1. One of your friends feels OB is good for the books. In this world of recession,
globalization and other such issues who has the time for understanding human
behavior. How would explain the significance of OB in terms of challenges and
opportunities to your friend.
Challenges and opportunities
A quick look at few dramatic changes now taking place in organization1.Old employee
getting old2.Corporate Downsizing3.Temporary working employees4.Global
competition5.War on terror In short there are lot of challenges and opportunities today for
managers to OB concepts.
1. Globalization to Respond
Organizations are no longer constrained by national borders, world become global village.
Increased foreign assignment
Transferred to your employer’s operating division in another country, Once there, you’ll have
to manage workforce, aspiration from employees, and attitudes from those you are used to
Working with different people
Working with bosses, peers and other employees who were born and raised in different
culture, to work effectively with them you’ve to understand how their culture, geographic and
religion have shaped them.
Coping with Anti-capitalism backlash
“soak the rich” means fine should be charged with respect of income you earn. Managers at
global companies have come to realize that economic values are not universally transferable,
need to modify by managers to reflect economic values in those countries they’re working.
Overseeing Movement of jobs to countries with low cost labor
In a global economy, jobs tend to flow to places where lower cost provide business firms
with a comparative advantages
Managing people During the war on terror
An understanding of OB topics such as emotions, motivation, communication and leadership
can help managers to deal more effectively with their employees’ fear about terrorism
2.Managing workforce diversity
The people in organization are becoming heterogeneous demographically, Workforce
diversity= whereas globalization focuses on differences between people from different
countries, mix of people in terms of gender, age, race, and sexual orientation.Embracing
diversity Changing US demographics Changing management philosophyRecognizing and
responding to difference
3.Improving Quality and productivity
World added capacity in response to increase demand. Excess capacity translatein increase
competition, is forcing managers to reduce costs and, at the same time; improve the
organization quality and productivity.
4.Improving Customer service
OB can contribute to improving an organization’ performance by showing that how
employees’ attitude and behavior are associated with customer satisfaction.
5.Improving people skills
Designing motivating jobs, how creating effective teams, techniques for improving
6.Stimulating innovation and change
Victory will go the organization the maintain their flexibility, continually improve their
quality and beat their competition in market place. An organization’s employee’scanbe major
block in change, the challenge to the manager to stimulate their creativity and tolerance for
7.Coping with Temporariness
Survival for the organization, is need to move fast and flexible and innovative in their
products, jobs are redesigned, task are done by flexibility, trained old employees with new
technology, better understanding of change, overcome resistance to change, create
8.Working in network organization
Global working through one link i.e. INTERNET, technology changes the people to work
together and communicate at thousand miles, people can work from their home andnon office
9.Helping employees Balance work-life conflicts
Flexible Working hours, reporting time, creating opportunities for employees, jobsecurity,
design workplace and jobs
10.Creating positive Work Environment
Human strength, vitality, right person appointed at right place, effort on what goodfor
11.Improving Ethical Behaviour
Manager shouldn’t place an order on which subordinate don’t agree Define clearly the right
and wrong conduct Fair policy and appropriate system Increase confidence and trust over
organization Have some logic against order you place to employees
2. John is often worried about how to keep his team in a positive frame of mind. He
feels negative attitude takes the fun out of work. Hence is wondering about how to keep
his team in a positive frame of mind. In what possible ways can you help John?
There are several things a leader/manager can do to make your work environment a positive
one and to facilitate a feeling of cooperation, teamwork and joy among your staff. Some of
1. Build Trust
Trust is the basic tenant for all relationships, so building an environment of trust is one of
the most important things you can do to create a positive work environment. It's a
philosophy that must be demonstrated in everything you and your staff does. Trust is about
doing what you say you are going to do and being who you say you are. It's about showing
your staff in everything you do that you are reliable, responsible and accountable, and that
they can rely on you for consistency. Also letting them know you expect the same from
them. When your words and behavior are congruent you foster trust. It will take some time
for your staff members to learn that you are a person of your word. If they see that you are
consistent you will build trust, but if they see your words don't match your behaviors their
trust in you will be destroyed. The unfortunate thing about trust is that it takes a long time to
build, but it's very fragile and will break easily. Once broken, it takes an even longer time to
regain, and it may never be fully rebuilt. Therefore, it is of primary importance that you are
aware of all your words and behaviors and insure that they are worthy of your employees'
Even when dealing with uncomfortable situations, if you are honest and up front it will
make things easier for everyone. What you say and what you do represent who you are.
Even if they don't like what you are saying, if you say it honestly, compassionately and
tactfully they will respect and trust you. Your employees' level of trust will also be
determined by how well you keep confidences and don't disclose discussions that have been
held in private. They have to know they can talk with you about sensitive subjects and that
the information they share with you will be kept in strict confidence. Confidentiality is
critical in all aspects of your job. This also applies to never discussing one employee with
another, except in positive terms. Any problems you are having with a team member must
be kept between you and that employee, and your supervisor, if applicable. A good manager
never talks negatively about his/her team.
EXERCISE: Three things I will do to build trust with my staff are:
2. Communicate positively and openly.
In order to create a positive work environment each employee needs to feel valued. This is
best accomplished through your listening to each person and honoring each one for what
s/he has to say. By doing this you will show that you value and respect every individual.
One important aspect of communicating openly is to meet with your staff and discuss your
organization's philosophy, values, mission and goals. Ask for their ideas and thoughts on
how they individually and as a team can help your unit to exemplify these. Then lead a
discussion on the ways they all see these being fulfilled within your work group. After your
staff has shared their ideas, take time to share your own vision of how you see everyone
working together. Share how you see everyone working together as a circle in which
everyone is equal and on the same level, rather than a pyramid where supervisors and
administrators are at the top, and the staff is at the bottom. Everyone is equal because every
job is equally important in fulfilling the mission of the organization. Also share your work
ethic, commitment to the job and facility, and your values. Talking about and modeling
your own work ethic will set an example of what your expectations are for your staff and
their behavior. This includes:
" Being accountable to the job. " Showing up on time and with a positive attitude. " Being
willingly taking on tasks and assignments. " Being proud of your facility and that you are a
part of it. " Treating everyone with respect and in a friendly manner. " Focusing on work
and leaving personal issues outside the workplace. " Seeing your work as an opportunity for
continuous personal growth and lifelong learning.
Sometimes it helps with a discussion like this to use a board or flip chart and colored pens
so you can write thoughts, goals and ideas as your team comes up with them. If they are
having a hard time getting started, you can write three of your own goals and then ask the
group to add to the list. This exercise will help all of your team members focus on where
they would like to see the unit be in the next six months. These goals can then be reviewed
at staff meetings to see how they are being met. It's through these means of open
communication that each member of the work group understands how they fit into the unit
and how they impact where it is going.
EXERCISE: I will create an atmosphere of open communication by:
3. Expect The Best From Your Staff
There is a concept called 'The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy' which states that people generally
will perform in the way others expect them to perform. So, if you have high expectations for
your staff, treat them as if they are capable, competent people and expect them to function
as such, they will rise to the occasion and be the excellent employees you see them to be.
However, if you micromanage them, expect them to be mediocre and treat them as if they
can't function well on their own, that is the behavior they will give you. A good supervisor
always has high expectations for his/her staff and treats them accordingly.
EXERCISE: Three ways I will let my staff know I believe they are capable and competent
4. Create Team Spirit
One of our basic human needs is to feel we belong to something bigger than ourselves, and
for many people that need is met by being part of a supportive work group. As a supervisor,
part of your job is to create a feeling of unity among your staff. This unity will help your
team members feel valued and that they belong. As a result they will want to be at work,
tardiness and absenteeism will be minimal, your team will function smoothly and your unit
will be better able to carry out the missions and goals of your organization.
To foster this team feeling you must convey to the entire staff that every person plays an
important role. Encourage an attitude of cooperation rather than competition. When you
create team spirit and identity, staff members will see themselves as a group of people all
working for a common goal, rather than a bunch of individuals competing with each other.
By letting each member know they are a valued part of the team you will teach your staff
members to respect each other for their unique contributions. There are many group
exercises designed to foster this kind of unity. One easy exercise is to begin staff meetings
by going around the table and having each person say one nice thing about the person on
their right or left. Especially things they've noticed about how they care for the residents.
Acknowledging behaviors such as the way Madison approaches residents with a gentle
touch and always says their name, or how Joe inquires if a resident is warm enough and
offers to bring a blanket. The way Ben shows he values the residents by taking the time to
listen and ask questions as they reflect on their life and the important job they did in valuing
and caring for their family, or the way Mary can always be counted on to step in and help
when extra hands are needed. Be sure to acknowledge the little things that mean so much to
the residents, their families and coworkers that are the mark of an excellent caregiver.
An important aspect of creating team spirit is demonstrating that you are open to
communication from everyone, including residents, families and staff. When you walk
through the unit be sure you smile, are friendly, and acknowledge people you pass. You
should always show that you are aware of and care about each person. This will
demonstrate to them that you are aware of them as people, and are also aware of what's
happening on the unit. By doing this you will also demonstrate that you are willing to listen
and are responsive to their needs.
Another exercise you can do with your staff to increase their appreciation of each other and
feeling of team spirit is called Skill Appreciation. In this exercise team members recognize
and appreciate each other for the unique skills each brings to the unit. Take time at one of
your staff meetings to focus on this aspect. Give each person a 3 x 5 card and ask them to
write their name at the top. Have each person place their card on the table in front of them,
and then move one place to the right so they're sitting in front of their neighbor's card. Then
ask them to write words of appreciation on the card of the co-worker, including positive
personal characteristics, attitudes and skills they bring to the team. Examples may be things
1. Ability to relate well with residents and families.
2. Accuracy with med distribution.
3. Ability to detect skin changes on bedridden residents.
4. Having a positive attitude and kind word for everyone, etc.
Have team members continue moving around the table and writing on cards until they are
back at their original place.
There are many other ways a supervisor can foster team spirit. Some of these are:
ive verbal and written communication to individuals and the group for jobs well done.
Make sure team members know a bit about each other's personal life by setting aside
5 minutes at each staff meeting to have one person tell about something positive
that's happened in their life in the past month.
Find reasons to celebrate together, such as birthdays, birth of a baby or grandchild,
moving into a new house, etc., and have small parties to celebrate these events. It's
especially good to share your celebration with all the shifts on your unit by asking
food services to provide a cake, and putting up a sign or banner in the break room
saying "Today We Are Celebrating……………". By celebrating together you will
be connecting the entire staff.
Let them know that you are also part of the team by asking your staff what they need
from you to make their job more satisfactory, and doing your best to provide it.
Schedule stretch exercises that you do together before report. Have different staff
members lead the exercises each day.
Ensure that humor is part of the daily work environment. Put a humor section on the
bulletin board and invite team members to post things they find funny (keeping good
taste in mind, of course). Also, encourage them to respectfully find the humor in
situations at work. It's important for you as the supervisor to learn to laugh at
yourself, and model this for your staff. Let them know that since we all are human
we make mistakes. It's much better to find the lesson and humor in mistakes than to
become upset over them.
Do problem solving and awareness exercises at staff meetings. For example: Have
your staff members each write a list of 10 things that are important to them, and then
have the person next to them cross off one thing. Then talk about what it feels like
for them to lose this thing from their life, and relate it to what the residents may be
feeling about all they have lost as they age.
EXERCISE: Three things I will do to create team spirit are:
5. Give Recognition and Appreciation
Whenever you can, 'catch people being good' and make sure they and others know about it.
Give recognition and appreciation to everyone at every opportunity. For example: "Susan, I
appreciate your organizational skills and the way you organized your team today to deliver
quality care." "James, thank you for staying overtime yesterday. I really appreciate your
positive, can-do attitude." When verbalizing appreciation try to make it as personal as
possible. Rather than just saying something vague like "good job", be specific about the
personal quality or skill your team member brought to the task. Recognizing excellent job
performance and attitude, and showing appreciation for these things will go a long way
towards making your staff members feel that they are a valued and respected part of the
EXERCISE: Three ways I will give recognition and appreciation to my staff are:
6. Give Credit and Take Responsibility
Always give credit for success to your staff, and take responsibility when things don't go
well. As the boss it's your job to make sure your staff is well trained, capable and
competent. If for some reason they fail to perform their job in the expected manner, it's your
responsibility to insure that they receive further direction and training so they will perform
up to standards.
EXERCISE: I will give credit to my staff by:
7. Be Approachable
Always present an attitude of approachability to your staff and customers. Indicate by your
manner that you are available and happy to speak with people from all levels and positions.
Also, always be prepared to listen to whatever they want to share with you, and validate
what you've heard. If they have concerns, tell them you will look into it and get back to
them by a certain time. Then be sure you do! It's important that every day you go out and
walk about your business in order to connect with people. Be sure that as you walk through
the business you smile and make eye contact with everyone you pass. Act in a friendly
manner, call people by name, be approachable, and show interest in what's going on. Also,
have an open door policy, where anyone at any level is welcome to come talk with you if
they feel the need. When they do come talk with you, be aware of your body language.
Come around to the front of your desk and sit facing them while you talk so that there is no
physical barrier between you. Indicate in everything you do that you respect and care about
them and what they are saying.
EXERCISE: Three ways I will make myself available and be approachable to my staff are:
8. Provide A Positive Physical Environment
If at all possible insure that the physical environment on your workplace is clean, bright,
attractive and cheerful. Make sure it has as much natural light as possible, and that each
staff member has room for their own personal space.
EXERCISE: I will improve our physical environment at work by:
9. Make Staff Evaluations a Positive Experience
One of the important duties of a boss is to give staff evaluations. This should be a positive
experience for your staff members, and is a great opportunity for you to praise them for
their cooperative spirit and all their efforts in doing an excellent job. It's also a good time to
thank them for participating by bringing their special characteristics and talents to the unit.
Even if you need to discuss some areas in which the employee may need improvement, you
can still make it a positive meeting by focusing on the good and all that they are doing
Insure that the staff evaluation is two-way. It's an opportunity for the employee to rate
him/herself and also to rate you and your business. It's also the time to mutually create their
career goals. Prior to the meeting, ask the employee to write out their evaluation of how
they think they are doing in their job. Also ask them to write how they view you as a
supervisor, and how they feel about working in your business. You will fill out the
organization's standard evaluation form and write your thoughts on the employee's
performance. Remember to keep it as positive as possible, and make suggestions in a
constructive, encouraging manner.
Once you are in the meeting, ask the employee to share what they have written, and then
discuss it with them. Then share your thoughts and what you have written. Some things to
What skills would you like to develop in the next six months?
What new knowledge would you like to gain in the next six months?
What would you like to do differently with your peers?
What can I do to assist you in the process of your development?
This is also an opportunity for you to revisit any difficult situations this staff member has
experienced in the past six months and insure that they are feeling OK about it and are
moving forward. You do this by asking:
How are you feeling now about the conflict two months ago?
What else needs to be done to resolve it?
Is there anything I can do to help?
One of the most difficult aspects of a manager's job is counseling an employee who is not
performing up to standards. Always put a positive spin on whatever you say, even if it's
offering constructive suggestions. When dealing with negatives, separate all emotions from
the issues, and deal only with the facts. Ask the worker what s/he can do differently next
time. Ask how s/he would like to change his/her behavior in order to perform up to
standards. Then create a written work plan to outline what the new behaviors will be and by
when they will be implemented.
If there has been a problem it should not be a surprise to the employee when it's brought up
at the evaluation. It's probably been discussed at the time of the incident, and several
follow-up meetings will have been held regarding the progress or lack of progress with this
issue. If appropriate, evaluation time is the opportunity for you to voice your appreciation
for how the employee has changed his or her behavior to improve the quality of their work.
Your role and responsibility as the manager is to support the employee through this process.
The outcome may be that the employee will choose to continue working in your business or
may choose to leave.
At the end of the evaluation process your staff member needs to be able to leave the
meeting feeling that he/she has some control and personal power over their work life. This
is a basic human need, and it's your job to support them by focusing on their strengths rather
than their weaknesses. This doesn't mean you don't address their areas for growth, it just
means that you focus on your belief in their ability to perform according to the needs of
The bottom line for all of this is to remember that as the manager it's your job to make your
work environment one in which people can feel comfortable, have fun and can thrive. With
a little thought and creativity you can make it happen.
10. Make It Fun
Everyone wants to be where people are having fun, so make your workplace feel happy and
festive. Find reasons to celebrate together, such as birthdays, birth of a baby or grandchild,
moving into a new house, etc., and having small parties to celebrate these events. If possible
provide a cake, and put up a sign or banner in the break room saying "Today We Are
Celebrating……………". Ask your employees what would be fun for them and then
implement what is feasible.
4. Employees at ABC Corp. like coming to work and love their jobs. Whereas
employees at XYZ Corp. dislike and hate their jobs. ABC believes in satisfied employees
lead to better workplace productivity, XYZ believes there is no such thing as employee
satisfaction and considers it waste of time. Discuss the impact of satisfied and
dissatisfied employees at workplace.
The Impact of Dissatisfied Employees
Dissatisfied employees tend to spend less time focusing on their job duties and more
time discussing with family, friends and coworkers why they are unhappy at work.
Lack of motivation and attention to detail are the results of dissatisfied employees,
which translates to low productivity. Consequently, companies whose employees'
productivity levels are low also experience loss of profits. Satisfied employees make
the most of their work time, producing quality products and services.
Customer loyalty declines when employees are dissatisfied with their jobs. Employee
satisfaction is one of the points HCL Technologies CEO VineetNayar explains in his
Forbes website article titled "Why I Put My Employees Ahead of My Customers."
Nayar states that "Employees First, Customers Second is a management approach. It
is a philosophy, a set of ideas, a way of looking at strategy and competitive
advantage." Satisfied employees, according to Nayar, are excited about doing their
jobs. Employees who enjoy what they do -- especially employees in the customer
service arena -- are more likely to interact with customers and clients in a much more
positively and cheerfully. An oft-used business tenet is that happy employees equal
When employees are terminated or resign, turnover analyses reveal that overall
dissatisfaction is the cause for poor performance or the decision to leave. Consumed
with looking for work that motivates them and finding a company that appreciates
their efforts, employees slip into patterns of poor performance or simply quit.
Turnover is costly. As turnover rates increase, dissatisfaction can spread throughout
the workplace, encouraging others to find employment elsewhere. Employee
retention, a workplace measurement related to turnover, can be extremely difficult in
an environment where employees are frequently dissatisfied with their jobs or
Employees are the face of your organization, which means your business reputation
depends on employees' behavior, actions and performance. Improving employee
satisfaction can work wonders for the way your business is viewed by competitors,
customers, clients and people interested in working for you. Employee dissatisfaction
impacts your ability to reach certain business markets as well as your ability to recruit
qualified applicants. Business failure can be linked to variables such as financial
distress or economic hardship; however, employees who are dissatisfied with their
jobs and the company they work for can have a tremendous impact on your reputation
Employee Engagement studies explore factors that motivate employees to “go the extra mile”
and cause them to feel vested interest in their organization’s success. Whereas employee
satisfaction looks at drivers like pay equity and job security, employee engagement looks into
professional development, personal accomplishment, work/life balance and ability to
influence company’s direction.
A satisfied employee may be seen as being satisfied with pay, benefits, supervisor, working
conditions, etc. Going beyond mere satisfaction, an employee may be seen as Committed. A
Committed employee is someone who is not considering leaving the organization. Engaged
employees go even further and become advocates for their organization.
The three main areas in which employee engagement is most commonly measured include
cognitive, emotional and behavioral. The list of drivers is extensive and multiple approaches
exist. Drivers are further influenced by culture, so what applies in one part of the world may
not hold true for another.
To measure employee engagement, it is advisable to consult with an expert in the field to
ensure all relevant drivers have been included. Zarca Interactive can assist with the
development of organization-specific Employee Engagement surveys.
6. Since the past one month Yogesh’sbehavior has changed drastically. His
absenteeism has increased. He looks lost and disconnected. As his manager you are
concerned about him and want to help him. However you first need to understand why
he is behaving in the way he is. How can OB help you in solving his problem?
Stages of the Behavioral Problem Solving Process
Behavioral problem solving begins with the identification of thespecific behaviour that is
either dysfunctional or that you wish to change. It identifies thespecific group of employees
whose behaviour is in question, and justifies the importance of changing that behaviour. It is
generally helpful to relate the desired behaviour to theorganization's competitive advantage.
The key outcome of the Problem Identification Stageis the specification of the Behavioral
Gap (also called the Performance Gap), which is the
difference between expected/desired employee behaviour and actual/observed employee
behaviour.It is important to refrain from the attribution of causes of the Behavioral Gap in
this stageof the problem solving process. Likewise, these problems should not be defined in
terms of attitudes, personality, or other variables that you believe are causing the Behavioral
In the diagnosis stage, the problem solver identifies what he or she believes to becauses of the
Behavioral Gap. This process starts with a First Level Diagnosis. This level of diagnosis is
used to determine which of the four fundamental causes of performance isattributable to the
(Motivation, Skills, Role Perception, orResources).
This diagnosis may reveal that the Behavioral Gap is a function of more thanone of these
fundamental causes.The Second Level Diagnosis attempts to uncover the root causes of the
first level cause.For example, if it is determined that the first level cause of the Behavioral
Gap is lowmotivation, than the second level diagnoses would attempt to determine the root
causes of low motivation. Most successful managers use complex theories of motivation to
help themwith this part of the analysis.
In this stage process, we list a number of potential solutions to our behavioral problem.
These potential solutions should be aimeddirectly at changing the behavior specified in the
behavioral gap and should be consistentwith the causes outlined in the diagnosis stage.
In choosing among the alternative solutions, we consider cost-effectiveness, likelihood of
success, ease of implementation, the level of disruption to other systems, and likely effect on
other organizational stakeholders.
An often forgotten stage of the problem solving process is theevaluation of the effectiveness
of not only the solution chosen (did it eliminate the behavioralgap), but also the evaluation of
the decision-making process. This is especially important if the chosen solution did not
eliminate or reduce the behavioral gap. Evaluation of the processinvolves questions such as:
Were the right people involved? Were the mental models used inour process accurate? Did
the process we used have an adverse effect on the solution chosen?And what can we do next
time to insure a better result?
Using Motivation theories
Organizational Behaviour helps managers providing motivation theories to
motivateemployees in order to:
•Promote a healthy work force- satisfy employee’s physiological needs by
providingincentives for mental and physical health
•Provide financial security- an important safety need
•go beyond traditional forms of compensation
•address issue of job security, including out placement services
•Promote opportunities to socialize- organize events that help to satisfy social needs
•Recognize employee’s accomplishments- award programs satisfy esteem needsManagers
that utilize these tools and ideas can be successful motivators.
Every time I make a decision, something or the other keeps on going wrong. Sometimes I am too
confident, at times too committed and risk averse at other times. Please help me understand the
various reasons that impact my decision making. Also explain if organizational setting impacts
Factors Affecting Decision Making
Whenever we are involved in making decisions a
number of factors can affect the process we follow
and ultimately the decision we make.
We can organise the factors affecting decision
making into three major groups:
Perception can be described as the way in which
individuals interpret their environment. An
individual's perception can influence how they make
decisions and solve problems. For example, when
information about a problem needs to be gathered
the individual's perception will impact on where the
information is sought and the type of information
regarded as relevant.
Perception can be influenced by the following:
The perceiver, the individual perceiving the object,
will be heavily influenced by their personal
characteristics. The types of personal characteristics
that can affect an individual's perception include:
Background and experience
The object, which refers to any person, item or
event can have an impact on the way it is perceived.
For example, when a manager receives a number of
reports to read he may be more inclined to read the
one with the most colourful cover as this one stands
The relation an object has to other objects can also
affect the perception of the perceiver. For example,
an individual team member may be judged on the
actions of the whole team even when it is more
appropriate for them to be judged on their own
Time, location and other situational factors can
influence our perception of an object. For example, a
Team Leader may notice team members who work
late on the same evenings as the Team Leader.
However, team members who work late on other
evenings may not be noticed by the Team Leader.
A number of organisational issues can impact on the
decision making process. These issues include:
Policies and procedures
Policies and Procedures
Many organisations have formalised policies and
procedures which have been developed to resolve
common problems and to guide managers when
making decisions. For example, many organisations
have documented disciplinary procedures which
guide managers through a process of resolving
issues with staff members.
Organisational hierarchy refers to the management
structure of the organisation. Most organisations
have different levels of management which carry
with them different degrees of authority. The degree
of authority directly impacts on the nature of the
decisions an individual can make. For example, a
Customer Contact Centre Team Leader cannot make
decisions about the overall goals of the organisation.
However, the Team Leader can make decisions about
how their team contributes to the achievement of the
Organisational politics refers to behaviour displayed
by individuals and groups which is designed to
influence others. Individuals and teams will often use
Advance their careers
Advance their interests and ideas
Increase their rewards
Organisations are made up of individuals with
different beliefs, values and interests. These
differences are often the driving forces behind
organisational politics. For example, two teams
believe they require an extra team member.
Unfortunately the organisation can only afford one
new employee. The two teams may well use politics
in an attempt to influence their manager to allocate
the new employee to their team.
Environmental issues are the external factors that
affect the organisation. The types of external factors
that can have an effect on decision making include:
The market in which the organisation
Customers' reaction to the organisation's
products and services
For example, B&B online™ decided to create a new
team, B&B for Busy Bodies™ because they believed
that a corporate market existed for the bed and
Many of the factors which affect the decision making
process can lead to mistakes being made. By being
aware of the types of mistakes that can be made
and by understanding the reasons for the mistakes
a Team Leader is in a better position to avoid
Some common mistakes that decision makers
should be aware of include:
Only hearing and seeing what we want. Each
individual has their own unique set of
preferences or biases which blinker them to
certain information. The best way to deal
with this problem is to identify your
preferences and biases whilst attempting to
be open to the information around you.
Placing too great a reliance on the
information you receive from others. Often
we rely on certain individuals to provide
support and guidance. This may be a suitable
course of action in many cases. However, if
the individual is not closely involved in the
problem situation they may not have the
necessary information or knowledge to help
make the decision.
Placing too little emphasis on the information
you receive from others. This issue can easily
occur in a team situation. In many cases the
team members are the people who are most
closely involved in a problem situation and
they often have the most pertinent
information in relation to the problem. The
best way to deal with this issue is to ensure
that team members are involved in the
decision making process.
Ignoring your intuition. On many occasions
we are actually aware at a subconscious level
of the correct course of action. Unfortunately,