Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
respiration
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

respiration

587
views

Published on


0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
587
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Respiratory Emergencies Medical First Responder St. John Ambulance 2006 TITLE SLIDE Insert your information directly into the text boxes provided to customize your presentation
  • 2. Objectives
    • Become familiar with the respiratory system
    • Become familiar with the mechanism of breathing
    • Recognize respiratory emergencies
    • Define chronic bronchitis and understand its mechanism
    • Define emphysema and understand its mechanism
    • List the signs and symptoms of COPD
    • Assess and manage a COPD patient
  • 3. Objectives
    • Define asthma and its mechanism
    • Assess and manage an asthma patient
    • Define and understand croup
    • Assess and manage a croup patient
    • Define and understand epiglottitis
    • Assess and manage an epiglottitis patient
    • Define and understand hyperventilation syndrome
    • Assess and manage a hyperventilation patient
  • 4. Anatomy of the Airway
  • 5. Physiology
    • O 2 in atmosphere at 21%, body uses only 5%
    • inspiration is an active process
    • oxygen is transferred to cells at the capillary level
    • without oxygen cells will die and organs shut down
    • brain begins to die within 4-6 minutes
  • 6. Hypoxia
    • Definition - inadequate oxygen supply to cells
    • caused by:
      • outside atmosphere oxygen is decreased
      • airway or lung tissue is obstructed
      • blood does not carry enough oxygen
      • pump failure - heart is not pumping blood
  • 7. Hypoxia – Signs
    • shortness of breath, increased respiratory rate
    • impaired judgment / motor coordination
    • irritability or excitability
    • increased pulse (adult), decreased (child)
    • pale or cyanosed skin colour
    • vomiting, unresponsiveness,
    • convulsions and seizures
  • 8. Hypoxia – Symptoms
    • headache
    • weakness/fatigue
    • loss of memory
    • nausea
  • 9. Asthma
    • A reactive airway disease causing bronchioles to constrict and widespread mucous production within the bronchial tree
    • Triggers may include:
      • foods, medications, cold air, flowers, perfumes, exercise, smoke, anxiety
  • 10. Asthma – Signs and Symptoms
    • anxiety
    • wheezing on expiration
    • continuous coughing
    • chest over-inflated
    • increased pulse rate
    • pursed lips
    • sitting upright or standing
  • 11. Asthma – Treatments
    • primary survey
    • administer 100% oxygen
    • assist ventilations if needed
    • position patient for comfort
    • if known, make sure trigger is removed
    • auscultate the chest
    • if wheezes present ask if meds (puffers) are available
    • EMS transport asap
  • 12. Hyperventilation – Signs and Symptoms
    • anxiety
    • rapid, deep respiration
    • tightness in chest
    • tingling and spasms in hands and feet
    • light headedness
    • very pink, warm, dry
  • 13. Hyperventilation – Treatment
    • Perform primary survey
    • Give oxygen until assessment is complete
    • Rule out diabetes, shock, head injury
    • Verbally control patient’s respiratory rate
    • Cut back oxygen flow rate
  • 14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
    • Chronic bronchitis
      • Chronic inflammation of the bronchi with mucous
    • Emphysema
      • The loss of elasticity and the destruction of the aveolar walls
  • 15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Signs and Symptoms A productive cough for at least 3 months for 2 consecutive years
    • usually overweight
    • bluish complexion
    • accessory muscle use
    • shortness of breath on exertion
    • history of heavy smoking
    • high pitched wheeze on inspiration and expiration with auscultation
  • 16. Emphysema – Signs and Symptoms
    • gasping for air
    • sitting; leaning forward to breathe
    • distended neck veins
    • audible rattles or wheezes cyanosis
    • prolonged exhalation with pursed lips
    • skinny
    • barrel shaped chest
    • cough
  • 17. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease- Treatment
    • primary survey and secure ABCs
    • administer oxygen
    • position patient
    • vitals and history
    • medications? - Ventolin
    • if shortness of breath only
      • ALERT = 28%
      • VERBAL = 50%
    • painfully responsive or cyanotic = 90 - 100%
    • unresponsive = 90 - 100%
  • 18.
    • Remember - where
    • COPD is present with any other condition …
    • the patient must have the acute problem treated first
      • e.g. heart attack = 100 % oxygen
    • Watch for respiratory depression.
    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease- Treatment
  • 19. Pulmonary Embolism
    • sudden blockage of blood flow through a pulmonary artery
    • caused by blood clots, air bubble, fat particles
    • oxygen reaches areas of lungs with reduced, or no blood flow
    • severity relates to the size of the artery with the embolism
  • 20. Pulmonary Embolism – Signs and Symptoms
    • sudden onset of unexplained dyspnea
    • stabbing chest pain
    • difficulty breathing / respiratory distress
    • increased breathing and heart rates
    • syncope (fainting)
    • cool, moist skin
    • decreased blood pressure
    • cyanosis and distended neck veins
  • 21. Managing - Pulmonary Embolism
    • maintain open airway
    • initiate positive pressure ventilation
    • oxygen delivered by non-rebreather mask
    • monitor closely for respiratory arrest
    • get medical help and transport immediately
  • 22. Epiglottitis – Signs and Symptoms
    • sore throat
    • fever
    • painful swallowing that leads to drooling are common things to look for.
    • Patients are most commonly sitting bolt upright with a fast pulse and may be disoriented
  • 23. Epiglottitis – Treatment
    • 1. Begin ESM
      • Perform a scene survey
    • 2. Perform a primary survey - ABC
    • 3. Ensure you evaluate the adequacy of respirations: rate, depth, skin color.
    • 4. If you suspect epiglottis do not inspect the airway ! Aggravating the epiglottis could be fatal.
    • 5. Place patient in a position of comfort that will help drainage
    • 6. Supplemental oxygen (humidified if possible).
    • 7. Update EMS