Respiratory Emergencies Medical First Responder St. John Ambulance 2006 TITLE SLIDE Insert your information directly into ...
Objectives <ul><li>Become familiar with the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with the mechanism of bre...
Objectives <ul><li>Define asthma and its mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Assess and manage an asthma patient </li></ul><ul><li...
Anatomy of the Airway
Physiology <ul><li>O 2  in atmosphere at 21%, body uses only 5% </li></ul><ul><li>inspiration is an active process </li></...
Hypoxia <ul><li>Definition  - inadequate oxygen supply to cells </li></ul><ul><li>caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outside...
Hypoxia – Signs <ul><li>shortness of breath, increased respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><li>impaired judgment / motor coordi...
Hypoxia – Symptoms <ul><li>headache </li></ul><ul><li>weakness/fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>loss of memory </li></ul><ul><li>...
Asthma <ul><li>A reactive airway disease causing bronchioles to constrict and widespread mucous production within the bron...
Asthma – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>wheezing on expiration </li></ul><ul><li>continuous coughing...
Asthma – Treatments <ul><li>primary survey </li></ul><ul><li>administer 100% oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>assist ventilations ...
Hyperventilation – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>anxiety  </li></ul><ul><li>rapid, deep respiration </li></ul><ul><li>tightne...
Hyperventilation – Treatment <ul><li>Perform primary survey </li></ul><ul><li>Give oxygen until assessment is complete </l...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) <ul><li>Chronic bronchitis  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic inflammation of the...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  -  Signs and Symptoms A productive cough for at least 3 months for 2 consecutive ye...
Emphysema – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>gasping for air </li></ul><ul><li>sitting; leaning forward to breathe </li></ul><ul...
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease- Treatment <ul><li>primary survey and secure ABCs </li></ul><ul><li>administer oxyge...
<ul><li>Remember  - where </li></ul><ul><li>COPD is present with any other condition … </li></ul><ul><li>the patient must ...
Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>sudden blockage of blood flow through a pulmonary artery </li></ul><ul><li>caused by blood clot...
Pulmonary Embolism – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>sudden onset of unexplained dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>stabbing chest pain ...
Managing - Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>maintain open airway </li></ul><ul><li>initiate positive pressure ventilation </li><...
Epiglottitis – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>fever  </li></ul><ul><li>painful swallowing that l...
Epiglottitis – Treatment <ul><li>1. Begin ESM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform a scene survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Perfo...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

respiration

679
-1

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
679
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
19
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

respiration

  1. 1. Respiratory Emergencies Medical First Responder St. John Ambulance 2006 TITLE SLIDE Insert your information directly into the text boxes provided to customize your presentation
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Become familiar with the respiratory system </li></ul><ul><li>Become familiar with the mechanism of breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize respiratory emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Define chronic bronchitis and understand its mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Define emphysema and understand its mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>List the signs and symptoms of COPD </li></ul><ul><li>Assess and manage a COPD patient </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives <ul><li>Define asthma and its mechanism </li></ul><ul><li>Assess and manage an asthma patient </li></ul><ul><li>Define and understand croup </li></ul><ul><li>Assess and manage a croup patient </li></ul><ul><li>Define and understand epiglottitis </li></ul><ul><li>Assess and manage an epiglottitis patient </li></ul><ul><li>Define and understand hyperventilation syndrome </li></ul><ul><li>Assess and manage a hyperventilation patient </li></ul>
  4. 4. Anatomy of the Airway
  5. 5. Physiology <ul><li>O 2 in atmosphere at 21%, body uses only 5% </li></ul><ul><li>inspiration is an active process </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen is transferred to cells at the capillary level </li></ul><ul><li>without oxygen cells will die and organs shut down </li></ul><ul><li>brain begins to die within 4-6 minutes </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hypoxia <ul><li>Definition - inadequate oxygen supply to cells </li></ul><ul><li>caused by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outside atmosphere oxygen is decreased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>airway or lung tissue is obstructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>blood does not carry enough oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pump failure - heart is not pumping blood </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hypoxia – Signs <ul><li>shortness of breath, increased respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><li>impaired judgment / motor coordination </li></ul><ul><li>irritability or excitability </li></ul><ul><li>increased pulse (adult), decreased (child) </li></ul><ul><li>pale or cyanosed skin colour </li></ul><ul><li>vomiting, unresponsiveness, </li></ul><ul><li>convulsions and seizures </li></ul>
  8. 8. Hypoxia – Symptoms <ul><li>headache </li></ul><ul><li>weakness/fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>loss of memory </li></ul><ul><li>nausea </li></ul>
  9. 9. Asthma <ul><li>A reactive airway disease causing bronchioles to constrict and widespread mucous production within the bronchial tree </li></ul><ul><li>Triggers may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>foods, medications, cold air, flowers, perfumes, exercise, smoke, anxiety </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Asthma – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>wheezing on expiration </li></ul><ul><li>continuous coughing </li></ul><ul><li>chest over-inflated </li></ul><ul><li>increased pulse rate </li></ul><ul><li>pursed lips </li></ul><ul><li>sitting upright or standing </li></ul>
  11. 11. Asthma – Treatments <ul><li>primary survey </li></ul><ul><li>administer 100% oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>assist ventilations if needed </li></ul><ul><li>position patient for comfort </li></ul><ul><li>if known, make sure trigger is removed </li></ul><ul><li>auscultate the chest </li></ul><ul><li>if wheezes present ask if meds (puffers) are available </li></ul><ul><li>EMS transport asap </li></ul>
  12. 12. Hyperventilation – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>rapid, deep respiration </li></ul><ul><li>tightness in chest </li></ul><ul><li>tingling and spasms in hands and feet </li></ul><ul><li>light headedness </li></ul><ul><li>very pink, warm, dry </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hyperventilation – Treatment <ul><li>Perform primary survey </li></ul><ul><li>Give oxygen until assessment is complete </li></ul><ul><li>Rule out diabetes, shock, head injury </li></ul><ul><li>Verbally control patient’s respiratory rate </li></ul><ul><li>Cut back oxygen flow rate </li></ul>
  14. 14. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) <ul><li>Chronic bronchitis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic inflammation of the bronchi with mucous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphysema </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The loss of elasticity and the destruction of the aveolar walls </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease - Signs and Symptoms A productive cough for at least 3 months for 2 consecutive years <ul><li>usually overweight </li></ul><ul><li>bluish complexion </li></ul><ul><li>accessory muscle use </li></ul><ul><li>shortness of breath on exertion </li></ul><ul><li>history of heavy smoking </li></ul><ul><li>high pitched wheeze on inspiration and expiration with auscultation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Emphysema – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>gasping for air </li></ul><ul><li>sitting; leaning forward to breathe </li></ul><ul><li>distended neck veins </li></ul><ul><li>audible rattles or wheezes cyanosis </li></ul><ul><li>prolonged exhalation with pursed lips </li></ul><ul><li>skinny </li></ul><ul><li>barrel shaped chest </li></ul><ul><li>cough </li></ul>
  17. 17. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease- Treatment <ul><li>primary survey and secure ABCs </li></ul><ul><li>administer oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>position patient </li></ul><ul><li>vitals and history </li></ul><ul><li>medications? - Ventolin </li></ul><ul><li>if shortness of breath only </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALERT = 28% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VERBAL = 50% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>painfully responsive or cyanotic = 90 - 100% </li></ul><ul><li>unresponsive = 90 - 100% </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Remember - where </li></ul><ul><li>COPD is present with any other condition … </li></ul><ul><li>the patient must have the acute problem treated first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. heart attack = 100 % oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Watch for respiratory depression. </li></ul>Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease- Treatment
  19. 19. Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>sudden blockage of blood flow through a pulmonary artery </li></ul><ul><li>caused by blood clots, air bubble, fat particles </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen reaches areas of lungs with reduced, or no blood flow </li></ul><ul><li>severity relates to the size of the artery with the embolism </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pulmonary Embolism – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>sudden onset of unexplained dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>stabbing chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>difficulty breathing / respiratory distress </li></ul><ul><li>increased breathing and heart rates </li></ul><ul><li>syncope (fainting) </li></ul><ul><li>cool, moist skin </li></ul><ul><li>decreased blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>cyanosis and distended neck veins </li></ul>
  21. 21. Managing - Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>maintain open airway </li></ul><ul><li>initiate positive pressure ventilation </li></ul><ul><li>oxygen delivered by non-rebreather mask </li></ul><ul><li>monitor closely for respiratory arrest </li></ul><ul><li>get medical help and transport immediately </li></ul>
  22. 22. Epiglottitis – Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>sore throat </li></ul><ul><li>fever </li></ul><ul><li>painful swallowing that leads to drooling are common things to look for. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients are most commonly sitting bolt upright with a fast pulse and may be disoriented </li></ul>
  23. 23. Epiglottitis – Treatment <ul><li>1. Begin ESM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perform a scene survey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Perform a primary survey - ABC </li></ul><ul><li>3. Ensure you evaluate the adequacy of respirations: rate, depth, skin color. </li></ul><ul><li>4. If you suspect epiglottis do not inspect the airway ! Aggravating the epiglottis could be fatal. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Place patient in a position of comfort that will help drainage </li></ul><ul><li>6. Supplemental oxygen (humidified if possible). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Update EMS </li></ul>
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×