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Flow through nozzel_AMIT


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Flow through nozzel_AMIT

  2. 2. FLOW THROUGH NOZZEL •Fig. shows a nozzle fitted at the end of a long pipe. The total energy at the end of the pipe consists of pressure energy and kinetic energy. •By fitting the nozzle at the end of the pipe. the total energy is converted into kinetic energy. •THUS NOZZLES ARE USED, WHERE HIGHER VELOCITIES OF FLOW ARE REQUIRED.
  3. 3. The examples are : 1.In case of Felton turbine, the nozzle is fitted at the end of the pipe (called penstock) to increase velocity. 2.In case of the extinguishing fire, a nozzle is fitted at the end of the hose to increase velocity.
  4. 4. let L = length of the pipe, A = area of the pipe V= velocity of flow in pipe, H = total head at the inlet of the pipe, d = diameter of nozzle at outlet, V = velocity of flow at outlet of nozzle, a = area of the nozzle at outlet f = co-efficient of friction for pipe.
  5. 5. SYPHON Syphon is a long bent pipe which is used to Convey liquid from a reservoir at a higher elevation when the two are separated by a high level ground or hill Syphon is is long bent pipe which is used to transfer liquid from a reservoir at it higher elevation to another reservoir at a lower level when the two reservoirs are separated by a hill or high level ground
  6. 6. •As shown in figure two reservoirs A and B are separated by the hill. In order to transfer liquid from A to B reservoirs, •They are connected by syphon. The highest point is called summit. • The flow through the siphon is only possible if the pressure at the point S is below the atmospheric pressure, Therefore pressure difference will cause the flow of liquid through syphon.
  7. 7.  The point C which is at the highest of the syphon is called the summit.  As the point C is above the free surface of the water in the tank A. the pressure at C will be less than atmospheric pressure.  Theoretically, the pressure at C may he reduced to — 10.3 in of water but in actual practice this pressure is only — 7.6 m of water or 10.3 - 7.6 = 2.7 in of water absolute. If the pressure at C becomes less than 2.7 in of water absolute, the dissolved air and other gases would come out from water and collect at the summit.  The flow of water will be obstructed
  8. 8. APPLICATION 1 To carry water from one reservoir to another reservoir separated by a hill or ridge. 2. To take out the liquid from a tank which is not having any outlet. 3. To empty a channel not provided with any outlet sluice
  9. 9. POWER IS TRANSMITTED THROUGH Power is transmitted through pipes by flowing water or other liquids flowing through them. The power transmitted depends upon : The weight of liquid flowing through the pipe and the total head available at the end of the pipe. Consider a pipe AB connected to a tank as shown in Fig.. The power available at the end B of the pipe and the condition for maximum transmission of power will be obtained as mentioned below :
  10. 10. L = length of the Pipe, d = diameter of the pipe, H = total head available at the inlet of pipe, V = velocity of flow in pipe, hf = loss of head due to friction, and f = co-efficient of friction
  11. 11. FLOW THROUGH BRANCHED PIPES When three or more reservoirs are connected by means of pipes, having one or more junctions, then this arrangement is called branching of pipe.
  12. 12. As shown in figure three reservoirs at different level connected to a single junction. The main aim to analyze branching of pipe is to determine the discharge at given pipe diameters lengths and co-efficient of friction.
  13. 13. •When three or more reservoirs are connected by means of pipes, having one or more junctions, the system is called a branching pipe system. • Figs how's three reservoirs at different levels connected to a single junction. by means of pipes which are called branched pipes
  14. 14. The lengths, diameters and co-efficient of friction of each pipes is given. It is required to find the discharge and direction of flow in each pipe. The basic equations used for solving such problems are: I. Continuity equation which means the inflow of fluid at the junction should he equal to the outflow of fluid. II. Bernoulli's equation. and III. Darcy-Weisbach equation
  15. 15. •Also it is assumed that reservoirs are very lagged and the water surface levels in the reservoirs are constant so that steady conditions exist in the pipes. •Also minor losses are assumed very small. The flow from reservoir A takes place to junction 0. The flow front junction I) is towards reservoirs C. Now the flow from junction D towards reservoir II will take place only when piczometric head at D.
  16. 16. APPLICATION  The analysis of branched pipes is useful while studying or designing city water supply system which involving the number of pipe loops. Also in this case, number of lines added in parallel to existing line when demand increases
  18. 18. • Consider a long pipe AB as shown in Fig. connected at one end to a tank containing water at a height of H from the centre of the pipe. • At the other end of the pipe, a valve to regulate the flow of water is provided. When the valve is completely open, the water is flowing with a velocity. V in the pipe. If now the valve is suddenly closed, the momentum of the flowing water will be destroyed and consequently a wave of high pressure will be set up. • This wave of high pressure will be transmitted along the pipe with a velocity equal to the velocity of sound wave and may create noise called knock-ing. Also this wave of high pressure has the effect of hammering action on the walls of the pipe and hence it is also known as water hammer.
  19. 19. The pressure rise due to water hammer depends upon : (i) the velocity of flow of water in pipe, (ii) the length of pipe, (iii) time taken to close the valve, (iv) elastic properties of the material of the pipe.
  20. 20. The following cases of water hammer in pipes will he considered : I. Gradual closure of valve, II. Sudden closure of valve and considering pipe rigid. and
  21. 21. Consider a pipe All in which water is flowing as shown in Fig. Let the pipe is rigid and valve fitted at the end B is closed suddenly. Let A = Area of cross-section of pipe AB. L = Length of pipe. V = Velocity of flow of water through pipe, p = Intensity of pressure wave produced. K = Bulk modulus of water.
  22. 22. When the valve is closed suddenly, the kinetic energy of the flowing water is converted into strain energy of water if the effect of friction is neglected and pipe wall is assumed perfectly rigid.
  23. 23. THANK YOU