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Video Surveillance Preserving Privacy

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These are some slides I presented during a seminar given at University of Zurich on October 2008.

These are some slides I presented during a seminar given at University of Zurich on October 2008.

Published in: Technology, Business

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  • Welcome
  • Transcript

    • 1. Video Surveillance preserving privacy Touradj Ebrahimi Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Lausanne, Switzerland [email_address]
    • 2. Surveillance
      • Proliferation of advanced electronics, computers, networks
        • Sensors
        • Wireless networks
        • RFID
        • Blue tooth
        • Credit cards
        • Mobile phones
        • IP/MAC address
      • It has become increasingly easy to monitor movements, behavior and habits of individuals
        • Data mining
        • Search
    • 3. Pros and cons of surveillance and data gathering
      • Advantages
        • Security
        • User profiling
        • Personalization
        • Statistics
        • Increased efficiency
        • Increased quality of life
      • Drawbacks
        • Unsolicited advertisement (SPAM)
        • Spy bots
        • Privacy
    • 4. World Trade Center, 9/11 Mohamed Atta filmed by a Gas Station surveillance camera on September 10, 2001 filmed by an ATM surveillance camera on September 10, 2001
    • 5. Attack on London underground, July 7, 2005 On a reconnaissance mission two weeks before the attack
    • 6. Plot to attack trains in Germany, August 2006 Two unexploded bombs found in luggage aboard two trains Both terrorists have been arrested thanks to the video footage
    • 7. Applications
      • Surveillance of sensitive locations
        • Embassies, airports, nuclear plants, military zone, border control, …
      • Intrusion detection
        • Residential surveillance, retail surveillance, …
      • Traffic control
        • Speed control
      • Access to places
        • Car license plate recognition in London
      • Event detection
        • Child/Elderly care
      • Marketing/statistics
        • Customers habits
        • Number of visitors
    • 8. Why video surveillance?
      • Often video surveillance does not prevent crime, but:
        • Discourages crime
        • Allows quick reaction
        • Psychological dimension
    • 9. Video surveillance technologies
      • First generation
        • Analog
        • CCTV
        • Recording
      • Second generation
        • Digital/Hybrid
        • Recording
        • PC based
        • IP wired/wireless
    • 10. Video surveillance technologies
      • Third generation
        • Image analysis
        • Biometrics
        • Search
      • Forth generation
        • Pervasive
        • Distributed
        • Invisible
        • Multi-view
    • 11. Video surveillance appeal
      • High political appeal
        • Perception that the problem of crime is addressed
        • Not always based on the proven effectiveness of surveillance
      • High psychological impact
        • UK: CCTV images of toddler Jamie Bulger led away from a shopping mall by his two ten years old killers (Liverpool, 1993)
        • USA: 9/11
    • 12. Video surveillance efficiency
      • May prevent crime in numerous ways
        • Perpetrators apprehended
        • Perpetrators deterred by higher risk of apprehension
        • More people in places under surveillance
        • Security forces more effectively deployed
        • Perception to tackle crime seriously
        • Less time available to commit crime
        • Publicity
    • 13. Video surveillance efficiency
      • Conflicting studies
      • Welsh and Farrington (2002)
        • Analyze results from 22 studies in UK, USA and Canada
          • City centers and public housing
          • Public transport
          • Car parks
        • Overall crime reduction is only 4%
        • Evidence suggests that crime displaced beyond camera range
      • Monitoring video screens is boring
        • Decreased attention after 20 minutes
    • 14. Civil liberty and privacy
      • Londoner recorded more than 300 times a day
      • Multitude of cameras
      • Better cameras with high resolution and zoom
        • Even more invasive
    • 15. Abuse
      • Criminal abuse
        • Criminal misuse by law enforcement officers
        • US: police official gathered information on a gay club to blackmail patrons
      • Institutional abuse
        • Spy upon and harass political activists (Civil Rights, Vietnam war)
        • US: surveillance of political demonstrations
      • Abuse for personal purposes
        • US: police officers helping friends stalk women, track estranged girlfriends/spouses
      • Discrimination
        • UK: racial discrimination towards people of color
      • Voyeurism
        • UK: bored male operators spying on women
        • UK: footage of public cameras made publicly available
    • 16. Switzerland
      • Principle of good faith and right to information
        • Inform everyone entering the zone with a clearly visible sign
      • Data security
        • Protect personal data against unauthorized processing
      • Principle of proportionality
        • Zone absolutely necessary for the purpose in the filming range
        • Data should be deleted within a short time (e.g. 24 hours)
      • Purpose related principle
        • Data may only be used for the protection of persons and property
        • Identity of persons filmed may not be disclosed
    • 17. EU
      • Convention of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms
        • Protection of privacy (article 8)
      • Council of Europe Convention No. 108/1981 for the protection of individuals with regard to automatic processing of personal data
        • Voices and images are considered personal data if they provide information on an individual by making him/her identifiable
      • Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union
        • Protection of private and family life, home and communication (article 7)
        • Protection of personal data (article 8)
      • Directive 95/46/EC
      • National provisions applying to video surveillance
    • 18. EU – Directive 95/46/EC
      • Lawfulness of the processing
        • In line with data protection principles
      • Specificity, specification and lawfulness of purposes
      • Proportionality of the recourse to video surveillance
      • Proportionality in carrying out video surveillance activities
      • Information to data subjects
        • Subjects informed when video surveillance is in operation
      • Additional requirements
        • Limited number of persons to view or access the recorded images
        • Security measures to prevent dissemination or alteration of data
      • Data subjects’ rights
      • Additional safeguards
        • Prohibited to discriminate on race, religious or political opinions, sexual habits
    • 19. US
      • No standards on
        • Where cameras can be installed
        • Who is allowed to view tapes
        • How long they are kept on file
        • It is illegal to secretly tape-record a conversation
        • But secretly videotaping is perfectly legal
    • 20. Forensic video - admissibility
      • If the image is not inherently reliable, its admissibility in court is questionable
      • If a poor image is ruled admissible, it will be afforded little or no weight
      • For an image to be admissible, the prosecutor must prove that the image has not been altered
        • Lossy compression
        • Conditional replenishment
      • Original versus copy
        • Any digital image can be thought of as being ‘the original’
    • 21. Video surveillance dimensions
      • Technology
      • Business
      • Legal
      • Social
    • 22. Video surveillance and content security tools
      • Encryption
        • Secure communication
        • Conditional access
      • Data integrity
        • Digital signature
        • Proof for lack of manipulation after capture
    • 23. Alternatives for video surveillance with privacy
      • Fully automatic surveillance without intervention of human operators
        • False positives and false negatives
      • Encrypt the whole video
        • No good for monitoring
      • Replace sensitive objects with a mask
        • Limited usefulness for monitoring
      • Scramble sensitive regions with a key
        • Useful for monitoring
        • Privacy preservation
        • Identification can take place when crime happens
        • Does not require major changes in the surveillance infrastructure
    • 24. Smart video surveillance […011001…]
    • 25. Automatic event detection
    • 26. Video surveillance preserving privacy Masking MPEG-7 camera Invertible scrambling Invertible encryption
    • 27. Privacy-sensitive Information
      • Automatically identifies Regions of Interest (ROI)
        • People in the scene
        • Human faces
        • Car license plates
      • Predefined zones
        • Window, door
        • Bank teller
        • Casino playing table
    • 28. Scrambling Process
    • 29. Unscrambling Process
    • 30. Scrambling in MPEG-4
      • Block-based DCT domain scrambling
        • Inverse sign of DCT coefficients on a block-based basis
    • 31. Scrambling Level
    • 32. Some illustrative examples Scrambler Unscrambler
    • 33. Typical application
      • «General Key»  
        • Police
        • Judge
        • … .
      Public Zone I X Public Zone II Y Private Zone Z
      • « Double Key C»  
      • Union or HR Manager
      • « Double Key D»  
      • Management
      • «Key A»  
      • Municipal employee 1
      • ……
      +
      • «Key B»  
      • Municipal employee 2
      • … .
      Global Area
    • 34. Concluding remarks…for now!
      • Video surveillance is here to stay and will only increase
      • It will come with advantages and drawbacks as in many other solutions
      • Technology (and specially security technologies) have proven to offer a good compromise in terms of needs for protection and preservation of privacy