Práctica Pedagógica I Universidad de MagallanesAvenida Bulnes Nº 01855, Casilla 113-D Punta Arenas – Teléfono (56-61) 207136 – 207159 – Fax: 207009 http://www.umag.cl Roberto Galindo Merino
ducation is one of the most important matters around the world, over the years it has been demonstrated that education can eradicate poverty, enhance your chances when appealing to a job, and also improves economyin the whole world.The system of education is divided into: nursery education, primary education,secondary education and finally superior or university education, the total numberof years in school across the life of a person is 14 from nursery to secondary.When it comes to education we should remember that not every person iseducated in the same way, some people have better education because they payfor it and some others depend on the government and its resources. In our country,these differences make the educational system to be separated into two forms:The public educational system and the private educational system.The Chilean educational system is characterized by being decentralized.Municipalities or private entities are responsible for the administration ofeducational institutions in the levels of primary and secondary education. There arealso decentralized agencies that manage preschool establishments andautonomous universities responsible for higher education. Thus, throughdecentralization, the state is responsible for:- Define the objectives of education- Create the conditions for equal opportunities- Promote increased quality- Promote research and educational innovation- Ensure the system unityAccording to assessments of learning achievement by the System of QualityMeasurement in Education, (Simce), on average, students who attend privateschools consistently outperform public school students, a trend that has remainedvirtually invariant for at least a decade. Since the early 90s the average differencebetween both types of establishments has been 0.3 to 0.4 standard deviations ofscores on SIMCE. Whether these differences reflect or not a higher quality ofeducation provided by private institutions, it has been one of the most controversialtopics in both political and academic debate in the last fifteen years in Chile.Furthermore according to the OECD, developed nations, should have a publiceducation, gradually free for the population, why? Because free public educationensures a universal right of full access to all people with no discrimination, thiscauses the reduction of social and economic segregation. Currently, this does nothappen in Chile and there are high levels of social segregation causing high ratesof inequality.
The theory in favor of private education says that these, being freed from many ofthe bureaucratic and political influences that limit the management of publicschools would be in better condition to innovate, introduce quality standards inschool management and produce greater results by more efficient use of availableresources. Additionally, it is said that private schools would be more sensitive todemand signals, adapting its services to the preferences of families, the expectedpressure on the market by offering increasing levels of educational quality. Weshould expect, then, that private schools are more effective than public, andconsequently, an alternative approach was to compare learning outcomesproduced by both types of institutions.In essence, this research is to compare the average learning outcomes (measuredby national tests, mainly SIMCE) of the students who attended municipal andprivate subsidized by the state, trying to isolate this comparison of the influence ofother factors associated with learning outcomes of students and which may beconfused with the effect of school type.One of the most striking features of these studies has been the enormousvariability of results: while some estimates indicate that subsidized private schoolswould be more effective than public, others point out that no significant differencesbetween both types of establishments, some have found that the public would bemore effective than private ones. What else can explain such contrasting results?The most serious limitation that has affected and confused comparisons of theeffectiveness of public and private institutions in Chile is what it is called "selectionbias", which has in this case at least three known sources. First, as discussed, thesupply of private schools is not randomly distributed among the differentgeographical areas and social classes, secondly, the willingness of families to sendtheir children to school, taking into account the supply and available information,preferences and constraints, and their ability to pay, the parents choose schoolsand colleges for their children. In addition, the establishments may also select theirstudents. For example, 63% of private aided schools and 15% of the Santiagopublic in selecting students. Moreover, 82% of Santiago students establishmentsprivate non-subsidized, 37% of students in subsidized private and 18% of publicschools students must perform a test for admission to their schools.These tests, applied even to pre-school applicants-evaluate language skills,reasoning, psychomotor and social. According to the survey SIMCE-2003 (nationalcoverage among students in 2nd half), 85% of students of private non-subsidized,73% of students in subsidized private and 59% of students public facilities wereselected through an application process that included an examination or prioracademic performance requirement. Finally, the selection of students is an ongoingprocess that operates throughout the school career of students, many schools andcolleges, especially private students who get poor academic performance ordisciplinary problems. In these cases, selection is based not on performance butdemonstrated by the student.
About the hierarchy in public establishments it can be seen in the following order:MINEDUC, Department school boss, principal, sub-principal, inspector, UTP boss,teacher’s aide.Whilst in private establishments there is a relation between MINEDUC and asupporter who is the person in charge of the resources of the school, then it comesthe principal, inspector, UTP boss, department boss, managers, and teachers.Finally, we have shown how a strongly segregated Chilean school systemintroduces additional difficulties to the public-private comparison of schoolperformance. Based on the evidence gathered it can be concluded about thecontribution of the expansion of private education funded by the state, in terms oflearning outcomes, are the following:First, subsidized private schools, on average, no more effective in producinglearning outcomes than public schools, whether any difference exists, it seems tofavor public schools (since we know what estimated have tended to overrate theeffect of private schools).Second, if any difference in effectiveness between public and private schools (ineither direction), it is almost certain that this is in very small magnitudes,substantively irrelevant.Third, in the best case, the strong expansion of subsidized private education hasnot resulted in significant improvement of the quality of Chilean school system as awhole.Fourth, there is evidence to suggest that the expansion of private schools hasincreased in this way segmentation and inequality of Chilean education.Why the massive introduction of private schools, within a framework of opencompetition with public schools (and each other), has produced educationalimprovement waiting its proponents? The hypothesis raised by studies conductedin our country is that the institutional arrangement of the Chilean educationalsystem has severe structural deficiencies, which allow schools to remain and evenimprove their position in the "school market" without a need to improve the qualityof its education service.
References: - Waissbluth Mario, (2011) educación 2020, retrieved January 21, 2012 from http://www.educacion2020.cl/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&i d=23&Itemid=56 - Wales Jimmy, (January 15, 2001), Wikipedia the free encyclopedia, retrieved January 21, 2012 from http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ministerio_de_Educaci%C3%B3n_de_Chile, http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Educaci%C3%B3n_en_Chile - Universidad de los lagos, Vicerrectoría de Planificación y Desarrollo. Retrieved January 21, 2012 http://www.cedus.cl/?q=node/1001 - Atina Chile, Colegios: Municipales Vs. Privados, retrieved January 21, 2012 http://www.atinachile.cl/content/view/19124/Colegios-Municipales-versus- Privados.html - DIrección de presupuestos, Gobierno de Chile, retrieved January 21, 2012 http://www.dipres.gob.cl/572/channel.html