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  • 1. Organization Behavior
  • 2. Organization Behavior- Introductory Perspective • • • • • • • • • Organization Behavior- A field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structures have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organizations effectiveness. Processes of Study Differences and fundamental consistencies Systematic Study vs. Intuition Preconceived Notion vs. Substantive Evidence Contributing Disciplines Psychology- Science attempting to measure, explain and change behavior- learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, needs and motivational forces, job satisfaction, decision making processes, appraisals, attitude measurements, selection techniques, work design, stress Sociology- Study of people in relation to their fellow beings- group behavior, group dynamics, work structure ,organization structure, team designs , power and conflict Anthropology- Study of societies to learn about human beings and their activitiesOrganization culture, environment
  • 3. Organization Behavior- Introductory Perspective • Frame Work for Study • • Few simple or universal principles Reflects situational or contingency conditions- Relationship of dependency subject to contingency variables- Situational factors variables that moderate the relationship between two or more other variables. • Challenges and Opportunities for OB • • • • • • • • Responding to globalization Managing Work force diversity Improving Quality and Productivity Improving people skills Empowering people Coping with temporariness Stimulating innovation and change Improving Ethical Behavior
  • 4. Organization Behavior-Introductory Perspective • Dependant Variable • Key factors that need to be explained or predicted that are affected by some other factors- Productivity, absenteeism, turnover, job satisfaction and organization citizenship • Independent Variable • Presumed cause of some change in the dependant variable Individual level variables – characterizes individual level uniqueness – perception, individual decision making, learning, learning and motivation besides ability, values, attitudes, personality and emotions Group Level Variables- characterizes group level uniqueness Organization Systems level variablescharacterizes the impact of superimposition of structure on individual and group behavior. • • • Basic OB Model, Stage - 1 Organization system level Group Level Individual Level
  • 5. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Biographic Characteristics • • • • Age Gender Marital Status Tenure
  • 6. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Biographical Characteristics Age • • • • • • • • • Eriksson's Eight Ages of Man Stage1- Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust Stage2- Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Stage3- Initiative vs. Guilt Industry vs. Inferiority Identity vs. Role Confusion Intimacy vs. Isolation Generativity vs. Stagnation Ego Integrity vs. Despair • Stages of Adult Life- Daniel Levinson • • • • Pre Adult hood- Childhood, Adolescence and early adult transition Early Adulthood- Age 17-45 Middle Adulthood- Period of most apparent change- Age 40-60 Late Adulthood- Coping physical and intellectual decline – Age 65- • Adult Stages- Gail Sheehy • • • • • Late Teens- Pulling up roots The Twenties- Trying twenties The Early Thirties- Catch 30 The late thirties and mid forties- Deadline Decade The mid forties to fifties- Renewal or Resignation
  • 7. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Biographical Characteristics Gender • Carol Gilligan- Gender differences were not given serious consideration • • Men and Women view their moral orientation and development process differently Stages of Development • • • • • • • Separation from mother- Individuation Autonomy The male- female difference Male opposites-ego boundaries/ Female children separation and individuation is slow Female experience less differentiation- hence connected to external world and men to internal world Hence females can demonstrate more empathy- experience needs of others Males and females experience relationships and dependency differently- masculinity is defined through separation and feminity through attachment Evidenced in children games Males- play outdoors, large groups wide age range, games emphasize competition , quarrel more often, play with enemies Females- indoor games, smaller groups narrow age range, games emphasize relationships, disputes often end games, play mostly with friends in intimate groups. • • •
  • 8. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Ability • • • Intellectual Ability Physical Ability Ability- Job fit
  • 9. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Ability- Intellectual Ability • • Intellectual Ability- IQ/ Other Scholastic tests Dimensions Number Aptitude Verbal comprehension Perceptual Speed Inductive Reasoning Deductive Reasoning Spatial Visualization Memory Descriptions Examples
  • 10. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Ability- Physical Ability • • • • • • • • • • • Physical Ability Nine Physical Abilities Dynamic Strength- Ability to exert muscular force repeatedly or continually over time Trunk Strength- Ability to exert muscular strength using trunk muscles Static Strengh- Ability to exert force against external objects Explosive Strength- Ability to expend a maximum of energy in a single/ series bursts Extent Flexibility- Ability to move trunk and back muscles as far as possible Dynamic Flexibility Body Coordination Balance Stamina
  • 11. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Learning • Learning- Def- Any relative permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Learning therefore takes place if an individual behaves, reacts, responds as a result of an experience in a manner different from the way he formerly behaved. • Learning has several components • • • • Learning involves change Change must be relatively permanent Learning involves change in actions Some form of experience is necessary- leading to permanent change in behavior.
  • 12. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Learning • Theories of Learning • • • Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning
  • 13. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Learning • Classical Conditioning-A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not produce such a response • Pavlov’s experiment • Unconditioned Stimulus- Unconditioned Response • Conditioned Stimulus- Conditioned Response • Steps- 1. Building an association between an unconditioned/conditioned stimulus.2. Make the conditioned or neutral stimulus unconditional • Limitations • • Passive- Explain simple reflexive behavior Behavior in organizations is complex it is displayed or emitted rather than elicited or extracted.
  • 14. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Learning • Operant Conditioning- A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to reward or prevents punishment. • Skinner- Behaviorist School • • • • • • Behavior is a function of its consequences- Operant Behavior Voluntary or Learnt Behavior Repetition of the behavior is influenced by reinforcement- reward Lack of reinforcement- Punishment linked to the consequence of behavior Assumption- All behavior is externally determined Hence the immediacy of reward/recognition and punishment/ reprimand
  • 15. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Learning • Social Learning- Learning through observation and direct experience • Assumption- Behavior is a function of consequences as well as observation, models, perceptions and definition of consequences. • Models and Processes • • • • Attentional Processes- Recognition and Attention to its key features- Attractive, Replicability, Importance Retention Process- Recollection of the model when not readily available Reproduction Process- Individuals ability to perform the modeled activities Reinforcement Processes- The kind and surety level of the reinforcement mechanism.
  • 16. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Learning • Locus of Control- Julian Rotter- Social Learning • Behavior is linked to outcome and value of outcome and is contingent to ones belief that ones actions directly affects outcome- Locus of Control. • Locus of Control- Ways in which individuals attribute responsibility for events to factors within themselves and outside themselves. • The outlook will determine our perception of reward and reinforcements • Attribution of Responsibility- defines contingency relationships between actions and outcome- To themselves abilities, efforts( Internal Locus of Control oriented) , Outside them and Others, fate , luck, other influential people( External Locus of Control Oriented)
  • 17. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Learning • Development of Locus of Control • • • Social Discrimination Prolonged Incapacitating Disability Parental Child Rearing Practices • Job Behavior of Internal/ External Control Locus • Changing Locus of Control • • • • Desire to change Clarity about direction of desired change Clear idea of present condition Knowledge of process and mechanism of change. Internal LOC External LOC Better care of equipment, higher tolerance, cooperative, self reliant, knowledge Unrealistic aspirations. Less able to cope with reality More focused and clear Unsure of needs and of career. Values devalues development development training training Rely more on persuasive power Adopts change and innovations Use coercive power and threat Resistant to change and innovation Pick superior or equal ability people to partner tasks Pick partners of inferior ability and hold personal control
  • 18. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Learning • Shaping Behavior- A process of systematically reinforcing each successive step that • • moves an individual closer to the desired response. Methods of Shaping Behavior Reinforcement • • • Produce desired change in behavior Organization Reinforcement processes Timing of reinforcement and speed of learning • Types of Reinforcement • • Continuous Intermittent • • Fixed interval/ Variable Interval Schedule Fixed- Ratio/ Variable Ratio Schedule • • Reinforcement Schedule and Behavior Behavior Modification- Identify critical behavior/ Develop Base line data/ Identify Behavioral consequences/ Develop& Implement an Intervention Strategy/Evaluate Performance Improvement.
  • 19. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values
  • 20. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values Types of Values –RokeachValue Survey Types of Values –RokeachValue Survey
  • 21. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values Values in the Values in the Rokeach Rokeach Survey Survey
  • 22. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values Values in the Values in the Rokeach Rokeach Survey Survey (cont’d) (cont’d)
  • 23. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values Values Mean Value Rankings of Mean Value Rankings of Executives &Union Executives &Union Members Members
  • 24. Organization BehaviorIndividual Behavior Values Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders Ethical Climate in Ethical Climate in the Organization the Organization
  • 25. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Cultures
  • 26. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
  • 27. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
  • 28. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values
  • 29. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)
  • 30. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Values ••Assertiveness Assertiveness ••Future Orientation Future Orientation ••Gender differentiation Gender differentiation ••Uncertainty avoidance Uncertainty avoidance ••Power distance Power distance ••Individual/collectivism Individual/collectivism ••In-group collectivism In-group collectivism ••Power orientation Power orientation ••Humane orientation Humane orientation The GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures
  • 31. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Attitudes Attitudes Attitudes
  • 32. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Attitudes Types of Attitudes Types of Attitudes
  • 33. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Attitudes Cognitive Dissonance- Leon Festinger The Desire to reduce dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance • •Importance of elements creating dissonance Importance of elements creating dissonance • •Degree of individual influence over elements Degree of individual influence over elements • •Rewards involved in dissonance Rewards involved in dissonance
  • 34. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Attitudes Measuring Attitude & Behavior Relationship • Recent research indicates that attitudes significantly predict behavior when moderating variables are taken into account Moderating Variables Importance of Attitude Specificity of the Attitude Accessibility of Attitude Social pressures on person Direct experience with the attitude
  • 35. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Attitudes • Self Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense of an action already occurred
  • 36. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction • Measuring Job Satisfaction – – Single global rating Summation score • How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? – Job satisfaction declined – Decline attributed to: • Pressures to increase productivity • Less control over work
  • 37. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Job Satisfaction The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance • Satisfaction and Productivity – Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive. – Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers. • Satisfaction and Absenteeism – Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. • Satisfaction and Turnover – Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. – Organizations take actions to cultivate high performers and to weed out lower performers
  • 38. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Job Satisfaction Responses to Job to Job Dissatisfaction Responses Satisfaction
  • 39. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Job Satisfaction How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction How Employees Can ExpressDissatisfaction How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction
  • 40. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction and OCB • Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) – Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job.
  • 41. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Personality& Emotions • Personality- Definition- The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. • Determinants of Personality • • • Heredity Environment Situation • Trait Theory- Enduring Characteristics that describe an individuals behavior • Jung- Typologies and Myers – Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) • • • • • Extroverted- Introverted (E or I) Sensing- Intuitive ( S or N) Thinking – Feeling ( T or F) Perceiving- Judging ( P or J) 16 Personality Types
  • 42. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Personality & Emotions • The 5 Factor Model • • • • • • Extraversion- A personality dimension measuring sociability, gregariousness, assertion Agreeableness- Dimension measuring nature, cooperation and trust. Conscientiousness- Dimension measuring responsibility, dependability, persistence and organized ness Emotional Stability- Dimension measuring calmness, self-confidence and secureness Openness to experience- Dimension Measuring imaginativeness, artistic bent, sensitivity and intellectualism. Research Data demonstrated connectivity between factors and job performance. • Personality Attributes and Organization Behavior • • • • Locus of Control Machiavellianism Self Esteem/ Self Monitoring and Risk Taking Type A and Type B Personality.
  • 43. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Personality and Emotions • Locus of Control- The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. • • • Internals- Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. Externals- Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance Who do you think will perform better. • Machiavellianism ( Mach)- Degree to which an individual is pragmatic maintains emotional distance and believes that ends can justify means. • Are High Mach's necessarily better. • Self Esteem- Individuals degree of liking or disliking self • Are High Self Esteems necessarily better • Self Monitoring- Measures an individuals ability to adjust behavior to external situational factors- What does it imply for performance • Risk Taking- Are there any implications for decision making
  • 44. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Personality& Emotions • Type A Personality- Aggressive, always in a incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or people. • • • • • Always moving, walking, eating rapidly Feel impatient with the rate at which things take place Strive to do two or more things at a time Cannot cope with leisure time Are obsessed with numbers- looking at how much or how many all the time • Type B Personality • • • • Never suffer from a sense of urgency with its accompanying impatience Feels no need to display or discuss their achievements or accomplishments unless demanded Play for fun and relaxation rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost Can relax without guilt • Who do you think finally makes it big.
  • 45. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Job Satisfaction • Achieving Personality and Job Fit • Personality and Job Fit • Holland's Theory( JL Holland) Do a net search and write a paper on it. (5 to 7 pages) • Person Organization Fit- Using the 5 Personality Types write a paper 500 words on types of organizations( Values & Cultures) where they would fit.
  • 46. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Personality& Emotions • Emotions till recently did not receive much attention within OB • • Myth of Rationality Emotions are disruptive • Emotions- Intense feelings that are experienced by an individual triggered by an experience and could be directed at something or someone including self. • Emotions could be felt emotions and displayed emotions • Varieties of Emotion Happiness Surprise Fear Sadness •External Determinants Organizational Influences and Cultural Influences Anger Disgust
  • 47. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Personality& Emotions • Applications in Organization Behavior • • • • • • • • • • • Ability and Selection- Demonstrate Emotional Intelligence Self Awareness- Ability to be aware of ones feelings Self Management- Ability to manage ones emotions and impulses Self Motivation- Ability to persist in the face of setbacks and failures Empathy- Ability to sense others feelings Social Skills- Ability to handle emotions of others. Decision Making Motivation Leadership Interpersonal Conflict Handle Deviant Work Place Behavior.
  • 48. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Perception • Perception – Process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions to give meaning to their environment. • • • • • • Behavior is based on perceived reality rather than reality itself. What causes differences in perception – Perceiver/ Target/ Situation- Characteristics Perception about people We make inferences- Significantly interlaced by assumptions on the individual Attribution Theory attempts an explanation- Internally/ Externally Caused Distinctiveness/ Consensus/ Consistency Distinctiveness Individual Behavior High Low Consensus High Low Consistency High Low
  • 49. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Perception • Attribution Errors • • • • • • • Fundamental Error- Underestimate influence of external factors Self Serving Bias- Attribute success to internal / failure to external Short- Cuts and Pitfalls Selective Perception/ Halo Effect Contrast Effects- Comparative Perceptions Projection Stereo Typing • Applications • • • • Interviews Performance Expectations and Performance Evaluation Self Fulfilling Prophecy/ Pygmalion Effect Employee Effort/ Loyalty
  • 50. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Decision Making • Decision - The choices made from among two or more alternatives. • Problem- A discrepancy between some current state of affairs and a desired state • Rational- Refers to choices that are consistent and value maximising. Does Perception Play a Role
  • 51. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Decision Making • Decision Making- Rational Decision Making Process- A decision making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome. • Steps • • • • • • • • • Define the Problem Identify the decision criteria Allocate weights to the criteria Develop the alternatives Evaluate the alternatives Select the best alternative. Assumptions Problem Clarity/ Known Options/ Clear Preferences Constant Preferences/ No time or cost constraints/ Maximum Payoff
  • 52. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Decision Making • Enriching a decision- Creativity- The ability to produce novel and useful ideas. Expertise Creativity Skills Creativity Task Motivation
  • 53. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Decision Making • Organization - Decision Making Processes • Bounded Rationality- Making a decision by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing their entire complexity. Satisficing Vs Optimum • Intuition- An unconscious process created out of distilled experience • High level of uncertainty • Little precedence to draw from • Variables are less predictable • Facts are limited • Facts don’t point the way • Analytical Data of little use • Limited Time
  • 54. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Decision Making Directive- fast Short term Tolerance for Ambiguity Decision Style Model High Analytic Conceptual Analytic- Careful ability to Cope Conceptual- long Range creative Directive Behavioral Low Rational Way of Thinking Intuitive BehavioralParticipatory Non conflict.
  • 55. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Decision Making • Decision Making Techniques •SWOT Analysis •Analytic Hierarchy Process •Buyer Decision Process •Complex Systems •Finance Lead • Investment • Dividend • Working Capital •Paired Comparison •Pareto Analysis •Cost Benefit Analysis •Decision Trees PERT CPM Critical Chain •Force Field Analysis •Grid Analysis •Kepner Tregoe •Optimization Techniques
  • 56. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • DEFINING MOTIVATION • Motivation is to inspire people to work, individually or in groups in the ways such as to produce best results. It is the will to act. It is the willingness to exert high levels of effort towards organizational goals, conditioned by the efforts and ability to satisfy some individual need. • Motivation is getting somebody to do something because they want to do it. It was once assumed that motivation had to be injected from outside, but it is now understood that everyone is motivated by several differing forces. • Motivation is a general term applied to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. To say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do those things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner. • To motivate others is the most important of management tasks. It comprises the abilities to communicate, to set an example, to challenge, to encourage, to obtain feedback, to involve, to delegate, to develop and train, to inform, to brief and to provide a just reward.
  • 57. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Motivation- Definition The processes that account for an individuals intensity, direction and persistence of efforts towards attaining a goal.
  • 58. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Types of Motivation • • 1) Achievement Motivation It is the drive to pursue and attain goals. An individual with achievement motivation wishes to achieve objectives and advance up on the ladder of success. Here, accomplishment is important for its own shake and not for the rewards that accompany it. It is similar to ‘Kaizen’ approach of Japanese Management. • • (2) Affiliation Motivation It is a drive to relate to people on a social basis. Persons with affiliation motivation perform work better when they are complimented for their favorable attitudes and co-operation. • • (3) Competence Motivation It is the drive to be good at something, allowing the individual to perform high quality work. Competence motivated people seek job mastery, take pride in developing and using their problem-solving skills and strive to be creative when confronted with obstacles. They learn from their experience.
  • 59. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Types of Motivation - Contd • (4) Power Motivation It is the drive to influence people and change situations. Power motivated people wish to create an impact on their organization and are willing to take risks to do so. • (5) Attitude Motivation Attitude motivation is how people think and feel. It is their self confidence, their belief in themselves, their attitude to life. It is how they feel about the future and how they react to the past. • • • 6) Incentive Motivation It is where a person or a team reaps a reward from an activity. It is “You do this and you get that”, attitude. It is the types of awards and prizes that drive people to work a little harder. (7) Fear Motivation Fear motivation coercions a person to act against will. It is instantaneous and gets the job done quickly. It is helpful in the short run.
  • 60. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Theories Of Motivation • Contribution of Robert Owen : • Though Owen is considered to be paternalistic in his view, his contribution is of a considerable significance in the theories of Motivation. • During the early years of the nineteenth century, Owens's textile mill at New Lanark in Scotland was the scene of some novel ways of treating people. • His view was that people were similar to machines. A machine that is looked after properly, cared for and maintained well, performs efficiently, reliably and lastingly, similarly people are likely to be more efficient if they are taken care of. • Robert Owen practiced what he preached and introduced such things as employee housing and company shop. His ideas on this and other matters were considered to be too revolutionary for that time.
  • 61. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Theories Of Motivation • Jeremy Bent ham's “The Carrot and the Stick Approach • Developed in the early years of the Industrial Revolution, around 1800. Bent ham's view was that all people are self-interested and are motivated by the desire to avoid pain and find pleasure. Any worker will work only if the reward is big enough, or the punishment sufficiently unpleasant. • The carrot and the stick metaphor relates, to the use of rewards and penalties in order to induce desired behavior. It comes from the old story that to make a donkey move, one must put a carrot in front of him or dab him with a stick from behind. Despite all the research on the theories of motivation, reward and punishment are still considered strong motivators. In all theories of motivation, the inducements of some kind of ‘carrot’ are recognized. Often this is money in the form of pay or bonuses. Even though money is not the only motivating force, it has been and will continue to be an important one. • The ‘stick’, in the form of fear–fear of loss of job, loss of income, reduction of bonus, demotion, or some other penalty–has been and continues to be a strong motivator. Yet it is admittedly not the best kind. But fear of penalty cannot be overlooked, the power of position to give or with hold rewards or impose penalties of various kinds gives an ability to control, to a very great extent, the economic and social well-being of subordinates
  • 62. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation Theories Of Motivation • Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy Theory” : • Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator. • As per his theory this needs are : • • (i) Physiological needs : These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslow was of an opinion that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivating factors can work. • • (ii) Security or Safety needs : These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter. It also includes protection against any emotional harm.
  • 63. • Maslow’s Theory of Need Hierarchy- Contd. • • (iii) Social needs : Since people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship. • • (iv) Esteem needs : Once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige status and self-confidence. It includes both internal esteem factors like self-respect, autonomy and achievements and external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention. • • (v) Need for self-actualization : The highest need in his hierarchy is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming, it includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. It is to maximize one’s potential and to accomplish something.
  • 64. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation Lower Order Needs Physiological Self Actualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological Safety Higher Order Needs Social Esteem Self Actualization Maslow’s Theory has popular acceptance but no research validity
  • 65. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • “Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor : • McGregor, in his book “The Human side of Enterprise” states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y. After viewing the way in which the manager dealt with employees, McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mould his or her behavior towards subordinates according to these assumptions. • • • Under the assumptions of theory X : Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt to avoid it. Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve goals. Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are issued. Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors and display little ambition. : • •
  • 66. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Theory X and Theory Y Contd. • Under the assumptions of theory Y : • • • Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. People do exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to those goals. Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization. That the way the things are organized, the average human being’s brain power is only partly used. • • • • Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that is run on Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word “authoritarian” suggests such ideas as the “power to enforce obedience” and the “right to command.” ITheory Y organizations can be described as “participative”, where the aims of the organization and of the individuals in it are integrated; individuals can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization. However, this theory has been criticized widely for generalization of work and human behavior
  • 67. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation Rensis Likert : Four Systems • Likert developed a refined classification, breaking down organizations into four management systems. • 1st System – Primitive authoritarian 2nd System – Benevolent authoritarian 3rd System – Consultative 4th System – Participative • As per the opinion of Likert, the 4th system is the best, not only for profit organizations, but also for nonprofit firms.
  • 68. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Frederick Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene- Two factor- Theory • Frederick tried to modify Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory. • There are certain satisfiers and dissatisfiers for employees at work. • Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. • He devised his theory on the question : “What do people want from their jobs ?” He asked people to describe in detail, such situations when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad. From the responses that he received, he concluded that opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their nonpresence leads to demotivation. • In similar manner there are certain factors, the absence of which causes no dissatisfaction, but their presence has motivational impact
  • 69. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation Traditional View Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg’s View Motivators No Satisfaction Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No dissatisfaction • • • • Dissatisfaction Examples of Hygiene factors are : Security, status, relationship with subordinates, personal life, salary, work conditions, relationship with supervisor and company policy and administration. Examples of Motivational factors are : Growth prospectus job advancement, responsibility, challenges, recognition and achievements
  • 70. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Theories of Motivation • • • Contributions of Elton Mayo : The work of Elton Mayo is famously known as “Hawthorne Experiments.” Conducted behavioral experiments at the Hawthorne Works of the American Western Electric Company in Chicago. Illumination experiments, introduced breaks in between the work performance and also introduced refreshments during the pauses • • Motivation was a very complex subject. It was not only about pay, work condition and morale but also included psychological and social factors. This research has been criticized from many angles, the central conclusions drawn were : • • • People are motivated by more than pay and conditions. The need for recognition and a sense of belonging are very important. Attitudes towards work are strongly influenced by the group.
  • 71. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Vroom’s Valence x Expectancy theory : • The most widely accepted explanations of motivation has been propounded by Victor Vroom commonly known as expectancy theory. Strength of a tendency to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual . Expectancy theory says that an employee can be motivated to perform better when their is a belief that the better performance will lead to good performance appraisal and that this shall result into realization of personal goal in form of some reward. • • • • • • • • Motivation = Valence x Expectancy. The theory focuses on three things : Efforts and performance relationship Performance and reward relationship Rewards and personal goal relationship
  • 72. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Expectancy Theory- Contd. • In Conclusion Valence* Expectancy Motivation Action Results Satisfaction in form of Rewards
  • 73. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • The Porter and Lawler Model : • . A more complete version of motivation depending upon expectancy theory Performance is Determined by - Effort Spent - Ability - Task perception Performance leads to rewards - Intrinsic - Extrinsic Equity and fairness of rewards is the determinant of satisfaction
  • 74. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Theories of Motivation – contd. • Clayton Alderfer’s ERG Theory : • Alderfer has tried to rebuild the hierarchy of needs of Maslow into another model named ERG i.e. Existence – Relatedness – Growth. • The existence group is concerned mainly with providing basic material existence. The second group is the individuals need to maintain interpersonal relationship with other members in the group. The final group is the intrinsic desire to grow and develop personally. • • • • The major conclusions of this theory are : In an individual, more than one need may be operative at the same time. If a higher need goes unsatisfied than the desire to satisfy a lower need intensifies. It also contains the frustration-regression dimension.
  • 75. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Theories of Motivation- Contd. • McClelland’s Theory of Needs : • • • • David McClelland has developed a theory on three types of motivating needs : Need for Power Need for Affiliation Need for Achievement • Basically people for high need for power are inclined towards influence and control motivated to perform if they are given key positions or power positions. Second category are the people who are social in nature. They try to affiliate themselves with individuals and social recognition and affiliation with others provides them motivation. Third category are driven by the challenge of success and the fear of failure. Their need for achievement is primary and they set for themselves realistic targets and are motivated to perform when they see realistic chances of success. • • • McClelland observed that with the advancement in hierarchy the need for power and achievement increased rather than Affiliation.
  • 76. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Equity Theory - J. Stacey Adams • People are motivated by their beliefs about the reward structure as being fair or unfair, relative to the inputs. • People use judgment to balance the outcomes and inputs in the relationship for comparison Outcome of A -----------------------Input of A = Outcome of B ----------------------Input of B Reward not equitable Situation of Balance or Imbalance Reward equitable Reward more than equitable and fair
  • 77. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Reinforcement Theory : • B.F. Skinner, holds that by designing the environment properly, individuals can be motivated. • Instead of considering internal factors like impressions, feelings, attitudes and other cognitive behavior, individuals are directed by what happens in the environment external to them. • Skinner states that work environment should be made suitable to the individuals • Punishments actually leads to frustration and de-motivation. • The only way to motivate is to keep on making positive changes in the environment of the organization
  • 78. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Theories of Motivation- contd. • Goal Setting Theory of Edwin Locke • • • • : Instead of giving vague tasks to people, specific and pronounced objectives, help in achieving them faster. As the clarity is high, a goal orientation also avoids any misunderstandings in the work of the employees. The goal setting theory states that when the goals to be achieved are set at a higher standard than in that case employees are motivated to perform better and put in maximum effort. It revolves around the concept of “Self-efficacy” i.e. individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a hard task.
  • 79. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Cognitive Evaluation Theory :   • Shift from external rewards to internal rewards results into motivation. • Even after the stoppage of external stimulus, internal stimulus survives. It relates to the pay structure in the organization. Instead of treating external factors like pay, incentives, promotion etc and internal factors like interests, drives, responsibility etc, separately, they should be treated as contemporary to each other. • The cognition is to be such that even when external motivators are not there the internal motivation continues.
  • 80. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, difference. And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day! Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I-I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the -- Robert Frost
  • 81. Organization Behavior- Individual Behavior Motivation • Can you think of some motivation issues with you • Spend some time reflect and write a 500 word letter to yourself .
  • 82. Organization Behavior- Group Behavior • Group : Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve particular objectives. • Types of Groups • Formal Group : A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure • Informal Group: A group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined but appears in response to the need for social contact. • Command Group: A group structured by a relationship of command and reporting relationship. • Task Group: A group working together to complete a task. • Interest Group: Group working together to attain a specific objective of concern to all members • Friendship Group : Group brought together by need to share and commonality of characteristics.
  • 83. Organization Behavior- Group Behavior • • • • • • • Why do people join groups Security Status Self Esteem Affiliation Power Goal Achievment
  • 84. Organization Behavior- Group Behavior • • • • • • • • • • • Stages of Group Development Five Stages of Group Development Forming: Characterized by uncertainty Storming: Characterized by intragroup conflict Norming: Characterized by development of cohesiveness and relationships Performing: Characterized by fully functional stage of group. Adjourning : Characterizes temporary groups concern for activities completion and need to reorient identity. Limitations Assumes a linear process Assumes disfunctionality of conflicts Ignores context and situation
  • 85. Organization Behavior- Group Behavior c na mo r e P r f • Punctuated Equilibrium Model- Temporary Groups go through transitions between inertia and activity. • Set Group Direction • Inertia • Transition happens when approximately half the time is used up. • Transition brigs major changes • Second Phase of Inertia Punctuated Equilibrium Model • Accelerated Activity Time
  • 86. Organization Behavior- Group Behavior • • • • • • • • • • • • Analyzing Interactions in Groups Sociometry- Technique for studying group interaction Sociogram Social Networks Building Diversity Clusters Managing Conflict Prescribed Clusters Turnover Emergent Clusters Commitment Motivation Coalitions Cooperation Cliques Stars Bridges Isolates
  • 87. Organization Behavior- Group Behavior GROUP BEHAVIOR MODEL Grpup Task Member Resources External Conditions Group Processes Group Structure Performance Satisfaction
  • 88. Organization Behavior- Group Behavior • External Conditions • Work Groups are sub systems of a larger systemOrganization- and hence are influenced by external conditions • Conditions Imposed by the larger system- external• Organizations overall strategy- goals and means as well as resources • Authority Structures- Leadership/ Decisions/ Reporting Structure/ Positioning in Hierarchy • Formal Regulations- Rules, Processes, policies, job roles • Resources • Reward and Recognition Processes • Physical Work Setting