International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248-
9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Onl...
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Employee spirituality and job engagement a correlational study across organizational hierarchy

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Employee spirituality and job engagement a correlational study across organizational hierarchy

  1. 1. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 70 EMPLOYEE SPIRITUALITY AND JOB ENGAGEMENT: A CORRELATIONAL STUDY ACROSS ORGANIZATIONAL HIERARCHY Sumita Srivastava1 , Smriti Caprihan2 , Rupali Misra Nigam3 and Anushka Khemani3 1 Asstt. Professor, Dept. of Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, India. 2 MBA Student, Dept. of Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, India. 3 Research Scholar, Dept. of Management, Faculty of Social Sciences, Dayalbagh Educational Institute, Dayalbagh, Agra, India. ABSTRACT Today’s businesses require not only intellectually gifted and emotionally steady individuals but go one step ahead by demanding the finer qualities of moral behavior and job fulfillment in their present and potential employees. These qualities of the ‘soul’ are addressed through a high spiritual quotient. This research, based on Abraham Maslow’s model of hierarchy of needs, aims at a hierarchy wise study of employee engagement to the relationship of an employee’s spirituality. Employee engagement and employee spirituality at the workplace have been analyzed as standalone variables. The present study measures the spiritual levels of the employees, recorded on an independent Spirituality Assessment Scale (iSAS) developed by Rojas (2002). It comprises of the Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, Suprapersonal and Ideopraxis aspect of organizational spirituality. The engagement score has been measured using Galop’s Q-12 scale. An attempt is made to correlate employee’s spirituality with the employee’s work engagement levels in order to study if heightened spiritual quotients impact work engagement at different hierarchical levels in the organization. The study empirically validates that the regression coefficients indicating the impact of spirituality on an employees work engagement increases for employees at higher hierarchical levels. Additionally, demographic data collected on each employee’s years of service discloses that employees with a higher spirituality have low job turnover. Key words: Employee Spirituality, Spirituality in the Workplace, Employee Engagement IJHRMRD © PRJ PUBLICATION INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248 – 9401 (Print) ISSN 2248 – 941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014), pp. 70-88 © PRJ Publication, http://www.prjpublication.com/Ijhrmrd.asp
  2. 2. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 71 1. INTRODUCTION There has been a paradigm shift in organizational sciences, management theory and practice in the past two decades (Capra 1996; Giacalone and Dafna 2000; Harman and Hormann 1990; Ray and Rinzler 1993 and Wheatley 1992). It seems this paradigm shift is complex and includes multiple dimensions such as moving from a predictable outlook to chaos (Gleick 1987), from command and control or fear-based approaches to trust and empowerment (Conger and Kanungo 1988), from simplicity to complexity (Lewin 1992), from transactional leadership to transformational leadership (House and Shamir 1993), and from closed systems to complex adaptive systems (Dooley 1997). These changes in management include a shift from an economic focus to a balance of profits, quality of life, spirituality, and social responsibility concerns (Walsh, Weber, and Margolis 2003; DeFoore and Renesch 1995), a shift from self-centeredness to interconnectedness (Capra 1993), a shift from self-interest to service and stewardship (Block 1993; Neck and Milliman 1994), and a change from materialistic to a spiritual orientation (Fox 1994; Neal 1997; DeFoore and Renesch 1995). This new paradigm that is emerging in organizations has also been called as the spirituality movement. Ashmos and Duchon (2000) have described the spirituality movement by organization as a major transformation where organizations are trying to find a meaning, purpose and a sense of community. This new spiritual dimension embodies employees’ search for simplicity, meaning, self-expression, and interconnectedness to something higher (Marques, Dhiman and King 2007). There are evidences in literature that many large organizations have incorporated spirituality in their strategy and culture (Burack 1999). Spirituality at workplace asserts that employees bring unique and individual spirits to the workplace and are highly motivated by the spiritual need to experience a sense of transcendence and community in their work (Fry and Matherly 2006). A workplace which is spiritually expressed by its employees provides a competitive edge in the business. The guiding force or the higher power intertwines with work and influences behavior. There are several consequents of employee spirituality as discussed in literature. Higher job satisfaction (Reave 2005, Paloutzian, Emmons & Keortge 2003, Fry 2005, and Churchill, Ford & walker 1979), reduced job stress (Frew 2000), creativity (Mitroff & Denton 1999, Gull & Doh 2004 and Leigh 1997), job engagement (Pfeffer 2010 and Saks 2011) are a few outcomes of employee spirituality at workplace. These reflections in literature are conceptual in nature. Hence, empirical validation is lacking. This paper is an attempt to empirically validate the interaction between employee spirituality and job engagement using data from a manufacturing organization in India. The paper is divided into eight sections. In the subsequent section, background literature is discussed followed by the need and objectives of the study. In the next section, research methodology of the study is explained. Subsequently, conceptual framework and hypotheses are discussed. Data analysis and findings are discussed afterwards. In the final sections, conclusions, managerial implications of the study and future research directions are discussed. 2. BACKGROUND LITERATURE Spirituality has been considered in literature in a variety of ways. Some management thinkers restrict their work to the term individual spirituality, while others evaluate spirituality. Under this section, we discuss perspective of past researchers’ on the topic under
  3. 3. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 72 three heads. They are i) concept and definition of spirituality, ii) concept of employee spirituality and iii) impact of employee spirituality at workplace. 2.1 Concept and definition of Spirituality Mitroff and Denton (1999) define spirituality as the basic feeling of being connected with one's complete self, others, and the entire universe. If a single word best captures the meaning of spirituality and the vital role that it plays in peoples’ lives that word is interconnectedness. McCormick (1994) defines spirituality as an inner experience an individual has and this can be evidenced by his or her behavior. Gibbons (2000) discusses spirituality in the context of deeply held values. Neck and Milliman (1994) define spirituality as expressing one’s desire to find meaning and purpose in life and is a process of living out one’s set of deeply held personal values. Dehler and Welsh (1994) explain that spirituality is an individual’s inner source of inspiration. The basic feeling of being connected with one’s complete self, others, and the entire universe, is how Mitroff and Denton (1999) further define spirituality. Spirituality is also viewed as some internal substance, a value, belief, attitude, or emotion that affects people’s behavior (Moore & Casper, 2006). Bosch (2009) divides the concept of spirituality into two types: pure and applied. According to him, pure spirituality refers to silent, unbounded and inner experience of pure self awareness. It is devoid of customary content of perception, thoughts and feelings (Heaton et al. 2004). On the other hand, applied spirituality refers to the domain of practical applications and measurable outcomes that automatically arise from the inner experience of pure spirituality. Emmons (2000) describes spirituality as spiritual intelligence. According to him, spirituality refers to the search for the experiential elements of the sacred and ultimate meaning of life. It means a higher consciousness and transcendence. He further discusses that spiritual intelligence emphasizes the abilities that draw on such themes to predict functioning and adaptation. Amram (2007) also defines spiritual intelligence as the ability to apply and embody spiritual resources and qualities to enhance daily functioning and wellbeing. According to Snyder and Lopez (2008), spirituality is a positive psychological concept. They describe it as love and compassion, patience, tolerance, forgiveness, contentment, personal responsibility, and a sense of harmony with one’s environment. Spirituality is the pursuit of a vision of service to others through humility, charity and veracity. It goes beyond basic truth- telling to engage one’s capacity for seeing things exactly as they are, thus limiting subjective distortions. Furthermore, two of the most popular viewpoints of spirituality include the intrinsic origin view, and the existentialist perspective. As Krishnakumar and Neck (2002) noted, the intrinsic-origin view of spirituality is the one which argues that spirituality is a concept or a principle that originates from the inside of an individual. Guillory's (2000) definition falls within this perspective. He defines spirituality as the inner consciousness. According to him, spirituality comes from within-beyond programmed beliefs and values. Like Guillory, Brandt (1996) agrees that the goal of spirituality is greater personal awareness of universal values, helping an individual live and work better and more joyfully. Further to this, he believes that spirituality is beyond the rules of religion. Graber (2001) argues that spirituality avoids the formal and ceremonial connotations of religion; it is non-denominational, non-hierarchical, and non ecclesiastical. Spirituality implies an inner search for meaning or fulfillment that may be undertaken by anyone regardless of religion.
  4. 4. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 73 2.2 Concept of Employee Spirituality Some researchers use the term spirituality at workplace and others as employees’ spirituality. For the purpose of the present study, we use both the terms inter-changeably. Mitroff and Denton (1999) describe individual spirituality as finding the sacredness in the ordinariness of everyday life, feeling interconnected with everything, having inner peace and calm, having an infinite source of faith and willpower (Mitroff and Denton 1999b). Spirituality at workplace therefore is defined as the degree to which individual spirituality is expressed in the behaviors, policies, values and principles of an organization (Dehler and Welsh 1994). Ashmos and Duchon (2000) describe spirituality at workplace as involving three levels, individual, work-unit and organization-wide. The individual level describes how much an employee can obtain a satisfying internal and external life by finding individual meaning and purpose through their work. The work-unit dimension entails how much employees have a sense of connection and community with their colleagues; as well as assessing the extent to which those colleagues are caring and encouraging. It is further stated by Ashmos and Duchon (2000) that organization-wide Spirituality entails the extent to which an employee perceives of them as having good relationship with their organization, and how well they consider that their own values and goals align with their organizations. Corrine McLaughlin (2009) describes spirituality at business as simply embodying personal values of honesty, integrity, and good quality work. It’s treating the co-workers and employees in a responsible, caring way. As well as, it’s participating in spiritual study groups or using prayer, meditation, or intuitive guidance at work. According to Ashmos and Duchon (2000) spirituality at work has three components: the inner life, meaningful work and community. They further note that a workplace in which people see themselves as part of a trusting community, where they experience personal growth as part of their work community, where they feel valued and supported, would be a workplace in which spirituality thrives. Further, Kinjerski and Skrypnek (2004) define this as spirit at work. They describe this as the experience of employees who are passionate about and energized by their work, find meaning and purpose in their work, feel that they can express their complete selves at work, and feel connected to those with whom they work. They argue that spirit at work is a distinct state that involves physiological arousal, positive effect, a belief that one’s work makes a contribution, a sense of connection to others and common purpose, a sense of connection to something larger than self, and a sense of perfection and transcendence. 2.3 Impact of employee spirituality at workplace Researchers discuss numerous outcome of employee spirituality at workplace. Meaningfulness at work is one of the most discussed outcomes of employee spirituality in the literature. This dimension of employee spirituality represents how employees interact with their day to day work at an individual level. The expression of spirituality involves the assumptions that each person has his/her own inner motives and desires to be involved in activities that give greater meaning to his/her life and the lives of others. Researchers discuss that meaningfulness at work can be measured through facets like team spirit, job engagement and satisfaction, job turnover and creativity. Team work is based on the belief that people see themselves as connected to each other and that there is some type of relationship between one’s inner self and the inner self of others (Maynard 1992 and Miller 1992). It involves the mental, emotional and spiritual connections among employees in teams or groups in the organization (Neal and Bennelt 2000). The essence of deeper sense of connection involves support, freedom of expression
  5. 5. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 74 and genuine caring. And all this leads to better performance as a team. Several researchers report a significant correlation between spirituality and mental health indices of satisfaction, happiness, self esteem, hope and optimism (Reave 2005; Paloutzian, Emmons and Keortge 2003, Fry 2005). There is growing evidence that employee spirituality results in positive individual level outcomes for employees (Churchill, Ford and walker 1979). Spirituality leads to engagement of hearts and minds of their employees towards the workplace (Pfeffer 2010). It has an impact over job attitudes and behavior because of its potential to promote and create high levels of employee engagement. It generates positive, fulfilling work related state of mind that is characterized by vigor, dedication and absorption towards workplace (Saks 2011). Mitroff and Denton (1999) found that organization that have a stronger sense of spirituality enable employees to exercise stronger values and ethical beliefs in their workplace and empower them to show more creativity and flexibility at work. Gull and Doh (2004) has reviewed that spiritual consciousness makes employees to be more engaged and can work more responsibly, ethically, collaboratively and creatively when they find meaning in their work activities. Leigh (1997) states spirituality starts with the acknowledgement that employees do not bring only their bodies and minds to work, but also their hearts, soul’s creativity, talents and unique spirits. 3. NEED OF THE STUDY Spirituality at workplace and employee’s individual spirituality have begun to attract the attention of business leaders, top managers and management thinkers. Several researchers have started working in this area. There are lots of conceptual contributions made by researchers in the literature. Very few studies provide empirical evidences of the concerned subject. Past researches indicate that to survive in the current century in the face of economic downturn and global competition, it is imperative for leaders and managers to tap into their spiritual resources. There is a gap in literature in examining the possible interaction between individual spirituality and his job engagement level. Testing this relationship would lead to further growth in employee development, increased job performance, lower turnover rates, higher profits and employee retention as they relate to organizational goals and strategies. 4. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY This research study addresses the following key questions: 1. Is the spirituality of an employee related to his engagement levels? 2. Does the effect of employee spirituality on work engagement increase with higher hierarchical level? Therefore, the prime objective of the study is hierarchy wise measurement of the spirituality and employee engagement levels of the employees across a manufacturing organization to measure their interaction in order to detect a directional relationship. 5. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK AND HYPOTHESES A key component of spirituality is the ability to bring one’s whole self to work and to express one completely. Engagement also involves bringing all aspects of oneself, the cognitive, emotional, and physical dimensions in the performance of one’s role (Kahn 1990). Rich et al. (2010) conceptualize engagement as the investment of one’s complete self into a role. As indicated earlier, to be fully engaged means that one displays the self within their
  6. 6. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 75 role, while disengagement involves the decoupling of the self from one’s work role (Kahn 1990). And like spirituality, being authentic at work is also associated with engagement (Kahn 1992).Figure 1 provides the conceptual framework developed for the study. Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Study The conceptual framework indicates the possible association between employee spirituality and employee engagement. Organizational hierarchy has been identified as a moderator of this relationship. Introducing organizational hierarchy into the conceptual framework is based on Abraham Maslow’s model of hierarchy of needs. Maslow's hierarchy of needs is portrayed in the shape of a pyramid, with the most fundamental levels of needs at the bottom (d-needs), and the need for self-actualization at the top (b-needs). The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid contain what Maslow called deficiency needs or d-needs: esteem, friendship and love, security, and physical needs (Maslow 1971). If these deficiency needs are not met, the body gives no physical indication but the individual feels anxious and tensed. Maslow's theory suggests that the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term Meta- motivation to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the basic needs and strive for constant betterment. Meta-motivated people are driven by b-needs (being needs), instead of deficiency needs (d- needs). Maslow understood that when man was at his best, man had b-values. These values include truth, goodness beauty, unity, transcendence, aliveness, uniqueness, perfection, justice, order and simplicity. Through these b-values, researchers believe that Maslow introduced spirituality to psychology. This research paper splits Maslow’s hierarchy model into three parts emphasizing on the belief that the spiritual consciousness of a person increases as he moves up in this hierarchy. It attempts to measure the spirituality of employees at three different managerial levels-top, middle and entry level management, across a manufacturing organization. An employee’s spirituality is assumed to correspond to the model’s stage of self-actualization. Thus, the conceptual framework developed by the researchers, suggest that workplace spirituality might be an important driver or antecedent for employee engagement and organizational hierarchy as a significant moderator of this relationship. Based on the theoretical background given earlier, the hypotheses of the study are: H1: There is a correlation between the spirituality of an employee and his engagement levels. H2: Higher the level of employee in organizational hierarchy, stronger the relationship between employee spirituality and his engagement. 6. METHODOLOGY The study was conducted on 48 employees of a manufacturing organization across different hierarchical levels. The respondents were chosen on random basis across different Employee Spirituality Employee Engagement Organizational Hierarchy
  7. 7. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 76 hierarchical level in the organization. The hierarchical breakup of the respondents across the organization is given below: Table 1: Hierarchical Breakup of the Respondents of the Manufacturing Organization Hierarchy Number of Respondents Entry Level Management 17 (Male=7; Female =10) Middle Level Management 21 (Male=11 ; Female = 10) Senior Level Management 10 (Male=7; Female =3) Total Responses 48(Male=35 ; Female =23 ) Two measuring instruments were used to collect data from the respondents. Employee spirituality was measured using the Independent Spirituality Assessment Scale (iSAS) developed by Rojas (2002).While employee engagement was measured using Gallup Q12 survey. The Independent Spirituality Assessment Scale (iSAS), demonstrated normality (p = 0.09, n = 234), homogeneity (a = 0.88, n = 508), and stability (r = 0.92, n = 40), with an improved a = 0.91. The Independent Spiritual Assessment Scale (iSAS) uses the PRISM model of spirituality as a measurement construct. It consists of 3 aspects of spirituality based divided into 13 parameters. These three aspects of spirituality are Intrapersonal, Interpersonal and Suprapersonal. Parameters of Intrapersonal aspect are fulfillment of self, self determination, self control, and discovery of self and enrichment of self. Parameters of Interpersonal aspect are partnership dynamics, team dynamics, organizational dynamics and movement dynamics. And parameters of Suprapersonal aspect are transaction level, transformational level and transfigurational level (Rojas, 2005). A 7-point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) was used to record the responses. The Gallup Q12 survey is composed of 12 items that measure employee perceptions of work characteristics on a 5 point Likert scale from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Since the development of the Q12, Gallup has collected descriptive data on more than 7 million respondents, 6 million business units or workgroups, and 500 companies and the relationship between engagement and performance at the business unit level is substantial and highly generalized across companies. The Gallup Workplace Audit or Q12 survey has a Cronbach’s alpha reliability score of 0.91. The self-administrated questionnaires both iSAS and Gallop Q12 were distributed directly as well as by mail among the employees, with compact description of the study, to have a precise and unbiased opinion regarding job engagement and spirituality attributes. The respondents were given ample time to complete their questionnaires 7. DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS Various statistical techniques have been used to analyze the responses. Correlation and regression analysis is conducted to test the hypotheses of the study. Other descriptive statistical tools to interpret data used in the study are line graphs. The respondents (n=48) were categorized on the basis of their managerial levels as entry (n=17), middle (n=21) and top (n=10) level. The individual scores of iSAS and Gallop Q12 was computed for each respondent using prescribed evaluation techniques. The
  8. 8. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 77 hypothesis was then tested by applying simple regression analysis in order to measure the effect that the independent variable, spirituality of the employees, had on the dependent variable, the work engagement levels. Subsequent to descriptive and correlation statistical analysis, regression analysis was conducted to measure the predicting power of research variables, i.e. employee spirituality and employee engagement. Succeeding section discusses the findings for the three hierarchical levels separately. 7.1 Senior Level Management Table 2 provides the regression statistics of senior level management employees (n=9) evaluated on the two research variables - employee spirituality (predictor variable) and employee engagement (criterion variable). High Multiple R (=0.767) and high correlation coefficient r (=0.715) indicate strong positive and significant relationship between employee spirituality and employee engagement. This demonstrates strong influence of spirituality studied as a whole on intrapersonal, interpersonal and supranatural aspects on employee engagement at senior level management. High Multiple R (=0.767) also indicates strong linear relationship between the criterion variable and the part of a predictor variable that is independent of all other predictor variables. Coefficient of multiple determinations for multiple regression or R Square value of 0.589 indicates that 58.9% of the criterion variable (employee spirituality) is explained by the predictor variable through the regression model; i.e. 58.9% of variances are explained. R square is a measure of deviation of dependent variable from its mean. Adjusted R square measures the proportion of variation in the dependent variable due to variation in the predictor variable. Lower Adjusted R Square (=0.53) indicates that employee spirituality improves the model by less than expected. Or, 53% of the variation in employee engagement is measured by the predictor variable or employee spirituality Table 2 - Regression Statistics for Senior Level Management Linear regression equation between employee spirituality (predictor variable referred as X senior) and employee engagement (criterion variable referred as Ŷ) is presented in Table 3. Y-intercept is 9.695 and regression coefficient for spirituality of Senior Level Management is 0.123, which indicates a unit change in the spirituality would correspondingly lead to a 0.123 change in employee engagement. Table 3 also shows the values and reliability of the coefficient. The value of individual coefficient explains how much the individual variable impacts the dependent variable. The t-Stat and significance P-value provides the confidence level with which regression model can be supported statistically. The reliability of the coefficient and intercept can be validated by the significance level or P-value in the table at 95%. The lower/upper bound explains the flexibility in values of the coefficient in the model. Table 2 provides the range for both intercept (from 1.845 to 17.546) and regression coefficient (from 0.031 to 0.215). Figure 2 also depicts the values pictorially through a scatter plot. Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.768 R Square 0.590 Adjusted R Square 0.531 Standard Error 2.026 Observations 9
  9. 9. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 78 Table 3: Regression coefficient for senior level management Unstandardized Coefficients t Stat P-value 95% Confidence Interval Coefficients Standard Error Lower Bound Upper Bound Intercept 9.695 3.320 2.920 0.022 1.845 17.546 Spiritual Consciousness 0.123 0.039 3.170 0.015 0.031 0.215 Regression Equation : Ŷ= 9.695 +0.123 X senior Predictor : Employee Spirituality Dependent Variable : Employee Engagement Figure 2: Scatter Plot of Employee Engagement and Spiritual Consciousness for Senior Level Managers The extent of goodness of fit of the results can be checked with ANOVA in table 3. The percentage of variation in dependent variable (employee engagement) is explained by the variation in the predictor (employee spirituality) variable. The goodness of results through ‘p’ and ‘F’ can also be checked from table 3. F value (df 1, df 7) is 10.04 and p>0.015 ensures goodness of fit. 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 EmployeeEngagement Spiritual Consciousness Spiritual Consciousness Line Fit Plot Employee Engagement Predicted Employee Engagement
  10. 10. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 79 Table 4: ANOVA for senior level management df SS MS F Significance F Regression 1 41.259 41.259 10.049 0.0157 Residual 7 28.741 4.106 Total 8 70 Predictor : Employee Spirituality Dependent Variable : Employee Engagement df: Degrees of Freedom; SS : Sum of Squares; MS : Mean Square 7.2 Middle Level Management Table 5 provides the regression statistics of middle level management employees (n=21) evaluated on the same research variables - employee spirituality (predictor variable) and employee engagement (criterion variable). Multiple R (=0.428) and correlation coefficient r (=0.428) indicate positive relationship between employee spirituality and employee engagement. However, this is not as strong as in the case of senior level managers. This demonstrates moderate influence of spiritual consciousness (intrapersonal, interpersonal and suprapersonal aspects) on employee engagement at middle level management. Multiple R (=0.428) also indicates moderate linear relationship between the criterion variable and the part of a predictor variable that is independent of all other predictor variables. Coefficient of multiple determinations for multiple regression or R Square value of 0.183 indicates that 18.3% of the criterion variable (employee spirituality) is explained by the predictor variable through the regression model; i.e. only 18.3% of variances are explained. As mentioned before, R square is a measure of deviation of dependent variable from its mean. Adjusted R square measures the proportion of variation in the dependent variable due to variation in the predictor variable. Lower Adjusted R Square (=0.139) indicates that employee spirituality improves the model by less than expected. Or, only 13.9% of the variation in employee engagement is measured by the predictor variable or employee spirituality. Table 5: Regression Statistics for Middle Level Management Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.428 R Square 0.183 Adjusted R Square 0.139 Standard Error 3.088 Observations 21 Linear regression equation between employee spirituality (predictor variable referred as X middle) and employee engagement (criterion variable referred as Ŷ) is presented in Table 6. Y-intercept is 11.799 and regression coefficient for spirituality of middle level management is 0.094, which indicates a unit change in the spirituality would correspondingly lead to a 0.094 change in employee engagement. Table 6 also shows the values and reliability of the coefficient for Middle level management. The value of individual coefficient explains how much the individual variable impacts the dependent variable. As states earlier, t-Stat and significance P-value provides the confidence level with which regression model can be supported statistically. The reliability of the coefficient and intercept can be validated by the significance level or P-value in the table at 95%. The lower/upper bound explains the flexibility in values of the coefficient in the model. Table 6 provides the range for both
  11. 11. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 80 intercept (from 4.120 to 19.477) and regression coefficient (from -0.001 to 0.188). Figure 3 provides scatter plot of the two variables studies – employee engagement and spiritual consciousness. Table 6: Regression coefficient for Middle Level Management Unstandardized Coefficients t Stat P-value 95% Confidence Interval Coefficients Standard Error Lower Bound Upper Bound Intercept 11.798 3.668 3.216 0.0045 4.120 19.477 Spiritual Consciousness 0.093 0.0452 2.062 0.053 -0.001 0.188 Regression Equation : Ŷ= 11.798 +0.093 X middle Predictor : Employee Spirituality Dependent Variable : Employee Engagement Figure 3: Scatter Plot of Employee Engagement and Spiritual Consciousness for Middle Level Managers The extent of goodness of fit of the results can be checked with ANOVA in table 7. The percentage of variation in dependent variable (employee engagement) is explained by the variation in the predictor (employee spirituality) variable. The goodness of results through ‘p’ and ‘F’ can also be checked from table 7. F value (df 1, df19) is 4.256 and p>0.053 ensures goodness of fit at 95% confidence. 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 EmployeeEngagement Spiritual Consciousness Spiritual Consciousness Line Fit Plot Employee Engagement Predicted Employee Engagement Linear (Employee Engagement)
  12. 12. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 81 Table 7: ANOVA for Middle Level Management df SS MS F Significance F Regression 1 40.59047 40.59047 4.255728 0.053056 Residual 19 181.2191 9.537845 Total 20 221.8095 Predictor : Employee Spirituality Dependent Variable : Employee Engagement df: Degrees of Freedom; SS : Sum of Squares; MS : Mean Square 7.3 Entry Level Management Table 8 provides the regression statistics of entry level management employees (n=17) with employee spirituality (predictor variable) and employee engagement (criterion variable). Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation r (=0.248) shows weak positive correlation. Also, Multiple R (=0.249) also shows weak positive relationship between employee’s spiritual consciousness and employee engagement. Therefore, employee’s spiritual consciousness (intrapersonal, interpersonal and suprapersonal aspects) has less bearing on his engagement at entry level management. Coefficient of multiple determination for multiple regression or R Square value of 0.062 indicates that only 6.2% of the criterion variable (employee spirituality) is explained by the predictor variable through the regression model; i.e. only 6.2% of variances are explained. As mentioned before, R square is a measure of deviation of dependent variable from its mean. Adjusted R square measures the proportion of variation in the dependent variable due to variation in the predictor variable. Lower negative Adjusted R Square (-0.00054) indicates that employee spirituality improves the model by less than expected. Table 8: Regression Statistics for Entry Level Management Regression Statistics Multiple R 0.249 R Square 0.062 Adjusted R Square -0.00054 Standard Error 4.435 Observations 17 Linear regression equation between employee spirituality at entry level management (predictor variable referred as X entry) and employee engagement (criterion variable referred as Ŷ) is presented in Table 9. Y-intercept is 6.249 and regression coefficient for spirituality of Entry Level Management is 0.081, which indicates a unit change in the spirituality would correspondingly lead to a 0.081 change in employee engagement. Table 9 also shows the values and reliability of the coefficient for Entry level management. The value of individual coefficient explains how much the individual variable impacts the dependent variable. As stated earlier, t-Stat (0.996) and significance P-value (0.335) provides the confidence level with which regression model can be supported statistically. The reliability of the coefficient and intercept can be validated by the significance level or P-value in the table at 95%. The lower/upper bound explains the flexibility in values of the coefficient in the model. Table 9 provides the range for both intercept (from -5.902 to 18.401) and regression coefficient (from --0.093 to 0.256). Figure 4
  13. 13. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 82 provides scatter plot of the two variables studies – employee engagement and spiritual consciousness for entry level management. Table 9: Regression coefficient for Entry Level Management Unstandardized Coefficients t Stat P-value 95% Confidence Interval Coefficients Standard Error Lower Bound Upper Bound Intercept 6.249 5.701 1.096 0.290 -5.902 18.401 Spiritual Consciousness 0.081 0.082 0.996 0.335 -0.093 0.256 Regression Equation: Ŷ = 6.2493 + 0.081X entry Predictor : Employee Spirituality Dependent Variable : Employee Engagement Figure 4: Scatter Plot of Employee Engagement and Spiritual Consciousness for Entry Level Managers The extent of goodness of fit of the results can be checked with ANOVA in table 10. The percentage of variation in dependent variable (employee engagement) is explained by the variation in the predictor (employee spirituality) variable. Table 10 shows the results of ANOVA or the goodness of results through ‘p’ and ‘F’. F value (df 1, df 15) is 0.991 and p>0.335, showing that the confidence level is low for this category. 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 EmployeeEngagement Spiritual Consciousness Spiritual Consciousness Line Fit Plot Employee Engagement Predicted Employee Engagement Linear (Employee Engagement)
  14. 14. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 83 Table 10: ANOVA for Entry Level Management Df SS MS F Significance F Regression 1 19.493 19.493 0.991 0.335 Residual 15 294.978 19.665 Total 16 314.471 Predictor : Employee Spirituality Dependent Variable : Employee Engagement df: Degrees of Freedom; SS : Sum of Squares; MS : Mean Square 7.4 Overall Responses Karl Pearson’s coefficient of correlation (=0.537) computed of the all the subjects (n=48; male=25; female =23) irrespective of the hierarchy level indicates positive correlation between spiritual consciousness of the employee and his engagement level in the organization. Therefore, we accept hypothesis H1. Table 11 sums up the correlation coefficients for the subjects on various hierarchical levels. Here, correlation is progressively improving with hierarchy – 0.249 for entry level, 0.428 for middle level and 0.715 for senior level managers. Therefore, we accept hypothesis H2. Table 11: Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation Hierarchy Level Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation Senior Level Managers (n=10) 0.715 Middle Level Managers (n=21) 0.428 Entry Level Managers (n=17) 0.249 Overall Responses (n=48) 0.537 Does the Spirituality of an Employee impact his longitivity with a single company? The responses were also analyzed on the basis of employee’s years of service at the company and his spiritual consciousness score. Employees with a higher spirituality tend to stay longer with their company. This has been proven to be true in the case of the Senior Level Management Employees (higher spirituality) at the organization. Figure 5: Relationship of Spiritual Consciousness and Years of Service at One Company 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 1 2 3 4 5 SpiritualConscioussnessScores Years of Service Relationship of Spiritual Conscioussness and Years of Service at One Company Senior Management Spiritual Conscioussness Service Duration
  15. 15. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 84 As evident from the empirical relationship provided in the illustration above, the duration of service of those persons with a higher spirituality does seem to impact their longitivity with their company. An increase in the spirituality has caused a corresponding rise in the employee’s years of stay with one company. 8. CONCLUSIONS In the 21st century, corporate organizations must seek to develop options that will result in a competitive advantage. Developing a spiritual vision can bind an employee to the company and enhance job performance (Neck and Milliman, 1994). Unfortunately, many employees perceive their job and their work engagement negatively due to their lack of purpose or spirituality in their work. The interest in spirituality in the workplace is here to stay, as reflected by the rising number of publications on the topic, and the many reasons for this call on a global level. There is still a broad divergence in interpretations for the word spirituality as well as for the phenomenon of spirituality in the workplace. The literature demonstrates that applying the spiritual mindset in a workplace will encourage the creativity and innovativeness of employees, which, in turn, enhances their productivity, leading to better overall performance for and by the organization as it relates to job satisfaction and organizational commitment. According to Markow (2005) there is a need for the role of qualitative methodologies in building a theory of spiritual leadership. Currently, it remains largely unexplored and the qualitative methods potentially could have further insight to the future of spirituality in the workplace as it relates to organizational commitment. The results in this research are congruent with other studies of spirituality in the workplace (Rego, 2007, Giacolone and Jurkiewicz, 2003, Moore and Casper, 2006, Kolodinsky and Giacalone and Jurkiewicz, 2008) suggesting that when people find meaning in their work activities and feel involved in a spiritual organizational climate, they become happier and healthy employees engaged in a collaborative manner, to apply the full potential to work and bring their entire selves to the organization. They, thus become more productive over the long run compared with employees in organizations where spirituality is ignored or disrespected (Gotsis & Kortezi, 2008). Spirituality exists in corporations, simply because all employees are spiritual beings. However, there are many difficulties to address if a company wishes to acknowledge officially what already exists, and to erect a framework by which the individual‘s spirituality will have a positive, work-enhancing expression. The potentially groundbreaking nature of this research leaves no doubt that the intuitively positive relationships between spirituality in the workplace and organizational commitment have a relationship to transform individual and organizational life in ways unrestricted by natural laws. In the years to come, organizations must seek to develop any option possible that can result in a competitive advantage. Developing a spiritual vision will bind an employee to the company and enhance job performance. However, the results of the study can be examined by taking a higher sample size and covering more sectors of the economy. Also, the possibility of existence of non-linear relationship between employee’s spiritual consciousness and his engagement can be explored. 9. MANAGEMENT IMPLICATIONS OF THE STUDY The research study examined here represents an intense effort to offer human resource personnel, professional organizational developers, management consultants and researchers with a spirituality construct and measurement tool congenial to the business environment.
  16. 16. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 85 With this measurement tool, human resource managers have a way to assess spirituality as a recruiting and retention factor, as stress and a substance abuse preventive measure, and spirituality as a ‘quality of life at work’ factor. 10. FUTURE RESEARCH DIRECTIONS Professionals and consultants dedicated to organizational development may find this instrument useful in assessing spirituality as a factor of organizational wellness, a method to transform the workplace into a true sense of community, a tool to discern a corporate spiritual identity, or as the next topic in the evolution of corporate culture. Researchers may be interested in using this instrument to discover the relationship of spirituality with other variables, such as resilience, tolerance to ambiguity, organizational loyalty, healing and recovery, to mention a few. In other words, now that a relational anatomy of spirituality is available, professionals are encouraged to exploit this field and to continue the discovery of spirituality as a contributing factor in management theory. However the applicability of the results would be enhanced if data is collected from multiple sectors through multiple sampling techniques and if the data is collected on a time series (longitudinal) basis. Also the spiritual values and the needs of subordinates and followers should be considered for future study. The economic status of the employees’ should also be investigated and considered for future research. As a final note to the present study, the researcher is encouraged by what has been and is being accomplished within the discipline of spirituality and management. It remains the researchers’ hope that the present study on spirituality as a relational-ideopraxis construct, help crystallize the drive to foster a spirituality movement and assist the disciplines of management shift more towards a relationally dominant paradigm. REFERENCES 1. Amram, Y. (2007), “What is Spiritual Intelligences? An Ecumenical, Grounded Theory.” Working paper of the Institute of Transpersonal Psychology, CA. 2. Amram, Y. (2007). “The Seven Dimensions of Spiritual Intelligence: An Ecumenical Grounded Theory.” Paper presented at the 115th Annual (August 2007) Conference of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA. 3. Ashmos, D. and Duchon, D. (2000). “Spirituality at Work: A Conceptualization and Measure.” Journal of Management Inquiry, 9(2), 134-45. 4. Block, P. (1993). “Stewardship: Choosing Service over Self-Interest.” San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler. 5. Bosch, L. (2009). “The inevitable role of spirituality in the workplace.” Business Intelligence Journal, 2(1), 139-157. 6. Brandt, E. (1996). “Corporate Pioneers Explore Spirituality.” HR Magazine, 41, 82-87. 7. Burack, E. (1999). “Spirituality in the workplace.” Journal of Organizational Change Management, 12(4), 280-291. 8. Capra, F. (1993). “A systems approach to the emerging paradigm: The new paradigm in business.” New York: Tarcher Books, 230-237. 9. Capra, F. (1996). “The web of life: A new scientific understanding of living systems.” New York: Anchor Books.
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  18. 18. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 87 30. House, R. J. & Shamir, B. (1993). “Toward the Integration of Transformational, Charismatic, and Visionary Theories.” Leadership Theory and Research: Perspectives and Directions, 81-107. 31. Kahn, W. A. (1990). “Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work.” Academy of Management Journal, 33, 692-724 32. Kahn, W. A. (1992). “To be fully there: Psychological presence at Work.” Human Relations Journal, 45, 321-349 33. Kinjerski, V.M. & Skrypnek, B.J. (2004). “Defining spirit at work: finding common ground.” Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17, 26-42. 34. Kolodinsky, R., Giacalone, R. & Jurkiewicz, C. (2008). “Workplace Values and Outcomes: Exploring Personal, Organizational & Interactive Workplace Spirituality.” Journal of Business Ethics, 81(2), 465-480. 35. Krishnakumar, S. & Neck, C.P. (2002). “The what, why and how of spirituality in the workplace.” Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17, 153-164. 36. Leigh, P. (1997). “The new spirit at work.” Training and Development, 51(3), 26-33. 37. Lewin, R. (1992). “Complexity: Life at the edge of chaos.” Macmillan Pub. Co. 38. Markow, F. & Klenke, K. (2005). “The effects of Personal Meaning and Calling on Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Investigation of Spiritual Leadership.” The International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 13(1), 8-27. 39. Marques, J., Dhiman, S. & King, R. (2007). “Spirituality in the Workplace: What It Is, Why It Matters, How to make it work for you.” Personhood Press. 40. Maslow, A. H. (1971). “The Farther Reaches of Human Nature.” New York: Esalen Books. Viking Press 41. Maynard, H.B. (1992). “Evolution of human consciousness” in Renesch, J. (Ed.), New Traditions in Business, Spirit and Leadership in the 21st Century, Berrett-Koehler, San Francisco, CA, 39-52. 42. McCormick, D. W. (1994). “Spirituality and management.” Journal of Managerial Psychology, 9(6), 5-8. 43. McLaughlin (2009). “Spirituality and ethics in business.” The centre for visionary leadership. 44. Miller, W.C. (1992). “How do we put our spiritual values to work?” in Renesch, J. (Ed.), New Traditions in Business: Spirit and Leadership in the 21st Century, Berrett- Koehler, San Francisco, CA, 69-80. 45. Mitroff and Denton (1999). “A study of spirituality in the workplace.” Sloan Management Review, 83-92 46. Moore, T.W. & Casper, W.J. (2006). “An Examination of Proxy Measures of Workplace Spirituality: A Profile Model of Multidimensional Constructs.” Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 12(4), 109-118. 47. Neal, J. (1997). “Spirituality in management education: A guide to resources.” Journal of Management Education, 21, 121 -140. 48. Neal, J.A. & Bennett, J. (2000). “Examining multi-level or holistic spiritual phenomena in the work place.” Management, Spirituality, & Religion Newsletter, Academy of Management, 1-2. 49. Neck, C.P. & Milliman, J.F. (1994). “Thought self-leadership: finding spiritual fulfillment in organizational life.” Journal of Managerial Psychology, 9(6), 9-16. 50. Paloutzian, R.F., Emmons, R.A. & Keortge, S.G. (2010). “Spiritual well-being, spiritual intelligence, and healthy workplace policy.” Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance, 73-86.
  19. 19. International Journal of Human Resource Management and Development (IJHRMRD) ISSN 2248- 9401 (Print), ISSN –2248-941X (Online) Volume 4, Number 1, January - March (2014) 88 51. Pfeffer, J. (2003). “Business and the spirit.” Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance, 29-45. 52. Ray, M. & Rinzler, A. (1993). “The new paradigm in business.” New York: Tarcher. 53. Reave, L. (2005). “Spiritual values and practices related to leadership effectiveness.” The Leadership Quarterly, 16(5), 655-687. 54. Rego, A. & Cunha, M.P. (2007). “Workplace Spirituality and Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Study.” Journal of Organizational Change management, 21(1), 53-75. 55. Rich Lepine J.A. & Crawford, E.R. (2010). “Job Engagement: Antecedents and Effects on Job Performance.” Academy of Management Journal, 53(3), 617-635 56. Rojas, R. R. (2005). “Management theory and spirituality: A framework and validation of the Independent Spirituality Assessment Scale.” Dissertation Abstracts International, 63(2-A), 668-678. 57. Rojas, R.R. (1989). “Ideal personal (Personal Ideal)” 2nd revision. Manuscript in Spanish submitted for publication with limited circulation. (Available from PRISM Leadership Institute, 3805 Woodroffe Court, Suite 3, Tampa FL 33618). 58. Rojas, R.R. (2000). “A review of models for measuring organizational effectiveness among for-profit and nonprofit organizations.” Nonprofit Management & Leadership, 11, 97-104. 59. Saks, A.M. (2011). “Workplace spirituality and employee engagement.” Journal of Management, Spirituality and Religion, 8(4), 317-340 60. Snyder, C.R. & Lopez, S.J. (2005, revised 2008). “Handbook of positive psychology.” New York: Oxford University Press. 61. Walsh, J. P., Weber K., & Margolis, J. D. (2003). Social Issues and Management: Our Lost Cause Found. University of Michigan Business School. 62. Wheatley, M. (1992). “Leadership and the new science. Learning about organization from an orderly universe,” San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

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