9 29 Water Pressure & Flow Rates
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  • 1. Water Pressure & Flow Rates Plant: Hydrangea (Big leaf) Term: Precipitation Rate
  • 2. Hydrangea Bigleaf
    • Grows 4 – 6’ tall and 6-8’ wide
    • Shade to partial sun
    • Bloom Color: Blue, Lavender, Pink, Purple, Red, White
    • Bloom Time: Mid spring - Late summer
    • Specimen plant, or border
    • Prune dead branches back late winter
    • Flower color varies depending on the pH of the soil.
  • 3. Precipitation Rate
    • The amount of water placed over a landscape area. Measured in inches per hour.
    • Used for spray irrigation – not drip
    • Rates must be matched to the discharge rate of the supply system (gallon per hour)
  • 4. Plant Water Need For Optimum Growth* in the Piedmont area of Va.
    • Plant type Water need
    • Turfgrass 1 – 1.5 in/week
    • Flowers 1 – 1.5 in/week
    • Trees & Shrubs 0.5 – 1 in/week
    • Groundcovers 0.25 – .5 in/week
    * We will rarely receive this much rain in this area
  • 5. Calculations
    • Step 1: Determine the precipitation rate
      • Find the total Gallons Per Min. (GPM) from the system
      • Find the square footage of the area to be irrigated
      • Convert using the constant 96.3
      • Plug into formula
    PR = Tot GPM X 96.3 SF of area
  • 6. Calculation
    • Step 2: Determine how long the sprinklers have to run to supply the needs of the plants
      • # inches needed/week ÷ PR = Time in hours
  • 7. Example
    • Your city water system supplies 8 gallons of water per minute.
    • You need to water your 2400 sq ft lawn (turf)
    • How long will you need to water?
    • (8 x 96.3) ÷ 2400 = .3 in per hour
    • Grass needs 1” per week/.3 in per hour = 3 hours of watering per week
  • 8. PR & Soil type
    • You need to match the precipitation rate with the type of soil.
    • Different absorption rates will dictate the frequency of watering to reach the required water needs for the plants
    • For example: You find that you must water your plot 3 hours per week, but the soil may not be able to absorb the required amount in 3 hours.
    • May have to water 2, 3 or 4 times per week***
  • 9. Soil & absorption Over 1.7” per hour Good to excessive Low High Sandy 1 to 1.7” per hour Good Moderate Moderate Loam .2” per hour Poor High Low Clay Water absorption Drainage Water retention Water intake rate Soil Type
  • 10. Nozzle charts
    • Show the flow rate for each specific nozzle
    • What is the flow rate for this nozzle if it is spraying 360 at 15 psi?
    • Round to whole #
    • 2
  • 11. Water Source 20 GPM Split 10 GPM 10 GPM Using the 10 VAN nozzle from the previous slide How many gallons per minutes are going past each spray head?
  • 12. Use the smallest pipe possible to carry the needed water rate Water Source 20 GPM 1 ¼” Pipe Split 10 GPM ¾” Pipe 10 GPM ¾” Pipe 8 GPM 6 GPM 4 GPM 2 GPM ¾” Pipe ½” Pipe ½” Pipe ½” Pipe 8 GPM 6 GPM 4 GPM 2 GPM ¾” Pipe ½” Pipe ½” Pipe ½” Pipe
  • 13. Water flow & Pipe size
    • If the pipe must carry
      • 1-6 GPM
      • 7 – 10 GPM
      • 11 –16 GPM
      • 17 – 26 GPM
      • 27 – 35 GPM
      • 36 – 55 GPM
    • Select a pipe at least
      • ½ ” diameter
      • ¾ ” diameter
      • 1” diameter
      • 1 ¼” diameter
      • 1 ½ ” diameter
      • 2” diameter
  • 14. Today
    • Complete a 1/8” scaled drawing of the flagpole area on graph paper