National stuttering awareness week


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National stuttering awareness week

  1. 1. National Stuttering Awareness Week Speech- Language Pathology Department FMH Rose Hill Rehabilitation May 2010
  2. 2. What is Stuttering ? <ul><li>Stuttering affects the fluency of speech. It is characterized by disruptions with speech sounds and words such as repetition, laryngeal blocks, and prolongations. (ASHA) </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are signs and symptoms of stuttering? <ul><li>Core (Primary) Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Laryngeal Blocks </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syllable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Prolongation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secondary Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>1 . Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>* Circumlocutions </li></ul><ul><li>* Starters </li></ul><ul><li>* Not entering feared contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Escape/Disguise </li></ul><ul><li>* Head nods/jerks </li></ul><ul><li>* Eye blinks </li></ul><ul><li>* hand/foot tapping </li></ul>
  4. 4. What age does stuttering occur? <ul><li>2-4 years </li></ul><ul><li>7-9 years </li></ul><ul><li>11-13 years </li></ul>
  5. 5. Stuttering in Two Perspectives: A. Physiological B. Psychological (muscles, breathing, voice, speech) (emotions, feelings)
  6. 6. What causes stuttering? <ul><li>Stuttering occurs when 1 out of the 3 subsystems is NOT functioning properly for fluent speech. These include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phonation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Articulation </li></ul></ul>Respiration (The Lungs and Abdomen) Articulation (Lips, Tongue, Jaw) Phonation (The Larynx)
  7. 7. a. Physiology: Respiration <ul><li>The child, adolescent, and adult must take in enough air using the muscles of the abdomen and thoracic cavities. When this does not happen, the patient will experience lack of breathing CONTROL . </li></ul>
  8. 8. a. Physiology: Phonation <ul><li>The vocal folds of the larynx must move in a “easy-flowing” motion to produce proper control and comfortable voicing. When this does not happen, the vocal folds become closed, causing blocks. </li></ul>
  9. 9. a. Physiology: Articulation <ul><li>The tongue, jaw, and lips must feel comfortable and under control to produce accurate speech. When this does not happen, all speech muscles become “tight” resulting in tension and blocks. </li></ul>
  10. 10. b. Psychological: Negative Emotions <ul><li>When stuttering occurs, the patient may feel frustrated, guilty, embarrassed, and most of all, negative about him/herself, thus resulting in lack of confidence. </li></ul>
  11. 11. b. Psychological: Teasing and Bullying <ul><li>Preschool and school-aged children may deal with other kids teasing and bullying about their speech, making them feel uncomfortable and most of all, developing a low self-esteem of themselves. </li></ul>
  12. 12. b. Psychological: Avoidance <ul><li>Negative emotions associated with stuttering include anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of entering certain speaking situations </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of humiliation in certain difficult speaking situations </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance may occur with certain sounds, words, resulting in circumlocution </li></ul>
  13. 13. What treatments are available for stuttering? <ul><li>Patients will learn to use strategies to produce fluent speech such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Easy onset </li></ul><ul><li>Light Loose Contact </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency Shaping Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring rate </li></ul><ul><li>Patients will learn to “change” their lifestyle to increase their confidence and comfort levels such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Using positive self talk </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Meditation </li></ul>
  14. 14. Being a HERO to oneself is a wonderful feeling Respiration Phonation Articulation Confidence Control Comfort
  15. 15. Are there organizations that have more information on stuttering? <ul><li>American Speech-Language-Hearing Association </li></ul><ul><li>The American Institute for Stuttering </li></ul><ul><li>National Stuttering Association </li></ul><ul><li>Stuttering Foundation of America </li></ul><ul><li>International Stuttering Association </li></ul><ul><li>Stuttering Home Page </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>Rosenberry-McKibbin, C. and Hegde, M.N. (2000). An Advance Review of Speech-Language Pathology . </li></ul><ul><li>American Speech-Language Hearing Association. (1997-2009). </li></ul><ul><li>Miranda, R.E. (2007) Standing Up and Speaking Out . ASHA Leader, September 4 edition. </li></ul>
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