Science And Innovation PolicyPresentation Transcript
An Introduction to Science and Innovation Policy Kathryn Clay, Ph.D. Adjunct Professor Program on Science and the Public Interest Georgetown University 1
Science Policy is different than science itself. Science is ideally value free and objective. Science policy is concerned with “the incentives and the environment for discovery and innovation…with the effect of science and technology on society and considers how they can best serve the public.” The purpose of science policy is to advance societal aims – hence there are always value judgments embedded in the discussions. 2 Source: Griffiths, P., Science in the Public Interest, The Bridge, 1993.
Funding Levels for Science Federal funding for science competes with all other areas of expenditure – many other public goods, including: National Defense Social Security Environmental clean-up programs Infrastructure –roadways, bridges, ports Many others – examples? 3
Funding Levels for Science The federal government provided about 30 percent ($93 million in FY2004) of all public and private funds for R&D. In FY2005, R&D expenditures (defense and nondefense combined) represented 5.4 percent of the overall $2.4 trillion federal budget This amounts to 16 percent of the amount available for discretionary (not entitlement) spending). In FY2008, energy R&D received about $2.5 billion dollars. 4
Linear Model of R&D 5
Pasteur’s Quadrant 6 Consideration of Use? Yes No Quest for fundamental understanding? Yes No
Dynamic and Parallel model of research and innovation 7 Source: Beyond Sputnik, Neal, H., et al.
Why invest in energy R&D? Public goods of energy security and environmental protection (including climate change mitigation) Creating new “green tech” industries to boost U.S. competitiveness President Obama’s commitment to “green jobs,” echoed by the Congress in the Stimulus funding last spring 8
Tough Choices…where to invest? How do we ensure a balance along the spectrum of research, development, and beyond to commercialization? Who are the most appropriate actors – national laboratories, universities, industry, consortia? Does the urgency of the challenge change the answer? 9