Week 1 Nature of Global Conflict

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What has been the nature of global conflict since 1991?

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Week 1 Nature of Global Conflict

  1. 1. Week 1 - Intro Global Conflicts after The Cold War
  2. 2. week 1 Key question What has been the nature of global conflict since 1991?
  3. 3. The cold war
  4. 4. The cold war
  5. 5. The cold war
  6. 6. The cold war
  7. 7. The cold war No shooting! But if you do...I will too!
  8. 8. key points about the cold war
  9. 9. key points about the cold war 1945 - 1989-91 (end of WWII to the break up of the USSR) major tension between US and USSR and their allies coalitions with other countries (eg: USSR & China, USA & NATO nations) space race massive nuclear arms race
  10. 10. Causes and nature of conflict in the post cold war world
  11. 11. COnflict
  12. 12. COnflict What is conflict?
  13. 13. COnflict What is conflict?
  14. 14. COnflict What is conflict?
  15. 15. COnflict What is conflict?
  16. 16. COnflict What is conflict?
  17. 17. COnflict What is conflict?
  18. 18. What causes conflict?
  19. 19. What causes conflict? tension
  20. 20. What causes conflict? nationalist tension
  21. 21. What causes conflict? nationalist tension economic
  22. 22. What causes conflict? nationalist religious tension economic
  23. 23. What causes conflict? nationalist ethnic religious tension economic
  24. 24. What causes conflict? nationalist ethnic religious tension economic regional
  25. 25. Phase 1 - 1990-2001
  26. 26. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991
  27. 27. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991
  28. 28. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991 Iraq freed from Soviet constraints at end of Cold War
  29. 29. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991 Iraq freed from Soviet constraints at end of Cold War End of eight year war with Iran left Iraq with economic problems
  30. 30. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991 Iraq freed from Soviet constraints at end of Cold War End of eight year war with Iran left Iraq with economic problems Claimed Kuwait flooding oil market and theft of Iraqi oil. Invaded Kuwait and took control of 20% of world’s oil
  31. 31. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991 Iraq freed from Soviet constraints at end of Cold War End of eight year war with Iran left Iraq with economic problems Claimed Kuwait flooding oil market and theft of Iraqi oil. Invaded Kuwait and took control of 20% of world’s oil Saddam Hussein declared Kuwait to be Iraq’s 19th province
  32. 32. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991 Iraq freed from Soviet constraints at end of Cold War End of eight year war with Iran left Iraq with economic problems Claimed Kuwait flooding oil market and theft of Iraqi oil. Invaded Kuwait and took control of 20% of world’s oil Saddam Hussein declared Kuwait to be Iraq’s 19th province Broad coalition of Arab and Western states formed to oust Iraq
  33. 33. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991 Iraq freed from Soviet constraints at end of Cold War End of eight year war with Iran left Iraq with economic problems Claimed Kuwait flooding oil market and theft of Iraqi oil. Invaded Kuwait and took control of 20% of world’s oil Saddam Hussein declared Kuwait to be Iraq’s 19th province Broad coalition of Arab and Western states formed to oust Iraq 17 January 1991 - Operation Desert Storm 26 February - withdrawal of Iraqi troops
  34. 34. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991 Iraq freed from Soviet constraints at end of Cold War End of eight year war with Iran left Iraq with economic problems Claimed Kuwait flooding oil market and theft of Iraqi oil. Invaded Kuwait and took control of 20% of world’s oil Saddam Hussein declared Kuwait to be Iraq’s 19th province Broad coalition of Arab and Western states formed to oust Iraq 17 January 1991 - Operation Desert Storm 26 February - withdrawal of Iraqi troops What sort of tension?
  35. 35. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991 Iraq freed from Soviet constraints at end of Cold War End of eight year war with Iran left Iraq with economic problems Claimed Kuwait flooding oil market and theft of Iraqi oil. Invaded Kuwait and took control of 20% of world’s oil Saddam Hussein declared Kuwait to be Iraq’s 19th province Broad coalition of Arab and Western states formed to oust Iraq 17 January 1991 - Operation Desert Storm 26 February - withdrawal of Iraqi troops economic What sort of tension?
  36. 36. Phase 1 - 1990-2001 The first Gulf War - Iraq and Kuwait 1991 Iraq freed from Soviet constraints at end of Cold War End of eight year war with Iran left Iraq with economic problems Claimed Kuwait flooding oil market and theft of Iraqi oil. Invaded Kuwait and took control of 20% of world’s oil Saddam Hussein declared Kuwait to be Iraq’s 19th province Broad coalition of Arab and Western states formed to oust Iraq 17 January 1991 - Operation Desert Storm 26 February - withdrawal of Iraqi troops nationalistWhat sort of tension? economic
  37. 37. Somalia 1992
  38. 38. Somalia 1992
  39. 39. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960
  40. 40. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991
  41. 41. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism
  42. 42. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991
  43. 43. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991 Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed
  44. 44. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991 Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed Rival warlords struggled for control of the state
  45. 45. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991 Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed Rival warlords struggled for control of the state By July 1992 UN estimated 1.5 million people in danger of immediate starvation, and entire population of 4.5 million of long term starvation
  46. 46. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991 Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed Rival warlords struggled for control of the state By July 1992 UN estimated 1.5 million people in danger of immediate starvation, and entire population of 4.5 million of long term starvation UN humanitarian intervention in August
  47. 47. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991 Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed Rival warlords struggled for control of the state By July 1992 UN estimated 1.5 million people in danger of immediate starvation, and entire population of 4.5 million of long term starvation UN humanitarian intervention in August Also military intervention to assist in disarmament and discussions between hostile clans
  48. 48. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991 Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed Rival warlords struggled for control of the state By July 1992 UN estimated 1.5 million people in danger of Still no government has immediate starvation, and entire population of 4.5 million emerged to take control of the of long term starvation country UN humanitarian intervention in August Also military intervention to assist in disarmament and discussions between hostile clans
  49. 49. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991 Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed Rival warlords struggled for control of the state By July 1992 UN estimated 1.5 million people in danger of Still no government has immediate starvation, and entire population of 4.5 million emerged to take control of the of long term starvation country UN humanitarian intervention in August What is the nature of Also military intervention to assist in disarmament this conflict? and discussions between hostile clans
  50. 50. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991 Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed ethnic Rival warlords struggled for control of the state By July 1992 UN estimated 1.5 million people in danger of Still no government has immediate starvation, and entire population of 4.5 million emerged to take control of the of long term starvation country UN humanitarian intervention in August What is the nature of Also military intervention to assist in disarmament this conflict? and discussions between hostile clans
  51. 51. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was ousted in 1991 economic Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed ethnic Rival warlords struggled for control of the state By July 1992 UN estimated 1.5 million people in danger of Still no government has immediate starvation, and entire population of 4.5 million emerged to take control of the of long term starvation country UN humanitarian intervention in August What is the nature of Also military intervention to assist in disarmament this conflict? and discussions between hostile clans
  52. 52. Somalia 1992 Independence in 1960 Repressive regime of Siad Barre 1969-1991 One of Barre’s aims was to eliminate tribalism Insurgencies against his regime and he was regional ousted in 1991 economic Violent attempts to reinstate him, humanitarian crisis and anarchy followed Rival warlords struggled for control of the state ethnic By July 1992 UN estimated 1.5 million people in danger of Still no government has immediate starvation, and entire population of 4.5 million emerged to take control of the of long term starvation country UN humanitarian intervention in August What is the nature of Also military intervention to assist in disarmament this conflict? and discussions between hostile clans
  53. 53. RWANDA 1994
  54. 54. RWANDA 1994
  55. 55. RWANDA 1994 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King
  56. 56. RWANDA 1994 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King 1962 Independence from Belgium
  57. 57. RWANDA 1994 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King 1962 Independence from Belgium Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with 150,000 driven into exile
  58. 58. RWANDA 1994 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King 1962 Independence from Belgium Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with 150,000 driven into exile Children of exiles formed a rebel group and began a civil war in 1990
  59. 59. RWANDA 1994 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King 1962 Independence from Belgium Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with 150,000 driven into exile Children of exiles formed a rebel group and began a civil war in 1990 ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  60. 60. RWANDA 1994 UN and US reluctant to get involved in African regional conflicts after Somalia 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King 1962 Independence from Belgium Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with 150,000 driven into exile Children of exiles formed a rebel group and began a civil war in 1990 ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  61. 61. RWANDA 1994 UN and US reluctant to get involved in African regional conflicts after Somalia UN withdrew troops and peacekeepers 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King 1962 Independence from Belgium Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with 150,000 driven into exile Children of exiles formed a rebel group and began a civil war in 1990 ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  62. 62. RWANDA 1994 UN and US reluctant to get involved in African regional conflicts after Somalia UN withdrew troops and peacekeepers US blocked more forces 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King 1962 Independence from Belgium Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with 150,000 driven into exile Children of exiles formed a rebel group and began a civil war in 1990 ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  63. 63. RWANDA 1994 UN and US reluctant to get involved in African regional conflicts after Somalia UN withdrew troops and peacekeepers US blocked more forces UN mission of 5500 troops in May, still delayed due to cost 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King 1962 Independence from Belgium Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with 150,000 driven into exile Children of exiles formed a rebel group and began a civil war in 1990 ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  64. 64. RWANDA 1994 UN and US reluctant to get involved in African regional conflicts after Somalia UN withdrew troops and peacekeepers US blocked more forces UN mission of 5500 troops in May, still delayed due to cost 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King Tutsi rebels finally defeated Hutus 1962 Independence from Belgium Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with 150,000 driven into exile Children of exiles formed a rebel group and began a civil war in 1990 ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  65. 65. RWANDA 1994 UN and US reluctant to get involved in African regional conflicts after Somalia UN withdrew troops and peacekeepers US blocked more forces UN mission of 5500 troops in May, still delayed due to cost 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King Tutsi rebels finally defeated Hutus 1962 Independence from Belgium Most Hutus who fled have now returned Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with except group in Congo who have formed 150,000 driven into exile insurgency group planning to retake Rwanda Children of exiles formed a rebel group and began a civil war in 1990 ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  66. 66. RWANDA 1994 UN and US reluctant to get involved in African regional conflicts after Somalia UN withdrew troops and peacekeepers US blocked more forces UN mission of 5500 troops in May, still delayed due to cost 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King Tutsi rebels finally defeated Hutus 1962 Independence from Belgium Most Hutus who fled have now returned Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with except group in Congo who have formed 150,000 driven into exile insurgency group planning to retake Rwanda Children of exiles formed a rebel group What is the nature and began a civil war in 1990 of this conflict? ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  67. 67. RWANDA 1994 UN and US reluctant to get involved in African regional conflicts after Somalia ethnic UN withdrew troops and peacekeepers US blocked more forces UN mission of 5500 troops in May, still delayed due to cost 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King Tutsi rebels finally defeated Hutus 1962 Independence from Belgium Most Hutus who fled have now returned Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with except group in Congo who have formed 150,000 driven into exile insurgency group planning to retake Rwanda Children of exiles formed a rebel group What is the nature and began a civil war in 1990 of this conflict? ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  68. 68. RWANDA 1994 UN and US reluctant to get involved in regional African regional conflicts after Somalia ethnic UN withdrew troops and peacekeepers US blocked more forces UN mission of 5500 troops in May, still delayed due to cost 1959 Hutus overthrow ruling Tutsi King Tutsi rebels finally defeated Hutus 1962 Independence from Belgium Most Hutus who fled have now returned Hutus killed thousands of Tutsis with except group in Congo who have formed 150,000 driven into exile insurgency group planning to retake Rwanda Children of exiles formed a rebel group What is the nature and began a civil war in 1990 of this conflict? ulminated in April 1994 genocide of 800,000 Tutsis and moderate Hutus
  69. 69. Yugoslavia 1991-99
  70. 70. Yugoslavia 1991-99
  71. 71. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito
  72. 72. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito Tito became Prime Minister and established six Yugoslavian republics:
  73. 73. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito Tito became Prime Minister and established six Yugoslavian republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia
  74. 74. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito Tito became Prime Minister and established six Yugoslavian republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia existing ethnic and nationalist issues and tensions with each other
  75. 75. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito Tito became Prime Minister and established six Yugoslavian republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia existing ethnic and nationalist issues and tensions with each other Tito died in 1980, old rivalries re-emerged
  76. 76. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito Tito became Prime Minister and established six Yugoslavian republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia existing ethnic and nationalist issues and tensions with each other Tito died in 1980, old rivalries re-emerged 1991 Slovenia and Croatia declare independence
  77. 77. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito Tito became Prime Minister and established six Yugoslavian republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia existing ethnic and nationalist issues and tensions with each other Tito died in 1980, old rivalries re-emerged 1991 Slovenia and Croatia declare independence 1992 Bosnia Herzegovina vote for independence, Bosnian state recognised by EU and US
  78. 78. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito Tito became Prime Minister and established six Yugoslavian republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia existing ethnic and nationalist issues and tensions with each other Tito died in 1980, old rivalries re-emerged 1991 Slovenia and Croatia declare independence 1992 Bosnia Herzegovina vote for independence, Bosnian state recognised by EU and US Bosnian Serbs not wanting to be minority got support from Serbian government and attacked Bosnian government
  79. 79. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito Tito became Prime Minister and established six Yugoslavian republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia existing ethnic and nationalist issues and tensions with each other Tito died in 1980, old rivalries re-emerged 1991 Slovenia and Croatia declare independence 1992 Bosnia Herzegovina vote for independence, Bosnian state recognised by EU and US Bosnian Serbs not wanting to be minority got support from Serbian government and attacked Bosnian government 1992 war began and Serbs took over 70 per cent of the country
  80. 80. Yugoslavia 1991-99 Communist resistance movement after Nazi invasion led by Josip Tito Tito became Prime Minister and established six Yugoslavian republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia existing ethnic and nationalist issues and tensions with each other Tito died in 1980, old rivalries re-emerged 1991 Slovenia and Croatia declare independence 1992 Bosnia Herzegovina vote for independence, Bosnian state recognised by EU and US Bosnian Serbs not wanting to be minority got support from Serbian government and attacked Bosnian government 1992 war began and Serbs took over 70 per cent of the country Serbs embarked on ethnic cleansing, particularly against Muslims who made up 44 percent of the Bosnian population
  81. 81. Yugoslavia cont...
  82. 82. Yugoslavia cont...
  83. 83. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994
  84. 84. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994 Fighting ended in late 1994 but more fighting erupted in the province of Kosovo between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians, where Muslim Albanians are the majority but province seen as home of Serb identity and culture
  85. 85. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994 Fighting ended in late 1994 but more fighting erupted in the province of Kosovo between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians, where Muslim Albanians are the majority but province seen as home of Serb identity and culture Albanian separatists in Kosovo formed Kosovo Liberation Army
  86. 86. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994 Fighting ended in late 1994 but more fighting erupted in the province of Kosovo between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians, where Muslim Albanians are the majority but province seen as home of Serb identity and culture Albanian separatists in Kosovo formed Kosovo Liberation Army Serbs’ ethnic cleansing of Albanians from norther Kosovo prompted NATO air strikes, which was first attack on a European country by NATO
  87. 87. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994 Fighting ended in late 1994 but more fighting erupted in the province of Kosovo between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians, where Muslim Albanians are the majority but province seen as home of Serb identity and culture Albanian separatists in Kosovo formed Kosovo Liberation Army Serbs’ ethnic cleansing of Albanians from norther Kosovo prompted NATO air strikes, which was first attack on a European country by NATO By June NATO was threatening a ground attack and President Milosevic forced to back down
  88. 88. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994 Fighting ended in late 1994 but more fighting erupted in the province of Kosovo between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians, where Muslim Albanians are the majority but province seen as home of Serb identity and culture Albanian separatists in Kosovo formed Kosovo Liberation Army Serbs’ ethnic cleansing of Albanians from norther Kosovo prompted NATO air strikes, which was first attack on a European country by NATO By June NATO was threatening a ground attack and President Milosevic forced to back down What tensions caused this conflict?
  89. 89. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994 Fighting ended in late 1994 but more fighting erupted in the province of Kosovo between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians, where Muslim Albanians are the majority but province seen as home of Serb identity and culture Albanian separatists in Kosovo formed Kosovo Liberation Army Serbs’ ethnic cleansing of Albanians from norther Kosovo ethnic prompted NATO air strikes, which was first attack on a European country by NATO By June NATO was threatening a ground attack and President Milosevic forced to back down What tensions caused this conflict?
  90. 90. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994 Fighting ended in late 1994 but more fighting erupted in the province of Kosovo between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians, where Muslim Albanians are the majority but province seen as home of Serb identity and culture Albanian separatists in Kosovo formed Kosovo Liberation Army Serbs’ ethnic cleansing of Albanians from norther Kosovo ethnic prompted NATO air strikes, which was first attack on a European country by NATO religious By June NATO was threatening a ground attack and President Milosevic forced to back down What tensions caused this conflict?
  91. 91. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994 Fighting ended in late 1994 but more fighting erupted in the regional province of Kosovo between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians, where Muslim Albanians are the majority but province seen as home of Serb identity and culture Albanian separatists in Kosovo formed Kosovo Liberation Army Serbs’ ethnic cleansing of Albanians from norther Kosovo ethnic prompted NATO air strikes, which was first attack on a European country by NATO religious By June NATO was threatening a ground attack and President Milosevic forced to back down What tensions caused this conflict?
  92. 92. Yugoslavia cont... West reluctant to intervene, but finally threatened air strikes in 1994 Fighting ended in late 1994 but more fighting erupted in the regional province of Kosovo between the Serbs and ethnic Albanians, where Muslim Albanians are the majority but province seen as home of Serb identity and culture nationalist Albanian separatists in Kosovo formed Kosovo Liberation Army Serbs’ ethnic cleansing of Albanians from norther Kosovo ethnic prompted NATO air strikes, which was first attack on a European country by NATO religious By June NATO was threatening a ground attack and President Milosevic forced to back down What tensions caused this conflict?
  93. 93. chechnya 1991 onwards
  94. 94. chechnya 1991 onwards
  95. 95. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years
  96. 96. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’
  97. 97. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’ 1991 declared independence from Russia as the Soviet Union was collapsing
  98. 98. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’ 1991 declared independence from Russia as the Soviet Union was collapsing Bloody conflict followed as Russia was determined to keep Chechnya as part of the Russian Federation
  99. 99. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’ 1991 declared independence from Russia as the Soviet Union was collapsing Bloody conflict followed as Russia was determined to keep Chechnya as part of the Russian Federation 1994 Boris Yeltsin ordered 40,000 troops to retake the region which resulted in a drawn out, bloody and unpopular conflict
  100. 100. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’ 1991 declared independence from Russia as the Soviet Union was collapsing Bloody conflict followed as Russia was determined to keep Chechnya as part of the Russian Federation 1994 Boris Yeltsin ordered 40,000 troops to retake the region which resulted in a drawn out, bloody and unpopular conflict Region in stalemate until Sept 1999 when the Russian army returned after blaming bombings in Russia on Chechens
  101. 101. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’ 1991 declared independence from Russia as the Soviet Union was collapsing Bloody conflict followed as Russia was determined to keep Chechnya as part of the Russian Federation 1994 Boris Yeltsin ordered 40,000 troops to retake the region which resulted in a drawn out, bloody and unpopular conflict Region in stalemate until Sept 1999 when the Russian army returned after blaming bombings in Russia on Chechens Chechen separatists retaliated with terrorist attacks
  102. 102. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’ 1991 declared independence from Russia as the Soviet Union was collapsing Bloody conflict followed as Russia was determined to keep Chechnya as part of the Russian Federation 1994 Boris Yeltsin ordered 40,000 troops to retake the region which resulted in a drawn out, bloody and unpopular conflict Region in stalemate until Sept 1999 when the Russian army returned after blaming bombings in Russia on Chechens Chechen separatists retaliated with terrorist attacks This allowed President Putin to classify Chechen movement as part of the ‘war on terrorism’
  103. 103. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’ 1991 declared independence from Russia as the Soviet Union was collapsing Bloody conflict followed as Russia was determined to keep Chechnya as part of the Russian Federation 1994 Boris Yeltsin ordered 40,000 troops to retake the region which resulted in a drawn out, bloody and unpopular conflict Region in stalemate until Sept 1999 when the Russian army returned after blaming What is the nature of bombings in Russia on Chechens Chechen separatists retaliated with terrorist attacks this conflict? This allowed President Putin to classify Chechen movement as part of the ‘war on terrorism’
  104. 104. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’ 1991 declared independence from Russia as the Soviet Union was collapsing ethnic Bloody conflict followed as Russia was determined to keep Chechnya as part of the Russian Federation 1994 Boris Yeltsin ordered 40,000 troops to retake the region which resulted in a drawn out, bloody and unpopular conflict Region in stalemate until Sept 1999 when the Russian army returned after blaming What is the nature of bombings in Russia on Chechens Chechen separatists retaliated with terrorist attacks this conflict? This allowed President Putin to classify Chechen movement as part of the ‘war on terrorism’
  105. 105. chechnya 1991 onwards Chechens have fought for independence from Russia for over 160 years Stalin displaced the population of Chechens during WWII, and they only returned during the period of ‘de-Stalinisation’ 1991 declared independence from Russia as the Soviet Union was collapsing ethnic nationalist Bloody conflict followed as Russia was determined to keep Chechnya as part of the Russian Federation 1994 Boris Yeltsin ordered 40,000 troops to retake the region which resulted in a drawn out, bloody and unpopular conflict Region in stalemate until Sept 1999 when the Russian army returned after blaming What is the nature of bombings in Russia on Chechens Chechen separatists retaliated with terrorist attacks this conflict? This allowed President Putin to classify Chechen movement as part of the ‘war on terrorism’
  106. 106. other conflicts India and Pakistan over Kashmir (ethnic, religious and nationalist) Palestine and Israel (ethnic, religious and nationalist) North and South Korea (nationalist) China and Taiwan (nationalist) Indonesia and the province of Aceh (religious, nationlist and ethnic)
  107. 107. review What was the Cold War? What causes conflict? What five conflicts were outlined and what were their causes? reference: Simpson, A & Scott, D ‘ Power and International Politics 3rd Edition, SEV, 2008
  108. 108. Stay tuned for more detail on the gulf war, bosnia and africa as well as global terroism and post cold war Phase 2 - 2001 onwards...

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