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    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LIBRARY AND (IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 INFORMATION SCIENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (IJLISRD)ISSN: 2277 – 3541 (Print)ISSN: 2277 – 3673 (Online) IJLISRD © PRJ PUBLICATIONVolume 1, Issue 1, January- April (2012), pp. 21-34© PRJ: www.prjpublication.com/ijlisrd.asp VIRTUAL LIBRARY N.TAMILSELVAN 1 CHIEF LIBRARIAN & HEAD RATHINAM TECHNICAL CAMPUS, COIMBATORE Dr. R .SEVUKAN 2 ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR DEPARTMENT OF LIBARARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE PONDICHERRY UNIVERSITY N.SIVAKUMAR 3 LIBRARIAN KALAIGNAR KARUNANIDHI INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, COIMBATORE ABSTRACT Most of the Libraries today, offer a wide range of on-line services to their users. And, now, the internet and web technologies are not the new things to any academician hence, it is the time for a Library to be virtual and develop its on-line presence in order to further facilitate and enrich the educational processes. In this direction, Virtual Libraries provide a new way of serving the new generation users of the libraries. Virtual libraries are the new vision of libraries of the future. This paper provides an overview of a Virtual Library System. It narrates purpose, features, functions, design and development of a Virtual Library and Virtual Library Environment. Impact of ‘Virtual Library’ on ‘Lifelong Learning’ has also been emphasized. It also enumerates principles of development of Virtual Library Collection and advantages of Virtual Libraries. 21
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 “Ultimately … libraries as we know them seem likely to disappear. Facilities will stillexist to preserve the print-on-paper record of the past, of course, but they will be more likearchives, or even museums, providing little in the way of public service. As for the electronicsources, libraries may have an interim role to play. … In the longer term, it seems certain that thelibraries will be bypassed. That is, people will have very little reason to visit libraries in order togain access to information sources.” F. W. Lancaster (1983)Keywords: Virtual LibraryINTRODUCTION A virtual library is an organized set of links to items (documents, software, images,databases etc) on the network. The purpose of a virtual library is to enable users of a site to findinformation that exists elsewhere on the network. Virtual libraries (VL) are a natural growth of the ability of modern client server protocols(especially HTTP and Gopher) to provide seamless links to information anywhere on the Internet. Thefirst VLs were menus of links about a particular topic. They were thrown together by site managers toassist the users find items of interest. As the sheer volume of information has grown this approach isincreasingly difficult to maintain. Automation, cooperation and more flexible designs are becomingessential. Much attention has focused on the development of automated systems for indexingnetwork information. Many of these systems are non-selective in building indexes. Others aredesigned to index information only for a particular suite of sites. However the real advantage of avirtual library, especially one associated with a special interest network, is that it focuses onmaterial relevant to a particular topic. The design I outline here is intended to be a fruitfulmixture of automation with human participation, of flexible searching with "guided tours" of theinformation. Important issues in running a virtual library include finding the "records" (i.e. the links torelevant interest), managing the records, and providing access to the records. I assume 22
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012throughout that the VL is being developed by a Special Interest Network (SIN) (Green & Croft,1994). Any or all nodes in a SIN can participate in the management of its virtual library.DEFINITION What is a virtual library? The term has been defined by many different people in manydifferent ways. It is a library in which the holdings are found in electronic stacks. It is a librarythat exists, without any regard to a physical space or location. It is a technological way to bringtogether the resources of various libraries and information services, both internal and external, allin one place, so users can find what they need quickly and easily. Sounds great, right? Well, the virtual library also has its drawbacks and limitations.Michael Schuyler makes this point very clearly with his definition of the virtual library. Helikens the virtual library to a Popsicle, stating that "… [i]f the electricity goes off, the cold goesaway - and so does the Popsicle, leaving a soggy smear on the shelf where something substantialonce resided. The virtual library suffers the same vulnerability and the same precariousexistence." However, when they work, virtual libraries can be very useful and very diverse in whatthey contain. The options for what they can include are virtually endless, and become more andmore boundless as technology advances. Some of the content of a virtual library may include,but certainly is not limited to, CD-ROM, Internet subscriptions, lists of annotated web links,internal work products (such as brief banks), proprietary databases (such as LexisNexis orWestlaw) and even web spiders or push technology that deliver targeted research to the user.DEFINING THE VIRTUAL LIBRARY ENVIRONMENT Before commencing an examination of the role of librarians within the virtual libraryenvironment, it is necessary to reach an understanding of the phrase virtual library. The conceptof the virtual library is one that has developed with the growth in telecommunication networks,especially the internet. The virtual library emulates a real library, but is understood to be aproduct of the virtual world of the internet. To work with a definition that is meaningful withinthe field of librarianship, I will examine some of the definitions of the virtual library appearing inthe professional literature. 23
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 Within the library field there is a tendency to refer to the virtual library, the digitallibrary, and the electronic library interchangeably. Waters (1998) describes the phrase digitallibrary as replacing earlier references to electronic and virtual libraries. A few years earlier,Graham (1995) stated that virtual library is a companion term to digital library and that up to1995 both terms were used narrowly to define a quantity of databases available for use at a giventime. Grahams idea that the virtual and digital libraries are synonymous is interesting, but as hehimself admits, the definition he provides is very narrow. Wainwright (1996) believes a digital library possesses the same functions and goals ofthe traditional print-based library and that the difference lies in the digital part of the term[which] indicates merely that the material is stored and accessed digitally. Like Grahamsdefinition, Wainwrights definition of the digital library is also very narrow. A morecomprehensive definition of the digital library is provided by the Digital Library Federation(1999) in the United States: Organisations that provide the resources, including the specialised staff, to select,structure, offer intellectual access to, interpret, distribute, preserve the integrity of, and ensure thepersistence over time of collections of digital works so that they are readily and economicallyavailable for use by a defined community or set of communities. These definitions are concerned with a purely digital collection and while there areincreasing numbers of such, they do not as yet form the majority and it does not appear practicalor viable to equate the digital library with the library of the future where all valuable resourcesmight be available digitally. Other definitions of the digital or virtual library provide a more integrated approach.McMillan (1999) stated digital libraries and traditional libraries should not be separate, butshould coalesce to accomplish more than either can do independently to serve the usercommunity on the highest order. McMillan (2000) later refined her definition of a digital libraryto one that should be a seamless extension of the library that provides scholars with access toinformation in any format that has been evaluated, organised, and preserved and that the digitallibrary adds value and saves time while extending the hours of access. Mason (1998) believes it 24
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012is imperative for libraries to offer both print and digital resources, together they are the yin andyang of knowing. Rusbridge (1997) believes the library and its governing organisation iscritically important in digital libraries, we must provide integrated access for our community to awide range of resources, placed in a service context. In his description of a virtual library established at Monash Universitys Berwick Campusin 1991, Lim (1996) emphasised that the virtual library is not synonymous with the purely digitalor electronic library, but rather a parallel library which includes a finely balanced mix of print,multimedia and electronic information resources. The concept of a library which offers seamlessaccess to integrated print, electronic, local and remote resources has sometimes been termed ahybrid library (Pinfield, 1998). Many researchers within the library field concur with this view:Waters (1998) noted that an integrated collection of materials in digital and other formats wouldbe a strategic issue as digital libraries mature and Young (1998) stated that in future, the librarianwill encounter the twin challenges of managing buildings and print collections whilesimultaneously developing policies, tools, and support for digital collections and networkinformation services. This examination of various definitions of the virtual libraries within the professionalliterature brings me to that which I will use: The virtual library environment encompasses the concept of the digital library but is morethan a collection of digitised resources. The virtual library provides access to an integratedcollection of print, electronic and multimedia resources delivered seamlessly and transparently tousers regardless either of their physical location or the location and ownership of theinformation.VIRTUAL LIBRARY Virtual Library is another kind of Digital Library which provides portal to informationthat is available electronically elsewhere. This is referred so to emphasize that the Library doesnot itself hold content. Librarians have used this term for a decade or more to denote a Librarythat provides access to distributed information in electronic format through pointers providedlocally. 25
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 A Virtual Library has been defined by Gapen (1993) as, “the concept of remote access tothe contents and services of libraries and other information resources, combining an on-sitecollection of current and heavily used materials in both print and electronic form, with anelectronic network which provides access to, and delivery from, external worldwide library andcommercial information and knowledge sources”. The speedy and wide access to currentinformation contents makes virtual libraries a global symbol of the information access paradigm. The Virtual Library has changed the traditional focus of librarians on the selection,cataloguing and management of information resources such as books and periodicals. Thevirtual library is putting emphasis on access without the need to allow for the time required bythese technical processes. Virtual Libraries have induced libraries, scholars, publishers anddocument delivery vendors to develop new partnerships that are working for the good ofscholarly communication in both developed and developing countries.ADVANTAGES OF VIRTUAL LIBRARIES 1. Virtual libraries provide immediate access to a range of resources not available in physical collections. Virtual libraries allow unprecedented access to information and ideas. “A paradigm shift takes place from libraries as collectors of items to libraries as facilitators of access to all kinds of information, provided by anybody, located anywhere in the world, accessible at any time”. 2. Physical libraries operate with designated hours, virtual libraries are available anytime and anywhere where there is an Internet connection. 3. Virtual libraries offer opportunities for learning that are not possible in their physical counterparts. Virtual libraries complement other virtual learning environments, such as those provided in distance education and courses offered online, and like virtual learning environments, providing flexibility of time and place. 4. Virtual libraries often contain more up-to-date information than physical collections. Their sources can be searched more efficiently than those in physical libraries, and the information they contain can be updated more frequently. 26
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 5. Well-designed virtual library collections are organized and managed to increase productivity and efficiency of the user. 6. Virtual libraries empower the user and promote informal learning. 7. Virtual libraries can be customized for particular schools, grades, and subjects. This variety of formats in presentation and navigation is quite different from that of a physical library. Thus, virtual libraries support specific communities of interest, thereby, creating global communities of learners. 8. Virtual libraries break down the physical barriers between users and information sources. Through the use of audio and video, virtual libraries can also make resources available to users that are visually and hearing impaired, and they make these resources available in their homes. Virtual libraries of the future may integrate voice, video, and text for users involved in distance education in remote locations. 9. It saves and/or reduces the physical space taken up by library materials. 10. It often adds enhanced searching capabilities in a digital format. 11. The library materials are available at the users desktop, regardless of where the user is physically located. 12. It allows for the inclusion of materials only available on the Internet or in digital format. 13. It provides the user with the capability to download and manipulate text. 14. It often allows for multiple, concurrent users. 15. It eliminates the problem of a book being missing or off the shelf. 16. It is less labor intensive.DISADVANTAGES OF VIRTUAL LIBRARIES 1. Every product has its own distinct user interface. 2. Users need to remember different passwords for different products. 3. The scope of coverage and available archives is often limited. 4. There are often difficulties with downloading or printing. 5. Often there is no cost savings, especially when both the virtual and print products are maintained. 6. Everything is NOT available in digital format. 27
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 7. There are restrictions, which vary from vendor to vendor, on how the product can be used. 8. The virtual library relies on power and computer networks in order to be available for use. 9. Users cant spread everything out in front of them and use it all at once. 10. Users are most comfortable using books.USEFUL OF VIRTUAL LIBRARY • In addition of organising you e-book collection, you can also organise your collection of real books and other printed publications. • Convenience of having access to all your publications, be they printed or in e-book form • You can search for authors, publication titles and subject • You can search the content of your e-book collection. For the time being, this is mostly dependent on what key words and abstracts you entered for each publication. Full-content search of your library is still a while off, but keep watching this space. • It can be used as a repository for reference works for a project team. • Is can be a bibliographical database for research projects. The (optionally filtered) collection list can be exported to a BibTeX file to share with other projects. Likewise, you can import other projects BibTeX files to add to you bibliography. • And dont get me started on saving the trees etc...CONCLUSION Librarians are professionals trained in the acquisition, organisation, retrieval, anddissemination of information. In essence, the practice of librarianship in the virtual libraryenvironment will not be very different from that in the traditional print-based library. Thelibrarians role will continue to include selection of suitable resources, providing access to suchresources, offering instruction and assistance to patrons in interpreting resources, and preservingboth the medium and the information contained therein. 28
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012REFERENCE 1. Muttayya koganuramath, 5th International CALIBER -2007, Panjab University, Chandigarh, 08-10 February, 2007 © INFLIBNET Centre, Ahmedabad 2. Chiweza, D.S. (2006). The potential for Virtual library services to promote teaching and research and reduce the digital divide: a case study of the University of Malawi. (Accessed from: http://www.ascleiden.nl/pdf/elecpublconfchiweza.pdf on 08.01.2007) 3. Haddad, P. (2001) “From Digitization to Virtual Reality: Is Global Knowledge a Blessig or a Threat?” (Accessed from: http://www.nla.gov.au/nla/staffpaper/ 2001/ on 08.01.2007) 4. Archive of the Law-Lib Electronic Discussion, February, 1993, http://lawlibrary.ucdavis.edu/LAWLIB/feb93/0061.html 5. Schuyler, Michael. "The Virtual Popsicle: Online Libraries, Like Popsicles, are Vulnerable to Power Failure," 18 Computers in Libraries 28 (February 1998). 6. http://www.llrx.com/features/virtuallibrary.htm 7. Al-Ansari, H 1999, Improving the organizational structure for an electronic environment: a case analysis of Kuwait University libraries Library Review 48 (3) pp131-139. 8. Baker, D 1997, Document delivery: access versus holdings Librarian Career Development 5 (3) pp84-93. 9. Batt, C 1999, I have seen the future and IT works Library Review 48 (1) pp11-17. 10. Berthon, H & Webb, C 2000. The moving frontier: archiving, preservation and tomorrows digital heritage, Books and bytes: Conference Proceedings: 2000 VALA Biennial Conference and Exhibition, VALA, Melbourne. Also available online: [http://home.vicnet.net.au/~vala/vala2000/2000pdf/Ber_Web.PDF] - no longer available 11. Cathro, W 1999, Digital libraries: a National Library perspective in Strategies for the next millennium: proceedings of the ninth Australasian Information Online & On Disc Conference and Exhibition, ALIA, Sydney. Also available online: http://www.nla.gov.au/nla/staffpaper/cathro4.html (accessed 19 March 2000) 12. Crawford, W 1998. Paper persists: why physical library collections still matter, Online, vol22, no1, pp42-44, 46-48. Also available online: http://infotoday.mondosearch.com/cgi- 29
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 bin/MsmGo.exe?grab_id=32&EXTRA_ARG=IMAGE%2EX%3D9%00%26 IMAGE%2EY%3D9&CFGNAME=MssFind%2Ecfg&host_id=42&page_id=2166784& query=Paper+persists+why+physical&hiword =PERSISTING+PHYSICA+Paper+PAPERBASED+PAPERS+why+PERSIST+PAPER TS+PERSISTED+persists+ PAPERIN+physical+PHYSICALLY+PHYSICS+ (accessed 27 April 2000) 13. Crawford, W & Gorman, M 1995, Future libraries: dreams madness & reality, American Library Association, Chicago. 14. Cunnington, D 1998, Building better gateways: Buddy at the University of Melbourne Library, Robots to knowbots: the wider automation agenda: Conference Proceedings: 1998 VALA Biennial Conference and Exhibition, VALA, Melbourne. Also available online: http://www.vala.org.au/valaweb/num322.pdf (accessed 28 March 2000) 15. Darzentas, J 1999, Sharing metadata: enabling online information provision, OCLC Systems & Services 15 (4) pp172-178. 16. Dewey, M 1876. The profession, American Library Journal, vol1, September 30, p5-6, quoted in Rice-Livey, M. & Racine, J. 1997. The role of academic librarians in the era of information technology Journal of Academic Librarianship 23 (1) p32. 17. Dugdale, C 1999. Managing electronic reserves: new opportunities and new roles for academic librarians? Librarian Career Development 7 (12) pp150-163. 18. Gallimore, A 1999, Managing the networked public library Library Management 20 (7) pp 384-392. 19. Garrod, P & Sidgreaves, I 1998. Skills for new information professionals: the SKIP Project, LITC, London. Also available online: http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/services/elib/papers/other/skip/ (accessed 17 May 2000) 20. Gorman, M 1991, The academic library in the year 2001: dream or nightmare or something in between? Journal of Academic Librarianship 17 (1) March, pp 4-6. 21. Graham, P 1995. Requirements for the digital research library College & Research Libraries 56, July pp 331-339. 22. Hastings, K & Tennant, R 1996, How to build a digital librarian D-Lib Magazine November. [online] http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november96/ucb/11hastings.html (accessed 10 April 2000). 30
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 23. Hawkins, BL 1998, The unsustainability of traditional libraries in New thinking on higher education: creating a context for change, ed J Meyerson, Anker Publishing, Bolton, pp 148-177. 24. Iannella, R 1998, Mostly metadata: a bit of smarter technology, Robots to knowbots: the wider information agenda: Conference Proceedings, 1998 VALA Biennial Conference and Exhibition, VALA, Melbourne, pp.357-364. [Also online] http://www.vala.org.au/valaweb/num8011.pdf (accessed 10 April 2000) 25. Klemperer, K & Chapman, S 1997. Digital libraries: a selected resource guide Information Technology & Libraries 16 (3). Also available online: [http://www.lita.org/ital/1603_klemperer.htm] no longer active 26. Kurzeme, I Technology and dust mites The Australian Library Journal, May 1997, pp147-153. 27. Lim, E 1996, The virtual library meets the virtual campus: strategies for the 21st century in Electronic dream? Virtual nightmare: the reality for libraries: Conference Proceedings: 1996 VALA Biennial Conference and Exhibition, VALA, Melbourne, pp 21-37. 28. Lim, E 1998, Building a virtual national serials collection using the MEADS system Australian Academic and Research Libraries, 29 (4) December, pp165-175. 29. Luzeckyj, A 1999, The vital link: library staffing in the 21st century: proceedings of the second national library staffing conference, held by the University of South Australia, Adelaide 22-23 July 1999, University of South Australia, Adelaide. 30. Lynch, C & Garcia-Molina, H 1995. Interoperability, scaling, and the Digital Libraries Research agenda: a report on the May 18-19, 1995 IITA Digital Libraries Workshop [online] http://www-diglib.stanford.edu/diglib/pub/reports/iita-dlw/main.html (accessed 24 April 2000) 31. Mason, M 1998. The yin and yang of knowing, in Books, bricks & bytes: libraries in the twenty-first century, ed. S. Graubard & P. LeClerc, Transaction Publishers, London, pp161-171. 32. McMillan, G 1999. (Digital) libraries support (distributed) education, in Racing toward tomorrow: conference proceedings Association of College and Research Libraries 9th 31
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 national conference, ACRL, Washington D.C. Also available online: http://www.ala.org/acrl/mcmill.html (accessed 24 April 2000) 33. McMillan, G. 2000, The digital library: without a soul can it be a library? in Books and bytes: Conference Proceedings: 2000 VALA Biennial Conference and Exhibition, VALA, Melbourne. Also available online: [http://www.vala.org.au/vala2000/2000pdf/McMillan.PDF] - no longer active 34. Miller, L Peters, K Pappano, M & Manuel, K 1999. A research view for librarians working with electronic serials and licensing agreements in the age of the Internet and distance education, The Bottom Line: managing library finances, 12 (3), pp113-119. 35. Miller, P. 1996, Metadata for the masses, Ariadne [online] no.5, http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue5/metadata-masses/ (accessed 10 April 2000) 36. Missingham, R 1999, Science and technology: a web of information: impact of the electronic present and future on scientists and libraries, Strategies for the next millennium: proceedings of the ninth Australasian Information Online & On Disc Conference and Exhibition, ALIA, Sydney, pp 219-236. 37. Moore, N The information society, World Information Report, [online] http://www.unesco.org/webworld/wirerpt/report.htm (accessed 16 April 2000) 38. National Library of Australia. PADI: Preserving Access to Digital Information [online] http://www.nla.gov.au/padi/ (accessed 5 June 2000) 39. Negroponte, N 1995. Being digital, Hodder and Stoughton, Rydalmere. 40. Odlyzko, A 1996. Tragic loss or good riddance? The impending demise of traditional scholarly journals, in Scholarly publishing: the electronic frontier, R.B. Peek & G.B. Newby, MIT Press. 41. Odlyzko, A 1997. The economics of electronic journals, First Monday, 2 (8) [online] http://www.firstmonday.dk (accessed 6 August 2001) 42. Paterson, A 1999, Ahead of the game: developing academic library staff for the twenty- first century, Librarian Career Development, 7 (12) November, pp143-149. 43. Piggott, S 1996, Implementing a virtual library: are you ready? Electronic dream? Virtual nightmare: the reality for libraries: Conference Proceedings: 1996 VALA Biennial Conference and Exhibition, VALA, Melbourne, pp.181-190. 44. Pinfield, S 1998. Managing the hybrid library, SCONUL newsletter, no.14, pp 41-44. 32
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 45. Pollock, A & Hockley, A 1997, Whats wrong with internet searching, [online] D-Lib Magazine March 1997 http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march97/bt/03pollock.html (accessed 10 April 2000) 46. Report on the Green Paper on the Role of Libraries in the Modern World, [online] http://www.publiclibraries.fi/publications/report.htm (accessed 24 April 2000) 47. Rice-Livey, M & Racine, J 1997. The role of academic librarians in the era of information technology, Journal of Academic Librarianship, 23 (1), pp 31-41. 48. Rusbridge, C 1998. Towards the hybrid library, [online] D-Lib Magazine, July/August, http://www.dlib.org/dlib/july98/rusbridge/07rusbridge.html (accessed 1 May 2000) 49. Schmidt-Braul, I 1999, Does culture create new jobs in the information society?: strategic issues and new professional profiles, Librarian Career Development, 7 (12), pp 127-142. 50. Schuyler, M 1999, Prognostications on technology unbound or, the library to come, Computers in Libraries, 19 (5), pp 30-32 51. US Digital Library Federation ,1999, A working definition of the digital library. [online] http://www.diglib.org/dlfhomepage.htm (accessed 19 March 2000) 52. Wainwright, E 1996, Digital libraries: some implications for government and education from the Australian development experience. [online] http://www.nla.gov.au/nla/staffpaper/ew6.html (accessed 21 March 2000) 53. Ward, N & Wood, A 1998. Emerging technologies for networked information discovery: beyond Z39.50, Robots to knowbots: the wider information agenda: Conference Proceedings, 1998 VALA Biennial Conference and Exhibition, VALA, Melbourne, pp.377-391. [Also online] http://www.vala.org.au/valaweb/num821.pdf (accessed 7 April 2000) 54. Waters, D 1998. What are digital libraries? CLIR issues, 4, July/August, p1, 5. Also available online: http://www.clir.org/pubs/issues/issues04.html#dlf (accessed 27 April 2000) 55. Watstein, SB, Calarco, PV & Ghaphery, JS 1999, Digital library: keywords, Reference Services Review, 27 (4) pp344-352. 56. Wood, PA & Walther, JH 2000, The future of academic libraries: changing formats and changing delivery, The Bottom Line: Managing Library Finances, 13, (4) pp173-181. 33
    • International Journal of Library and Information Science Research and Development(IJLISRD), Volume 1, Issue 1, January- April 2012 57. Young, P 1998. Librarianship: a changing profession, in Books, bricks & bytes: libraries in the twenty-first century, ed S Graubard & P LeClerc, Transaction Publishers, London, pp103-125. 58. http://www.hoekstra.co.uk/index.php/software-mainmenu-36/joomla-mainmenu- 81/76- virtual- library-introduction.html 59. http://ces.iisc.ernet.in/hpg/cesmg/virtual.html 34