvements have been made to this area? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe traditional farming in the Mezzogiorno in the 1950s (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how the climate causes problems for farmers in the Mezzogiorno (4) </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the problems, apart from climate that affected farmers in the Mezzogiorno in the 1950’s </li></ul>
  11. 11. * 85% land mountainous / steep slopes * Steep slopes mean limited use machinery * Poor roads lead to damaged crops * Flash flooding – soil erosion * Little or no irrigation / seasonal rivers *isolated hill top villages *scattered plots Some terraced * Malarial marshes *silted rivers, liable to flooding
  12. 12. SOLUTIONS – post IMP / CASSA PER IL MEZZOGIORNO

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