• Bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Blue Mountains to the west, the Hawkesbury River to the north and the Royal National Park to the south.•Capital of New SouthWales•Most populous city•It’s in the rain-shadow of the BlueMountains
•The urban area, which is1.687 km2 (651 sq mi), issurrounded byapproximately 70 harborsand beaches. One of it’smost famous is the BondiBeach. •It sits on a submergent coastline.
• Sydney covers two regions: the Cumberland Plain - a mostly flat region to the south and west of the harbor, and the Hornsby Plateau - a sandstone plateau to the north of the harbor and full of steep valleys.
•Sydney has a temperate climate and due toproximity of the ocean the weather is moderated,while the more extreme temperatures occur in theinland western suburbs.
Climate• Due to being located in the southern hemisphere, summers and winters are reversed.• January is the warmest month, with an average temperature range of 18.6-25.8°C (65-78°F).• July is the coldest month, with an average temperature range of 8.0-16.2°C (46-61°F).• Only about fifteen days a year have temperatures of more than 30°C (86.0°F).• Winter temperatures rarely drop below 5°C (41°F) in the coastal areas.• Rainfall occurs pretty evenly throughout the year, with an average annual rainfall of 1,217 mm (48 in).• The last reported snowfall in Sydney was in 1836.• The ocean is 19°C (66°F) in July to 24 °C (75°F) in January.
Climate, cont.• The El Niño Southern Oscillation is an important part of Sydney’s weather patterns. Resulting in drought and bushfires or storms and flooding on opposite phases of the oscillation.• Much like here, bushfires tend to occur during spring and summer - affecting areas of the city that border bushland.• Sydney is also prone to severe hail storms and wind storms. Such as the 1999 hailstorm – which damaged eastern suburbs with hailstones of at least 9 cm (3.5 in) diameter. In February 2010 Sydney had the some of the highest rainfall recorded in 25 years that resulted in flash flooding.• In 2002-2005 Sydney had the warmest summers since records began in 1859, the following summer of 2007-08 was one of the coolest on record. 2009 and 2010 saw warmer and drier conditions with above average temperatures. These dry conditions of 2009 brought a severe dust storm towards eastern Australia. 2011 had above average rainfall.
History• Radio carbon dating suggests the region of Sydney has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years.• The Cadigal people are the traditional indigenous inhabitants of Sydney Cove. Though population estimates prior to the First Fleet arrival in 1788 are suspect, ~4,000-8,000 Aboriginal people lived in the Sydney region prior to contact with the British.• Aboriginal people were called “Eora” by the British settlers because when asked where they came from they answered “eora,” meaning “from this place.”• There were three main language groups that were then divided into dialects spoken by smaller clans. Darug (a coastal dialect was spoken by the Cadigal), Dharawal and Guringai.• Due to urbanization most evidence of these indigenous settlements was destroyed. However a number of rock engravings, carvings and rock art are still visible in the Hawkesbury sandstone of the Sydney basin.
History, cont.• James Cook landed in Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula in 1770. This was the first contact with the Aboriginals (specifically the Gweagal) in this region.• A convict settlement was founded by Arthur Phillip at Sydney Cove on Port Jackson on 26 January 1788.• A catastrophic epidemic disease spread through the region in April 1789 and decimated the indigenous populations. This disease was thought to be smallpox and widely believed to be caused by the British settlers, as the indigenous population had no previous exposure to European diseases. Leading to a population reduction of an estimated 500-1000 Aboriginal people in the early 1880s.• There was violent resistance to British settlement in the area around Botany Bay and the area surrounding the Hawkesbury River.• Governor Macquarie improved Sydney with the construction of roads, bridges, wharves and public buildings, built by British and Irish convicts. He also began a campaign to “civilize, Christianize and educate” the Aborigines by removing them from their clans.
History, cont.• By 1822 Sydney had banks, markets, well-established thoroughfares and an organized constabulary.• The 1830-40s saw urban development, with the first suburbs, due to rapid growth by immigrants from Britain and Ireland.• On 20 July 1842 Sydney was the declared the first city in Australia, with John Hosking the first elected mayor.• In 1851 the first of several gold rushed began. These lead to Sydney overtaking Melbourne in population and financial growth.• Due to the introduction of steam-powered tramways and railways rapid suburban development began in the late 19th century. By the beginning of the 20th century the population had reached more than a million.• Following the World War II, Sydney continued to expand due to immigrantion by Europeans and Asians in the metropolitan area. Sydney is still expanding today.
• Approximate population of 4.6 million people (June 2010)
Statistics! From 2006 census• 4,119,190 people are residents of Sydney• 3,641,422 of them live in Sydney’s Urban Centre.• Inner Sydney is the most densely populated place in Australia, with 4,023 people per square kilometer (10,420/sqmi).• The most common self-identified ancestries for Sydney residents were: Australia, English, Irish, Scottish and Chinese. Only 1.1% identified as being of indigenous origin while. 31.7% were born overseas.• 75% of Sydney’s annual population growth are immigrants. Mainly from the United Kingdom, China, New Zealand, Vietnam, Lebanon, India, Italy and the Philippines.• The median age of residents is 34.• 12% of the population is over 65 years old.• 64% identified as Christian, 14.1% no religion, 10.4% left the question blank, 4.4% as Muslim, 3.7% as Buddhist, 1.7% as Hindu, and 0.9% as Jewish.
Statistics! Economics• Sydney is the financial and economic hub of Australia.• Beating out Melbourne which has been the financial hub before, due mostly to the gold rushes.• Since the 1980s jobs have moved from manufacturing to the services and informations sectors.• Provides approximately 25% of Australia’s total GDP.• Houses more than half of the country’s top companies, the regional headquarters for about 500 multinational corporations and the headquarters of 90 different banks. As well as the Australian Securities Exchange and the reserve bank of Australia. Fox Studios Australia also has a large film studios in the city.• The unemployment rate was 4.9% as of 2004.• The 16th most expensive city in the world to live in.• Also ranks as the 15th in the world for net earnings.• 12% (~$1billion per annum) of the total agricultural production of NSW comes from the Sydney region.
Government• Australia as a colony of Britain, has a government modeled after the British government. Still accept the Queen of England, she’s even on their money.• The Sydney metropolitan area has no overall governing body. The Cumberland County Council from 1945-1964 has a limited role, but failed.• The metropolitan area is divided into local government areas, much like the boroughs in cities such as London and New York.• Elected councils are responsible for functions delegated to them by the New South Wales State Government.