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The College Classroom (Wi14) Week 9: Alternatives to Lecture
 

The College Classroom (Wi14) Week 9: Alternatives to Lecture

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Peter Newbury and Beth Simon

Peter Newbury and Beth Simon
Center for Teaching Development
University of California, San Diego
11 March 2014

collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu

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    The College Classroom (Wi14) Week 9: Alternatives to Lecture The College Classroom (Wi14) Week 9: Alternatives to Lecture Presentation Transcript

    • What do you notice? What do you wonder? (16th Century carving Wikimedia Commons)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 1
    • The College Classroom March 4 and 6, 2014 Week 9: Alternatives to Lecture Unless otherwise noted, this work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution- NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License.
    • Key Finding 1 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 3 Students come to the classroom with preconceptions about how the world works. If their initial understanding is not engaged, they may fail to grasp the new concepts and information that are taught, or they may learn them for the purposes of a test but revert to their preconceptions outside of the classroom. (How People Learn [1], p. 14) Instructors must draw out students’ pre-existing understandings. Instruction must be student-centered.
    • Key Finding 2 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 4 To develop competence in an area, students must: a) have a deep foundation of factual knowledge, b) understand facts and ideas in the context of a conceptual framework, and c) organize knowledge in ways that facilitate retrieval and application. (How People Learn [1], p. 16) These are characteristics of expertize Instructors need to give students opportunities to be more expert-like.
    • Key Finding 3 collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 5 A “metacognitive” approach to instruction can help students learn to take control of their own learning by defining learning goals and monitoring their progress in achieving them. (How People Learn [1], p. 18) Instructors need to provide opportunities for students to practice being metacognitive Metacognition: that voice in your head that checks your understanding
    • Constructivist theory of learning collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 6 Students need to construct their own understanding of the concepts, where  each student assimilates new material into his/her own framework of initial understanding and preconception  each student confronts his/her (mis)understanding of the concepts A traditional, one-way lecture doesn’t give students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge, practice a skill, or receive timely, formative feedback.
    •  before class  3-4 pg reading  online reading quiz  in class  mix of peer instruction, instructor feedback, worksheets, demonstrations  before class  3-4 pg reading  in class  PPT slides  0–5 summative clicker questions (not peer instruction) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd Experimental SectionControl Section 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class [2] trad’l lecture peer instruction instructor feedback worksheets demonstration
    • Improved Learning in a Large- Enrollment Physics Class [2] collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 8 Remember: Experimental section instructors LD and ES had no teaching experience but significant pedagogical content knowledge – knowledge about how people learn physics. average 41±1% average 74±1%
    • collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 9 student-centered instructiontraditional lecture
    • Alternatives to Lecture collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 10 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
    • What do you notice? What do you wonder? Archimedes Bath (16th Century carving, Wikimedia Commons)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 11
    • Start teaching before the bell rings collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd12 Students arrive, ready to engage with you, your content:  Project a picture related to today’s lesson  Add prompts: “What do you notice? What do you wonder?” [3]  Spend first few minutes leading a discussion:  every student can contribute because everyone can wonder  you learn their pre-existing knowledge  activates concepts in their memories  Don’t let their enthusiasm slip away!
    • Alternatives to Lecture collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 13 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
    • collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 14 Chemistry Day 4 by pennstatenews on flickr CC-BY-NC
    • In-class demonstrations 15 1. Instructor (meticulously) sets up the equipment, flicks a switch, “Taa-daaah! 2. Students  don’t know where to look  don’t know when to look, miss “the moment”  don’t recognize the significance of the event amongst too many distractions To engage students and focus their attention on the key event, get students to make a prediction (using clickers, for example.) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • Clicker question 16 A ball is rolling around the inside of a circular track. The ball leaves the track at point P. Which path does the ball follow? P A B C D E (Mazur)collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • In-class demonstrations 17 After the prediction, each student  cares about the outcome (“Did I get it right?”)  knows where to look (can anticipate phenomenon)  knows when to look (sees phenomenon occur)  gets immediate feedback about his/her understanding of the concept  is prepared for your explanation  More about Interactive Lecture Demos (ILDs)[4] and using demonstrations to teach, not entertain [5] collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • Alternatives to Lecture collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 18 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
    • What do you see? collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 19 A) old lady B) young woman  If you’re studying human behavior, let your students generate authentic data  For sensitive issues, clickers can be set to “anonymous”
    • Alternatives to Lecture collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 20 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
    • Flipped class model collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 21 students prepare at home reading quiz (online or in class to check knowledge and reward effort) in class, students are prepared to engage in natural, critical, learning tasks [10]
    • Alternatives to Lecture collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 22 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
    • Whiteboards = practice collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 23 Use whiteboards to give your students practice analyzing summarizing deriving illustrating computing drafting brainstorming presenting Tips:  groups of 3-4 with 1 pen per person  encourage students to show their thinking, not just the final analysis  train students to listen to each other’s presentations  see [6, 7] for resources
    • Alternatives to Lecture collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 24 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
    • Gen-Ed astronomy class 25 Before beginning an in-class worksheet, be sure the students are properly prepared: The Speed of Light  light travels through space at a very fast (300,000 km/s) but finite speed  a light-year (abbreviated “ly”) is how far light travels in one year Please complete the worksheet in groups. Work together. Try to reach consensus on each answer. collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • In-class worksheets 26  carefully-designed sequence of questions guide students through the exploration of a concept  first few questions can be trivial – checks students read intro paragraph, gives them confidence  give formative feedback along the way  most effective when done collaboratively (group reaches consensus before answering)  strong, evidence-based history via “Washington Tutorials” and “Lecture Tutorials for introductory astronomy” (interactive activities in Prather et al. [8] (“25% interactive”) is lecture-tutorials + peer instruction) collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • In-class worksheet assessment 27  don’t “go over” the worksheet  that only encourages students to sit and wait for your solutions  don’t post solutions later  again, encourages non-participation  students bring last year’s sol’ns to class collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd  good alternative: ask a clicker question  if students get the question right, they can be confident they successfully completed the worksheet (and you know if they achieved the learning outcome of the activity) force students to self-assess their answers: metacognition
    • Clicker question collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 28 Imagine that you simultaneously receive two pictures of two people that live on planets orbiting two different stars. Each image shows the people at their 21st birthday parties. Which of the following do you think is the most plausible interpretation? A) Both people are the same age but at different distances from you. B) The people are actually different ages but at the same distance from you. C) The person that is closer to you is actually the older of the two people. D) The person that is farther from you is actually the older of the two people. [9]
    • Alternatives to Lecture collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 29 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
    • Discussions collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 30  students share their understanding, opinions, ideas  students hear other students’ ideas, viewpoints  students practice communicating like experts  students get timely feedback from peers and instructor
    • Discussions: Implications for instructors collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 31  ensure students come to class prepared to contribute to the discussion  pre-readings that students want to complete (marks?)  orchestrate activity so EVERY student speaks (not just enthusiastic volunteers)  talking stick, whiffle balls, pass the duck, popsicle sticks, pass around an artefact  build in time/tasks for listening, getting feedback from peers and instructor
    • Alternatives to Lecture collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 32 What do you notice/wonder? peer instruction with clickers interactive demonstrations surveys of opinions reading quizzes whiteboards worksheets discussions videos student-centered instruction
    • Archimedes’ Principle collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 33 In today’s Physics class, we’re going to study buoyancy and Archimedes’ Principle. http://tinyurl.com/TCCdemo (Paul Hewitt video) (Image: Wikimedia Commons – public domain)
    • Opinion: Videos in class 34 In your opinion, the Paul Hewitt video A) is engaging B) is entertaining C) is interactive D) stimulates deep thinking collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd
    • Unlike you, the students do not  select the video  check it contains key events  anticipate key events  recognize key events  interpret key events  relate key events to class concepts Videos in class collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 35 instructor does this before class instructor does this unconsciously, the “curse” of expertise This is what you want to discuss in class! Anticipate & recognize are pre-requisites.
    • Videos: implications for instructors collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 36  Coach the students how to watch the video like an expert: As you watch this video, try to… watch for when the A starts to B. count how often the C does D. watch the needles on the scales as water drains.  Don’t “give away” the key event (Notice the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.) That’s what the follow-up discussion is for: help the students get prepared for that discussion.
    • collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 37 Veritasium (Derek Muller) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2KZb2_vcNTg As you watch the video, notice how Derek talks to the people he interviews.
    • Is Lecture Dead? Alternatives to Lecture38 No! There is still a time and place for lecture. You can lecture (for 10-15 minutes) when the students are prepared to learn  the alt-to-lecture activities have activated the concepts in their memories  they’ve tried, failed, received feedback, tried again and are waiting for confirmation [9]  they’re prepared to intellectually appreciate your expertise you’re about to share with them
    • Week 10: First Day of Class
    • References collegeclassroom.ucsd.edu #tccucsd 40 1. National Research Council (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition. J.D. Bransford, A.L Brown & R.R. Cocking (Eds.),Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 2. Deslauriers, L., Schelew, E., & Wieman, C.E. (2011). Improved Learning in a Large-Enrollment Physics Class. Science 332, 862 – 864. 3. Newbury, P. (23 Aug 2013). You don’t have to wait for the clock to strike to start teaching. Retrieved 3/3/2014 from ctd.ucsd.edu/2013/08/you-dont-have-to-wait-for-the-clock-to-strike-to-start-teaching/. 4. Get the full story of ILDs at serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/demonstrations/index.html 5. Miller, K. (2013). Use demonstrations to teach, not just entertain. The Physics Teacher 51, 570 – 571. 6. Noschese, F. The $2 Interactive Whiteboard. Retrieved November 18, 2013, from fnoschese.wordpress.com/2010/08/06/the-2-interactive-whiteboard/ 7. Seddon, S. Biological Whiteboarding - The use of mini whiteboards in my Biology class. Retrieved November 18, 2013 from totallylearnedas.wordpress.com/2013/11/18/biological-whiteboarding/ 8. Prather, E.E., Slater, T.F., Adams, J.P., & Brissenden, G. (2007). Lecture Tutorials for Introductory Astronomy. (2e). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Addison-Wesley. 9. Prather, E.E., Adams, J.P., Loranz, D.J., Brissenden, G., Slater, T.F., Watson, L, & Wallace, C.S. (2013). Lecture-Tutorials for Introductor Astronomy, Instructor’s Guide. (3e). San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education Inc. 10. Bain, K. (2004) What the best college teachers do. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.