Introduction to Application Profiles

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Presented January 18, 2010 to the ALCTS Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA) as an introduction to RDF data, and application profiles. Presenters were Jon Phipps, Karen Coyle and......

Presented January 18, 2010 to the ALCTS Committee on Cataloging: Description and Access (CC:DA) as an introduction to RDF data, and application profiles. Presenters were Jon Phipps, Karen Coyle and Diane Hillmann.

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  • 1. Jon Phipps: Overview
    Karen Coyle: Step-by-Step
    Diane Hillmann: Context
    Application Profiles
  • 2. What's an Application Profile?
     
  • 3. What's an Application Profile?
    It's a document
  • 4. What's an Application Profile?
    It's a document of an agreement
  • 5. What's an Application Profile?
    It's a document of an agreement on a model
  • 6. What's an Application Profile?
    It's a document of an agreement on a model of our stuff in the world
  • 7. What's an Application Profile?
    It's a document of an agreement on a model of how we describe our things in our world
  • 8. What's an Application Profile?
    It's a document of an agreement on a model of how we describe ourthings in our world (domain) in the context of the global web of data
  • 9. Things?
     
  • 10. Things?
    have a formal definition...
  • 11. Things?
    have a formal definition...
    Every individual in the OWLworld is a member of the classowl:Thing.
  • 12. OWL?
     
  • 13. OWL?
    Web Ontology Language
  • 14. OWL?
    Web Ontology Language
    A language that can be used to formalize a domain by defining classes, the relations between them, and properties of those classes
  • 15. OWL
    Web Ontology Language
    can define the semantics of an Application Profile
  • 16. Semantics?
  • 17. Semantics?
    What we mean when we define a class called 'book' and describe it with a property called 'title’.
  • 18. Semantics?
    What we mean when we define a class called 'book' and describe it with a property called 'title'.
    The 'Semantic Web' is a web of meaning that uses the RDF model
  • 19. RDF?
    Resource Description Framework
  • 20. RDF?
    Resource Description Framework
  • 21. RDF?
    Resource Description Framework
    “is a framework for representing information in the Web”
  • 22. RDF?
    “has a simple data model that is easy for applications to process and manipulate.”
  • 23. RDF?
    “has a formal semantics which provides a dependable basis for reasoning about the meaning of an RDF expression.”
  • 24. RDF?
    “URI references are used for naming all … things in RDF.”
  • 25. RDF?
    “is an open-world framework that allows anyone to make statements about any resource.”
  • 26. RDF?
    “The underlying structure of any expression in RDF is a collection of triples”
  • 27. Triples?
    consist of a subject, a predicate and an object. A set of triples is called an RDF graph
  • 28. Triples?
    consist of a resource, a property and a value surrogate.
  • 29. Value Surrogate?
    Not a value, but some thing that denotes the value
  • 30. Value Surrogate?
    can be a Literal or a non-Literal
  • 31. Literal?
    Can be a Plain Literal or a Typed Literal
  • 32. Plain Literal?
    Is just a string with an optional (in this case totally unnecessary) language type
    Plain Literal:
    “Samuel Clemens”@en-US
  • 33. Typed Literal?
    A string that must be interpreted
    Typed Literal:
    “27” ^^xsd:integer
  • 34. Typed Literal?
    A string that must be interpreted
    Typed Literal:
    “27” ^^xsd:integer
    denotes the number 27
  • 35. Non-Literal?
    A URI that refers to a resource
  • 36. Non-Literal?
    http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType/1012
    Identifies the skos:Concept labeled
    “sounds”@en-US
    In the skos:ConceptScheme identified by the URI
    http://RDVocab.info/termList/RDAContentType
  • 37. URI?
    A resource identifier.
  • 38. URI?
    A globally unique resource identifier.
    “All URIs share the property that different persons or organizations can independently create them, and use them to identify things.”
  • 39. Predicate?
    A URI
    that identifies the property of the subjectof the triple
  • 40. Predicate?
    “Since RDF uses URIs instead of words to name things in statements, RDF refers to a set of URIs (particularly a set intended for a specific purpose) as a vocabulary”
  • 41. Property?
    http://RDVocab.info/Elements/placeOfProductionidentifies the property labeled
    “Place of production”
    in the vocabulary identified byhttp://RDVocab.info/Elements/
  • 42. Property?
    A vocabulary can declare a property to be a subproperty of another property.
  • 43. Property?
    A vocabulary can declare a property to be a subproperty of another property.This creates a formal relationship between the properties
  • 44. Can we talk about APs now?
    Please?
  • 45. An AP defines Semantics
    • The Classes of resources your metadata is describing
    • 46. The Vocabularies that you will use as properties to describe them
  • Classes?
    OMG
    Please, don’t start that again
  • 47. An AP defines Syntax
    • Valid value ranges and datatypes for each property
    • 48. Valid lists of values (controlled vocabularies) for properties
    • 49. Cardinality of each property
  • An AP defines Syntax
    Dublin Core defines this validation profile for each property as a“Statement Template”
  • 50. An AP defines Syntax
    A set of Statement Templates is a “Description Set”
  • 51. An AP defines…
    An AP can describe multiple Description Sets.
  • 52. An AP defines…
    An AP can describe multiple Description Sets.
    The full set of Description Sets is a “Description Set Profile”
  • 53. Application Profiles
    Step-by-Step
    1/18/2010
    52
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 54. 1. Domain model
    Person
    WEMI
    Topic
    FRBR
    1/18/2010
    53
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 55. 2. Determine elements
    Work
    Title
    Format
    etc
    1/18/2010
    54
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 56. 3. Identify vocabularies
    1/18/2010
    55
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 57. Identify vocabularies
    1/18/2010
    56
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 58. Identify vocabularies
    1/18/2010
    57
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 59. Vocabulary do's & don'ts
    Do not select elements based on their names or labels
    Do select elements based on their definitions
    Do pay attention to what values can be used
    Don't think that you can select an element that doesn't quite match your need, and use it anyway
    Do think: INTEROPERABILITY
    1/18/2010
    58
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 60. One vocabulary
    Vocabulary
    AP
    1/18/2010
    59
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 61. More than one vocabulary
    Vocabulary A
    Vocabulary B
    AP
    1/18/2010
    60
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 62. Rolling your own
    Vocabulary
    AP
    1/18/2010
    61
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 63. Rolling your own
    Vocabulary
    All elments must be defined outside of the AP.
    AP
    1/18/2010
    62
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 64. "Constraints"
    Mandatory/optional
    Repeatability
    Values (cannot conflict with defined element)‏
    Free text
    Controlled list of values
    Formatted text (e.g. dates)‏
    1/18/2010
    63
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 65. What is the impact of all this on our world?
    The Context for Application Profiles 
  • 66. In the world we knew, interoperability was ensured by “compliance with standards”
    All of used the same ones in a closed world
    Data created by humans under strict guidelines
    In an open world, interoperablity depends on:
    Technologies that reach beyond one community
    Data built in a variety of ways by people with different ideas of the world
    Machines that act broadly based on human oversight
    Understanding Interoperability
    1/18/2010
    65
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 67. We’ve long accepted the limits of requiring upfront consensus to ensure interoperability
    In a world of APs we can specialize beyond the core of generally useful data
    We don’t need humans to ‘dumb down’ specialist data to enable sharing and interoperability
    Machines can invoke relationships to generalize specialist data when necessary, without removing the value of extended specialized data for specialists
    Why This Approach Instead?
    1/18/2010
    66
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 68. We can’t afford to “go it alone”
    We can’t afford to ignore the world of data outside libraries
    We can’t afford to create all our data with humans
    We can’t afford NOT to rethink how we operate
    The Value of an Open World
    1/18/2010
    67
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 69. It’s often free and easily available
    It’s ‘good enough’ (our stuff isn’t perfect either)
    It takes us where we can’t go with our current data
    It’s maintained by someone else
    We can choose to use data or not, APs allow us to document that use, automate the process, and expose the data to others
    What’s Out There? Data!
    1/18/2010
    68
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 70. Records can be aggregated from statements when we need them
    Statement-based data can be managed and improved more easily than record-based data
    Statement-based data can carry provenance for each statement, allowing quality decisions to be made at a more granular level
    Changing Our Data Management Ideas
    1/18/2010
    69
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 71. Getting From Here to There
    1/18/2010
    70
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 72. The RDA Vocabularies
    The principles of extension inherent in the RDF Vocabulary standards used
    Our experience in building and using data
    Using What We Already Know
    1/18/2010
    71
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 73. Proliferating our ideas and experience with bibliographic data to the broader Web world
    Using newer technology to achieve more efficiency, transparency, and functionality
    If retrenchment is the only answer, the end point is zero
    Saving our precious human resources to think, evaluate, ensure quality, and innovate
    To Build Ourselves a New Future
    1/18/2010
    72
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 74. We can map it in a variety of ways for a variety of uses
    We can still use MARC as a [lossy] exchange format as long as we need it
    It offers insufficient flexibility as the basis for a new data world inter-connected to the Web
    We can use our skills and our understanding of bibliographic description to lead the way forward
    What About Our Legacy Data?
    1/18/2010
    73
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 75. Specialist communities are already thinking about what they need that RDA doesn’t provide
    Using the extensibility of RDF vocabularies allows them to choose from a number of options
    Moving proposals through the RDA process
    Extending the vocabularies through their community domain
    Chosing the extension option reflects the reality that consensus has its limits, and specialist data may be better managed at a different level
    Some Concrete Suggestions
    1/18/2010
    74
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 76. With Application Profiles we can:
    Document our decisions clearly
    Measure compliance with our own intentions
    Express our decisions in a machine-actionable way
    Make connections with other data communities by re-using their data semantics
    RDA expresses this ideal in its stated goals
    What Do We Gain?
    1/18/2010
    75
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 77. Less one-at-a-time creation and more data design, data improvement, data evaluation
    Ability to look at our contrained resources and reduced budgets as the opportunity to reinvent ourselves
    Rethinking Our Role
    1/18/2010
    76
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro
  • 78. Guidelines for Dublin Core Application Profiles
    http://dublincore.org/documents/profile-guidelines/
    RDA Vocabularies
    http://metadataregistry.org/rdabrowse.htm
    Thanks! Links! Questions?
    1/18/2010
    77
    CC:DA Application Profile Intro