The american identity icc lecture

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  • 1. The American Identity: Europeans, Black Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Native Americans “In the next century, we will have an opportunity to become the world's first truly multiracial, multiethnic democracy. ” B. Clinton “The US – a nation of diversity and promise.”
  • 2. Population in the USA Population in 2012- 30.09.2012 314,488,3471 Population Growth in 2000-2010 9,9%2 (about 1% per year) Expected population by 2050 – 423 mil3 1 September 2012 U.S. Census Bureau. 2 http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-01.pdf 3 http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/analytical-
  • 3. Population Growth *Источник: http://www.census.gov/population/projections/SummaryTabA1.pdf
  • 4. Population Density
  • 5. Racial and ethnic groups of American Population in 2008 (305 mil) • White • Black Americans • Hispanics • Asians • Native Americans 66% 14% 15% 5% 1,6%
  • 6. Ethnic make-up of the population in 2010 *2010 г: http://www.census.gov/prod/cen2010/briefs/c2010br-02.pdf
  • 7. Increase in racial and ethnic diversity • In 1990 respondents of the Census Bureau could select only one of the 5 categories : White, Black, Hispanic, American Indian or Aleutian, Asian or Pacific Islander. • The 2000 Census gave people the option of choosing from 63 race options!
  • 8. American population in 2010 and 2050 2010 2050 Whites 63.7% 46.3% Asians 4.8% 7.8% Blacks 12.6% 13% Hispanics 16.3% 30.2% http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/files/nation/summary/ np2008-t4.xls
  • 9. Geographical distribution of racial and ethnic groups (2005) Minorities Whites The West 36% 64% The South 30% 70% The Northeast 23% 77% The Midwest 15% 85% US Census Bureau, California, racial breakdown,
  • 10. Racial composition of the Regions • Hispanics and Asians are likely to live in the West • Blacks in the South • Whites in the Northeast, Midwest and Mountain states
  • 11. Racial composition of metropolitan areas vs suburbs • Hispanics and Asians tend to live and settle down in NYC, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Diego, Las Vegas, San Francisco – metropolitan areas • 60% of White Americans live in the suburbs
  • 12. Data Set: 2006 Population Estimates United States by State ( 300 mil) • Legend The most populous state
  • 13. During the Twentieth Century annual numbers of births fluctuated considerably. The numbers reached a low during the depths of the Great Depression, and peaked during the post-World War II Baby Boom.
  • 14. Population Age-Sex Structure On age-sex pyramids the bars on the left represent male cohorts by five-year age categories.
  • 15. Non-Hispanic Whites • Non-Hispanic whites are currently 64% of the U.S. population and are projected to be 46% in 2050. • Growth rate of Whites is the lowest one • Today non-Hispanic whites are in the minority in four states -- Hawaii, New Mexico, California and Texas -- and the District of Columbia
  • 16. Non-Hispanic Whites • Whites tend to live in nonmetropolitan areas – more “footloose” • Ethnics – people who are identified with a national origin (French communities in New Orlean, Russians in NYC, etc) • WASPs – White Anglo-Saxon Protestants
  • 17. Region Whites Ethnic Minorities Midwest 85% 15% Northeast 77% 23% South 70% 30% West 64% 36% Midwest – the highest concentration of whites NYC 44,66 % of whites California 43,8 % of whites. 1 1 US Census Bureau, California, racial breakdown, 2005
  • 18. Black Americans • Blacks are the largest minority group - 40.7 mil - 14% • The Black population is projected to rise from 14 % in 2008 to 15 % in 2050 • They are likely to be found in the South and in huge metropolitan areas
  • 19. Black Americans • 1808 Congress bans importation of slaves • The Compromise of 1820 prohibits slavery in territories north of Missouri. • 1861 Lincoln takes the presidential oath of office. • 1861 The Southern Confederacy ratifies a new Constitution and elects Jefferson Davis as the first Confederate president. • 1861-1865 Civil War
  • 20. Black Americans • 1863 - The Emancipation Proclamation abolishes slavery • 1865 13th Amendment abolished slavery • 1868 14th Amendment gave Blacks the right of citizenship • 1870 15th Amendment gave Blacks the right to vote
  • 21. The Civil Rights Movement • 1896 The Supreme Court rules that “separate but equal” accommodations for African Americans and whites are сonstitutional. This decision allows for legalized segregation • 1950s-1960sThe Civil Rights movement. Martin Luther King. • 1954 The Supreme Court rules in Brown vs Topeka Board of Education that “separate but equal” educational facilities are unconstitutional • 1964 The Civil Rights Acts ensures voting rights and prohibits housing discrimination.
  • 22. Hispanics • Hispanics represent the fastest growing ethnic minority (15% the US population) • The Hispanic population is projected to nearly triple, from almost 47 mil to 133 mil, during the 2008-2050 period, and will jump from 15% to 30% of the population.
  • 23. Hispanics • Hispanics are people who reported that their normal language is Spanish; they are also described as being of any race • Hispanic is considered an ethnicity, not a race; people of Hispanic ethnicity can be of any race
  • 24. Why are Hispanics classified as a distinct group ? they have come since about 1950 in very large numbers; they tend to remain in the certain parts of the US;  they are slow to learn English; majority of them appear to be ethnically different from white or black Americans.
  • 25. Asians • Asians are the second fastest-growing group in the United States • According to the August 14 2008 Census Bureau report Asians will increase from 5% of the U.S. population in 2008 to 7.8 % by 2050 • They are attracted by 3 metropolitan areas – NYC, Los Angeles, San Francisco • Educational attainment and average income of Asians are above the average for the general population
  • 26. Why are immigrants from Latin America and Asia attracted by metropolitan areas? American Immigration Laws based on family reunification Immigrants from these countries depend on their communities’ social and economic support Historical places of concentration of Asians and Hispanics were and are big cities.
  • 27. Recent Tendencies among Ethnic Groups Income Employment Residential patterns Education
  • 28. Percentage of Population living in poverty in 2008 Total U.S. population White AfricanAmerican Hispanics 15,1% 12,2% 33,1% 30,6% U.S.Unemployment Total U.S. Population White AfricanAmerican Hispa nics 6,1% 5,3% 11,5% 10%
  • 29. What regions are the poorest ones?
  • 30. INCOME DISTRIBUTION BY FIFTH (20%) LOWEST FIFTH SECOND FIFTH THIRD FIFTH FOURTH FIFTH TOTAL U.S. POPULATION $19 070 $32 985 $48 985 $72 260 WHITE $20 916 $35 046 $51 000 $75 000 AFRICANAMERICAN S $10 200 $20 000 $32 296 $51 016 HISPANICS $11 479 $19 677 $30 022 $48 492
  • 31. Median Household Income 2005 What are the wealthiest regions and states?
  • 32. American Indians/ Native Americans • American Indians and Alaska Natives are projected to increase from 1.6 % (4.4 mil) in 2008 to 2 % in 2050. • The largest populations live in California, Oklahoma, Arizona, and Alaska. • Native Americans speak more than 250 languages, and there are 561 federally languages recognized tribal governments in the United States. • Some live on rural or remote reservations, in villages and pueblos, or on Rancherias
  • 33. The number of reservations on the territory of the US – 314 The majority of the reservations are in the West. More than 1/2 of American Indians reside in California(413,382) Arizona(294,137) Oklahoma(279,559)
  • 34. American Indians • 25000 BC - The Native Americans are believed to have arrived in North America • 1786 - The U.S. establishes first Native American reservation • 1830 - Congress passes the Removal Act, forcing Native Americans to settle in Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River • 1887 - The Dawes Act dissolves many Indian reservations in United States • 1924 - Congress passed the Indian Citizenship Act
  • 35. Indian Reservations Today • In 1934 the Indian Reorganization Act or the Indian New Deal encouraged NA to set up their own councils to run the affairs of their reservations • An Indian reservation is a formal term for land which is managed by a Native American tribe under the U.S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Indian Affairs. • The land is federal territory and Native Americans have limited national sovereignty, there are legal casinos on reservations.
  • 36. Tribal Governments • There are 560 tribal governments with a direct government-to-government relationship with the federal government. • There are about 300 Indian reservations in the USA, meaning not all of the country’s 500-plus recognised tribes have a reservation. • These governments’ responsibilities: administering their own judicial systems and police forces, • operating schools and hospitals, managing a wide range of business enterprises.
  • 37. Harvard University Research The State of Native Nations (2008) • Most of the social and economic indicators are moving in a positive direction • Many tribal governments are strong • Educational attainment levels are improving • There is a cultural renaissance occurring in many tribal communities.
  • 38. A new program at the University of North Texas (UNT) launched in 2009 by the International Indigenous and American Indian Initiative • A variety of Native-oriented courses; • An Indigenous Studies major /minor, a significant presence of Native faculty and staff at all levels • Ongoing Native student recruitment and funding; • Language preservation; • Significant Native-generated library holdings; • A viable indigenous student organization; • Indigenous-related research; • Strong relations with Native nations, tribal colleges, and American Indian organizations.
  • 39. Population Aging • One in five people will be 65 and older by 2050. • By 2050, there will be 19 mil people age 85 and older, more than 3 times today’s number. • The population in the “working ages” of 18 to 64 is projected to fall from 63 % to 57 % between 2008 and 2050, and over half (55 %) will be minorities.
  • 40. Percent of a country’s residents aged 65+ http://www.censusscope.org/us/map_65plus.html
  • 41. References • • • • • • • • • http://www.census.gov/ http://usgovinfo.about.com/ http://www.ssa.gov/ http://us-america.ru/ http://www.mineful.com/demographics http://usgovinfo.about.com/ http://www.newgeography.com/ http://www.gallup.com America's Changing Demographics http://www.pbs.org/nbr/site/features/special/changing_ demographics/ • Birthrate Is Lowest in a Century. The New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/28/us/28birth.html • www.boomerslife.org/