AS Sociology                                                           Education- Perspectives 1                    PERSPE...
AS Sociology                                                  Education- Perspectives 1      Schools treat individuals ac...
AS Sociology                                                  Education- Perspectives 1      The New Right view the purpo...
AS Sociology                                                 Education- Perspectives 1      This theory was proposed by t...
AS Sociology                                                  Education- Perspectives 1There are different branches of fem...
AS Sociology                                               Education- Perspectives 1Marxist/ socialist feminist      Wolp...
AS Sociology                                                       Education- Perspectives 1 Perspectives on EducationAcro...
AS Sociology                                                Education- Perspectives 1                         PRACTICE EXA...
AS Sociology                                                Education- Perspectives 1According to functionalists, the educ...
AS Sociology                                                Education- Perspectives 1Use the writing frame to help you res...
AS Sociology                                               Education- Perspectives 1______________________________________...
AS Sociology                                              Education- Perspectives 1Having looked at in detail how schools ...
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  1. 1. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1 PERSPECTIVES ON EDUCATIONFUNCTIONALISTEmile Durkheim (1961) Society can only survive if there exists amongst its members a sufficient degree of homogeneity; education perpetuates and reinforces this homogeneity by fixing in the child from the beginning the essential similarities which collective life demands Or to put it another way, the purpose of education is to create solidarity amongst pupils thus helping to contribute to consensus in society. Functionalists feel that society can not exist without norms and values being shared by everybody. The schools job is to instil these norms and values; in other words the school is the site of S_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ S_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.How do schools teach norms and values?Parsons A dominant sociologist in the 60’s added to Durkheims ideas. The school acts as a bridge between the family and the rest of society, by taking over as the focal point of socialisation. Parents treat children in terms of their individual needs and expectations this is known as particularistic standards. Wider society treats individuals in terms of everybody’s needs, and expectations of everybody behaviour; this is know as universalistic standards.1 KB06
  2. 2. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1 Schools treat individuals according to universalistic standards, thus preparing them for life in wider society. Within the family status is granted automatically, in schools and wider society status is achieved through meritocracy. This is the idea that those who have talent or work hard gain rewards e.g. good grades or status.Give examples of how meritocracy is promoted in schools. Because of the idea of meritocracy, functionalists see the education system as essentially fair; those that do not achieve are encouraged to blame themselves or their lack of effort. According to functionalism the education system enables social mobility.What is social mobility?How do schools facilitate social mobility? What are the children in the picture below doing? What functions does this serve for the individual and society?NEW RIGHT2 KB06
  3. 3. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1 The New Right view the purpose of education as similar to the functionalists. They to believe that education should socialise pupils into the norms and values of wider society. A meritocratic system is desirable, the system should be open to competitions in order to serve the needs of society and prepare individuals for the work place. In what ways is the education system open to competition? Unlike the functionalist writers, the New Right believe that the education system is not successful at fulfilling its roles. The reason for the systems failings is that it is run by the state therefore there is little competition, to this end they believe that private schools would be better.What would be the pros and cons of a private education system? Pros ConsMARXISTS3 KB06
  4. 4. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1 This theory was proposed by the neo-Marxists Bowles and Gintis as a backlash to functionalism. This was very influential during the 1970’s especially in terms of policy. According to Bowles and Gintis the most important purpose of the education system is to create a ‘passive and uncritical yet skilled work force’. Education is as much about the way the school is organised and how we learn to accept our place in the hierarchy as it is about the work related skills we learn. The informal curriculum i.e. that which is not formerly taught, is a miniature version of the work place; through this social order is gained and maintained. Bowles and Gintis call this the hidden curriculum.Read the statements below; tick the type of education which is beingdelivered (formal or informal); give reasons for you choice.Statement Formal Informal ReasonWearing school uniformDoing maths homework.Calling teachers ‘miss’ or‘sir’Staying for schooldinnersForm period/ tutorgroup timeLook at this picture. How would Marxists see the daily ritual of ‘pledging’?FEMINISTS4 KB06
  5. 5. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1There are different branches of feminism each viewing the role of educationdifferently. As with Marxism, feminism is a conflict perspective therefore theycan be very critical of the role of education. For each of the following fill in the missing words. Liberal feminism  In the past education has been about teaching girls to be housewives and boys that they have power over women. However, campaigns by liberal feminist have been very influential in changing ___________ on education. During the 1920’s liberal feminist campaigned successfully for the right of women to be educated at _______ University. The equal opportunities Act of _____ is another success. Liberal feminists believe that changing the legislation on education to a more fail system will lead to ________ in the rest of society. Radical feminist  Spender (1982) the education system today rather than being gender neutral is gender ______. Education reflects ____ assumptions about the world for example being objective (impartial) is valued over being subjective (_________________________).  The education system sets up teachers as experts, as a consequence of this girls learn that all great scientists, artists, writers and even sociologists are ____. Lees (1993) suggests that ____________ is reproduced in the classroom this is shown; firstly in the way that boys dominate the classroom; secondly by the fact that boys _________ harass girls in the; thirdly that these things are not challenged by _________.5 KB06
  6. 6. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1Marxist/ socialist feminist Wolpe (1977), Barrett (1980) and Skeggs (1997) all argues that education reproduces and legitimates ______ and gender inequalities together. Education prepares girls for their future of unpaid ________ labour in the home and secondary work outside the home. Secondary work refers to lower paid work of lesser importance such as __________________________________________. Black feminist  Schools reproduce the inequalities that exist in wider society between different genders and _______ groups.  Paul Connolly (1998) studied how ideas about masculinity and feminity are constructed by teachers and pupils according to a child’s _________. The findings showed that teachers saw afro Caribbean boys as more _________, less academic and more better at sports; afro Caribbean girls were seen as more passive than the boys but they were also pushed into physical activities such as sport and dance.W.I.N.K ~ What I Now KnowWrite down at least 5 key things you now know.6 KB06
  7. 7. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1 Perspectives on EducationAcross Down1. The key Marxist thinkers on education 2. Functionalists feel that the school is theare ... site of secondary....3. Functionalists believe that agreement 4. A group of feminist who believe thatexists within society thus it is known as a changing the law will create equality areC... theory! called ...9. New Right thinkers believe all schools 5. another term for the informal curriculumshould be this... is ...10. ... standards by which the school treats 6. A group of feminist who believe thatits pupils schools and teachers do nothing to prevent11. A political view point which agrees with boys sexually harassing the girls are calledfunctionalism about the purpose of 7. This is the idea that those that have12. Afro-Caribbean girls are pushed talent or work hard gain rewards ...towards physical activities like this ... 8. Another name for Marxists feminist is ...7 KB06
  8. 8. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1 PRACTICE EXAM QUESTIONSNameMTG% Gained on this pieceGrade gained on this pieceThings you have done wellTargets for next time youdo questions like these.Reference: Item AThe education system has two key functions – the reproduction of class inequalityand the legitimating of class inequality. It may do this in various ways. Forexample, Stephen Ball argues that in recent years the education systems in manycountries have undergone a process of “marketisation”. In Britain, this has comeabout largely as a result of the 1988 Education Reform Act. This Act introducedpolicies such as the publication of examination league tables, and funding forschools based on the number of pupils they could attract. The Act also brought inwhat Miriam David describes as “parentocracy”: the idea that parents would beAble to choose which school their child would attend. In reality, however, not allparents are equally successful choosers: evidence from both Britain and the USAshows that middle-class and white parents are more likely to succeed in gainingplaces for their children in schools that get better results. Item B8 KB06
  9. 9. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1According to functionalists, the education system encourages open competitionwhile giving everyone an equal chance to succeed. As a result, all pupils can showwhat they are capable of achieving and what kind of future work role they arebest suited for. The system is then able to provide each child with an educationappropriate to their talents and to fit each individual with the knowledge, skillsand attitudes they will need in their adult role. Functionalists see this as havingtwo main advantages. For the individual, it allows social mobility and rewardspeople according to their ability, not their social background. For society, itpromotes a successful economy by ensuring each job is filled by someone withThe appropriate talents. This leads to higher living standards for everyone.(a) Explain briefly what is meant by the “reproduction” of class inequality (ItemA, line 1). (2 marks)__________________________________________________________________________________________(b) Identify one similarity and one difference between the functionalist and NewRight view of education. (4 marks)__________________________________________________________________________________________(c) Suggest three functions that education may perform apart from thosementioned in Item A. (6 marks)_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________(d) Identify and briefly explain two ways in which the education systemreproduces the patriarchy in wider society. (8 marks)____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Essay Question9 KB06
  10. 10. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1Use the writing frame to help you respond to the question. The stem sentencesform the start of each paragraph; you should build on this with appropriatecontent. Remember you are expected to include:  Use and explain key concepts.  Show how arguments relate to each other e.g. X agrees/ disagrees with Y.  Be evaluative – What are the strengths and weaknesses of each e.g. However…  Proof read- marks can be lost if spelling (especially sociological terms), grammar and punctuation is poor.(e) Using information from the items and elsewhere, examine the functionalistargument that schools serve the interests of both the individual and society(24 marks)Functionalist writers such as Durkheim and Parsons believe that the educationsystem serves a positive function for both society and individuals. Schools arethe site of______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Item B agrees with the functionalist view of education, stating ‘The system isthen able to provide each child with an education appropriate to their talents andto fit each individual with the knowledge, skills and attitudes they will need in __________________their adult role.’ In other words this means that__________________________________________________________________________________________10 KB06
  11. 11. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1__________________________________________________________________________________________New Right thinkers agree with functionalist about the role of schools for society ___________________________________and the individual.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________On the other hand Item A describes how education serves the needs of society.This illustrates the view of M___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Other conflict theorists such as feminist agree that education reproduces andexcuses inequality. However, there is some disagreement over the nature of this ________________________________________inequality_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Furthermore there is disagreement between different branches of feminism as __________________to the nature and extent of inequality in schools.______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________11 KB06
  12. 12. AS Sociology Education- Perspectives 1Having looked at in detail how schools meet the needs of the individual andsociety, it is clear that there is sometimes a conflict of interests between the ________________________________individual and society.____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________12 KB06