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Investigating cognitive aspects in           digital maps  Using VGI to create a child suitable map
Who am I?     Philippe Rieffel, student of Geoinformatics from Muenster,      Germany     Student assistant with GI@Scho...
Why maps for children?     Map literacy is crucial for everyday life, school, university,      work and an independent li...
Why maps for children?http://walrusmagazine.com/articles/2009.11-health-global-impositioning-systems/http://www.thedailygr...
Why maps for children?     The high school curriculum in Germany demands the           “[..] building of a topographic kn...
Theoretical foundation - Piaget     According to Piaget, infants and children form schemas to      impose order on the wo...
Theoretical foundation - Piaget    http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_kassin_essentials_1/15/3935/1007493.cw/index.html    Philip...
Theoretical foundation - Piaget     Piaget: Advancement through the stages is biologocally      driven (aging)     Newer...
Piaget - criticism     Newcombe: 4 stages are too strict     Features of each stage are also found in earlier stages    ...
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek10   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
The actual topic of this talk      (Digital) Maps are undoubtly important for the process of       spatial learning of ki...
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek12   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
The actual topic of this talk      (Digital) Maps are undoubtly important for the process of       spatial learning of ki...
Motivation                             Why is that street                                           yellow on this map?   ...
Research questions      Theoretical analysis          How do kids perceive their environment?          How is that perc...
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek16   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek17   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
Kids need „easier“ maps!                ..that reflect their world!     Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek18   University...
First thoughts      How should a map for kids look like?          Remove unnecessary features off the map          Use ...
First thoughts - survey      Ask kids, how they would make a map          Features          Colors          Geometries...
Survey - Map orientation                                           Can you identify the                                   ...
Survey - Map orientation     Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek22   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
Survey - Symbology I     Symbols are taken from the OpenStreetMap renderer Mapnik:     https://trac.openstreetmap.org/brow...
Survey - Symbology II     Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek   University of Muenster, Germany   March 17, 201224
General information      General information          Gender          Age      Experience          With paper maps   ...
Survey results      35 usable datasets          Age: 9-12          Gender: 20 f / 15 m      Majority (60%) had at leas...
Survey results      First interpretation:          Orientation along districts          District names prominent on    ...
Survey results - Symbology      Most icons were identified “correctly”, some deviations          Parking          Cinem...
Survey results - Colors      Some trends          Yellow for roads (“Google design”) only mentioned twice          Road...
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek30   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
Implementation      Create a digital map service          Render raster maps from OpenStreetMap Vector data          Fl...
Implementation - flexibility      WMS-like functionality      Advantage: Cater the changing requirements during aging of...
Extent                                     Resolution                                                     Feature     Vari...
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek34   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek35   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek36   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
All maps taken from OpenStreetmap.org || CC-BY-SA license     Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek37   University of Muenst...
Map design principles      Generalize the world as little as possible / as much as       necessary      Use symbology th...
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek39   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek40   University of Muenster, Germany       March 17, 2012
Contact     Philippe Rieffel     p.rieffel@uni-muenster.de     @p.rieffel     Progress blog:     http://52north.org/Geospa...
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Presentation rieffel

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An updated version of the slides about my master thesis from a talk i held at GIZeitgeist 2012

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  1. 1. Investigating cognitive aspects in digital maps Using VGI to create a child suitable map
  2. 2. Who am I?  Philippe Rieffel, student of Geoinformatics from Muenster, Germany  Student assistant with GI@School (www.gi-at-school.de)  Our Mission: Introduce new concepts of Geoinformatics to teachers, pupils and parents  Supported by Thomas Bartoschek with input, ideas and supervision Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek2 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  3. 3. Why maps for children?  Map literacy is crucial for everyday life, school, university, work and an independent life  Lines up with other basic skills that are necessary  Literacy  Math  Use of information and communication technologies  Those skills are taught explicitly, while gaining map literacy is often implicitly done Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek3 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  4. 4. Why maps for children?http://walrusmagazine.com/articles/2009.11-health-global-impositioning-systems/http://www.thedailygreen.com/media/cm/thedailygreen/images/green-kids-treasure-hunt-lg.jpg Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek 4 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  5. 5. Why maps for children?  The high school curriculum in Germany demands the “[..] building of a topographic knowledge base about a theme-based global orientation grid as prerequisite for a differentiated spatial integration-related thinking”. (Core curriculum geography, high school, NRW)  This process could already be stimulated earlier, starting from kindergarden  Learning to Think Spatially: GIS as a Support System in the K- 12 Curriculum Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek5 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  6. 6. Theoretical foundation - Piaget  According to Piaget, infants and children form schemas to impose order on the world  Those schemas undergo constant variation and modification, depending on the age  Piaget: Assimilation and adaption  Foundation for constructivist learning Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek6 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  7. 7. Theoretical foundation - Piaget http://wps.prenhall.com/hss_kassin_essentials_1/15/3935/1007493.cw/index.html Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek7 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  8. 8. Theoretical foundation - Piaget  Piaget: Advancement through the stages is biologocally driven (aging)  Newer studies show that maturing is the basis, but the speed and quality of the advancement are influenced by external stimuli and experience (e.g. by Newcombe, adaptive combination) Those stimuli can be provided from kindergarden on  Technological advancement allows easy to use and specially tailored methods towards spatial thinking Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek8 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  9. 9. Piaget - criticism  Newcombe: 4 stages are too strict  Features of each stage are also found in earlier stages  Automatic advancement through the stages is questioned  Environmental factors influence the speed of development  Piaget underestimates children abilities  Theories are still valuable  Theories + Criticism justify the approach of using support tools for spatial learning from early on Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek9 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  10. 10. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek10 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  11. 11. The actual topic of this talk  (Digital) Maps are undoubtly important for the process of spatial learning of kids, starting at very young ages  We worked with several software products lately, even created some, that support spatial learning processes Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek11 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  12. 12. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek12 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  13. 13. The actual topic of this talk  (Digital) Maps are undoubtly important for the process of spatial learning of kids, starting at very young ages  We worked with several software products lately, even created some, that support spatial learning processes  All lack the same problem NO basemap especially suitable for kids! Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek13 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  14. 14. Motivation Why is that street yellow on this map? I see that is grey Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek14 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  15. 15. Research questions  Theoretical analysis  How do kids perceive their environment?  How is that perception „stored“ in their imagination?  How can that perception be transfered into a cartographic representation? Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek15 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  16. 16. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek16 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  17. 17. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek17 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  18. 18. Kids need „easier“ maps! ..that reflect their world! Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek18 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  19. 19. First thoughts  How should a map for kids look like?  Remove unnecessary features off the map  Use more uniform signatures  Use clear fonts and easy symbols Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek19 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  20. 20. First thoughts - survey  Ask kids, how they would make a map  Features  Colors  Geometries  Icons  Survey and sketchmaps  Conducted during a stay in Campinas, Brazil  Repeated in Germany soon Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek20 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  21. 21. Survey - Map orientation Can you identify the area of your school and of your home? Please rate the maps! general/orientation Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek21 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  22. 22. Survey - Map orientation Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek22 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  23. 23. Survey - Symbology I Symbols are taken from the OpenStreetMap renderer Mapnik: https://trac.openstreetmap.org/browser/applications/rendering/mapnik/symbols Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek23 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  24. 24. Survey - Symbology II Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 201224
  25. 25. General information  General information  Gender  Age  Experience  With paper maps  With digital maps Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek25 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  26. 26. Survey results  35 usable datasets  Age: 9-12  Gender: 20 f / 15 m  Majority (60%) had at least some experience with paper maps  Experience with digital map was generally little (71%)  Map ranking: Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek26 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  27. 27. Survey results  First interpretation:  Orientation along districts  District names prominent on selfmade maps and osm  No district names on the OSM excerpt  No.1 Map had a lot of details removed  clarity  No. 3 Map, too much removed? Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek27 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  28. 28. Survey results - Symbology  Most icons were identified “correctly”, some deviations  Parking  Cinema  Police  Mail  See-saw  Reasons:  Lingual differences  Symbol design / Symbol unknown Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek28 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  29. 29. Survey results - Colors  Some trends  Yellow for roads (“Google design”) only mentioned twice  Roads either black or grey  Red for borders Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek29 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  30. 30. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek30 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  31. 31. Implementation  Create a digital map service  Render raster maps from OpenStreetMap Vector data  Flexible design scheme  Whole world data coverage  Setup: PostgeSQL DB + Renderer + Webinterface Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek31 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  32. 32. Implementation - flexibility  WMS-like functionality  Advantage: Cater the changing requirements during aging of the children Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek32 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  33. 33. Extent Resolution Feature Variability Scale Density Map Scale Coverage Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek33 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  34. 34. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek34 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  35. 35. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek35 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  36. 36. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek36 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  37. 37. All maps taken from OpenStreetmap.org || CC-BY-SA license Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek37 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  38. 38. Map design principles  Generalize the world as little as possible / as much as necessary  Use symbology that is easily connectable to the real world  Identify important content for children, omit unnecessary information that obstruct the map Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek38 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  39. 39. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek39 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  40. 40. Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek40 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
  41. 41. Contact Philippe Rieffel p.rieffel@uni-muenster.de @p.rieffel Progress blog: http://52north.org/GeospatialLearning/ Philippe Rieffel, Thomas Bartoschek41 University of Muenster, Germany March 17, 2012
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