SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

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SociologyExchange.co.uk Shared Resource

  1. 1. The ruling class ‘rule also as thinkers, as producers of ideas’. These ideas justify their position, conceal the true source of their power and disguise their exploitation of the subject class.Gendered language is the theory that most language used in schools/textbooks etc is male focused – ‘he’, ‘him’, ‘his’….This downgrades women, thus maintaining male dominance in society. Some thinkers are concerned that the state have too much control over people’s lives, which has resulted in a lack of enterprise and initiative. They feel the education system should seek to restore this initiative. There is evidence of discrimination against girls in education. For example, when the 11-plus exam was introduced in the 1940s, the pass mark for boys was lower than for girls to ensure there was an equal balance of male to females in grammar schools.Louis Althusser argued that no class can hold power for long simply by using force. He believed if you could win over their hearts and minds, force would be unnecessary.Role Allocation is a key functionalist view. It suggests that schools sift, sort, assess and evaluate young people in terms of their talents and abilities in order to allocate them to the most suitable role in wider society. Some theories in the 1980s suggested the welfare system had resulted in a culture whereby people became dependent on state benefits. They suggest the education system should encourage people to take more responsibility for their own destiny. Talcott Parsons argues that school provide ‘secondary socialisation’. This means that they build on primary socialization provided by the family, by developing value consensus – so people agree about the values of society.School textbooks have tended to present males and females in traditional gender roles, for example women as mothers and housewives. This is particularly evident in textbooks from the 1960s and 1970s. Equality of opportunity – There is an equal chance for everybody which reflects the values of wider society. According to this theory Schools transmit an ideology which states that capitalism is just and reasonable, and they prepare pupils for their roles in the workforce. A H Halsey suggested that there is a direct link between a persons class and their educational attainment, suggesting the school system does not provide equality of opportunity. There is evidence that suggests the better and more equal the education system is, the more prosperous the economy is. The modern economies require specialised and highly skilled workforces, such as is now available in the education system through vocational education etcSome stereotypes have been presented within schools. For example in the 1960s and 1970s, reading schemes presented boys as more adventurous than boys and girls as more caring than boys. Bowles & Gintis claim schools, like wider society, are based on hierarchies so pupils get used to obeying teachers to prepare them for their future work roles.Durkheim argues that Society can only survive if people in society have ‘social solidarity’ ( unity ), which is based on people having essential similarities ( ie beliefs & values ). School develops these similarities and so binds society.The education system has adopted a system whereby they compete with other schools and are measured on their success. This policy was introduced in order to encourage improved performance.Industrial society requires the specialised division of labour – certain jobs need specific skills and knowledge eg plumbers, doctors etc. Industrialised society relies on education to provide the skills and knowledge required by the workforce. <br />Tasks:<br /><ul><li>Using your prior knowledge and p160-170, make a key for the different theories on education below and shade in the boxes to illustrate which theory each point relates to:
  2. 2. 4048125198755[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]00[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]2346960219872[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]00[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]503682017780[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]00[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]352742517780[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]00[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]201422014605[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]00[Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Drawing Tools tab to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.]Functionalist Perspectives ; Marxist Perspectives ; Feminist Perspectives ; Social Democratic Perspectives ; New Right Perspectives
  3. 3. Underline on your page. ALL the names of Sociologists which you can see
  4. 4. Identify which box you think most links to the recent government policy of cutting EMA payments
  5. 5. Write out a definition for each of the following key terms: Ruling Class; Gendered Language; Gender Discrimination; Role Allocation; Secondary Socialisation; Gender Roles; Gender Stereotypes; Social Solidarity;
  6. 6. Using this sheet and your textbook, complete the following 2 exam questions which have appeared in recent years
  7. 7. Suggest three ways in which Marxists see school as being similar to the world of work. (6 marks) JAN 2010
  8. 8. Using material from Item A and elsewhere, assess the claim that ‘the main function of education is to maintain a value consensus in society’ (Item A, lines 7 – 8). (20 marks) JUNE 2009

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