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  • 1. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop 1
  • 2. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 DesktopVersion 1.0Author: Oliver Meyer <o [dot] meyer [at] projektfarm [dot] de>Last edited 12/12/2007This document describes how to set up a CentOS 5.1 desktop. The result is a fast, secure andextendable system that provides all you need for daily work and entertainment.This howto is a practical guide without any warranty - it doesnt cover the theoretical backgrounds.There are many ways to set up such a system - this is the way I chose.1 Install MediaThe install media(s) are available at http://isoredirect.centos.org/centos/5/isos/i386/. I used theDVD-image for this howto.2 InstallationHit "Enter" to start the installation. 2
  • 3. Test your install media if you want. 3
  • 4. The installation wizard is starting.Select your language and proceed. 4
  • 5. Choose your keyboard-layout and proceed. 5
  • 6. Here you can select/edit the partitioning layout.If you chose the manual setup, youll see the following two windows. 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. Here you can adjust the network settings. 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. 10
  • 11. Select the location nearest to yours and configure the clock. Unmark the checkbox if there are otheroperating systems installed, that expects the clock to be set to local time - e.g. Windows. 11
  • 12. Choose a password for the root-account and confirm it. 12
  • 13. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 02Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 03Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 04Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 05Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 06Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 07Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 08 13
  • 14. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 02.Here you can select predefined collections of software. You can also make a custom selection if you markthe corresponding radio button.Select "Packages from CentOS Extras" - a window will pop up, asking for your network configuration. Ifyou have already configured your network settings simply commit it - otherwise configure the settingsnow. 14
  • 15. If you chose the custom selection youll see this and a few following windows. Select a main group onthe left and afterwards one of its subgroups on the right. Now click on "Optional Packages" - youllsee... 15
  • 16. ...this window with a detailed package list. Select or deselect packages as you like. 16
  • 17. Click "Next" if your selection is complete. Dependencies are being checked. 17
  • 18. The system is ready to install - click on "Next". 18
  • 19. The partition(s)/disk(s) are being formatted etc. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. The system is being installed. 23
  • 24. The installation is complete. Remove the install media and reboot the system. 24
  • 25. previous next upInstallation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 03 25
  • 26. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 033 First StartIf theres no reason to do something special wait a few seconds to start with the standard settings.The system is starting up. 26
  • 27. 27
  • 28. This is the first start - the firstboot-wizard appears.Here you can edit the firewall settings if you want. If youre not planning to connect to this computer viassh/scp/sftp etc you can close the corresponding port. 28
  • 29. I recommend to deactivate SELinux - it can cause many problems, especially if youre using softwarefrom additional repositories. 29
  • 30. A reboot is required to make the changes effective. 30
  • 31. Set the actual time and date. 31
  • 32. If you enable the network time protocol, the time will be synchronized with a remote time server. 32
  • 33. Time to add the first user-account to the system. 33
  • 34. The system will test your soundcard (there was no soundcard added to this vm). 34
  • 35. Here you can add software from additional CDs. Afterwards click on "Finish". 35
  • 36. The system has to reboot now. 36
  • 37. When the system is up again, youll see the login window. Log in to the system with the userdata youchose in the firstboot-wizard. 37
  • 38. Welcome to your desktop. 38
  • 39. previous next upInstallation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 02 Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 04 39
  • 40. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 044 Basic ConfigurationIn various parts of this howto you have to switch to the root-account (within a terminal). Theterminal is available in the gnome applications menu. 40
  • 41. Enter the following to switch to the root-account:su -%rootpassword%You can switch back to your user-account with:exit4.1 Yum Plugins & YumexInstall some recommended packages to prevent problems with packages (broken/3rd party)and kernel-modules (root privileges needed):yum install yumex yum-fastestmirror yum-skip-broken yum-kmod yum-kernel-module yum-prioritiesNote: How to manage packages with yumex is described later at step 5. 41
  • 42. After that we add priorities to the default repositories.vi /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repoAdd a priority to each repository-entry - the content should look like this:# CentOS-Base.repo## This file uses a new mirrorlist system developed byLance Davis for CentOS.# The mirror system uses the connecting IP address ofthe client and the# update status of each mirror to pick mirrors thatare updated to and# geographically close to the client. You should usethis for CentOS updates# unless you are manually picking other mirrors.## If the mirrorlist= does not work for you, as a fallback you can try the# remarked out baseurl= line instead.##[base]name=CentOS-$releasever - Basemirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=os#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/os/$basearch/gpgcheck=1 42
  • 43. gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5priority=1#released updates[updates]name=CentOS-$releasever - Updatesmirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=updates#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/updates/$basearch/gpgcheck=1gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5priority=1#packages used/produced in the build but not released[addons]name=CentOS-$releasever - Addonsmirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=addons#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/addons/$basearch/gpgcheck=1gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5priority=1#additional packages that may be useful[extras]name=CentOS-$releasever - Extras 43
  • 44. mirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=extras#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/extras/$basearch/gpgcheck=1gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5priority=1#additional packages that extend functionality ofexisting packages[centosplus]name=CentOS-$releasever - Plusmirrorlist=http://mirrorlist.centos.org/?release=$releasever&arch=$basearch&repo=centosplus#baseurl=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/$releasever/centosplus/$basearch/gpgcheck=1enabled=0gpgkey=http://mirror.centos.org/centos/RPM-GPG-KEY-CentOS-5priority=24.2 RPMforgeThe RPMforge-repository provides many packages like multimedia applications and drivers.4.2.1 Installation 44
  • 45. Install the repository:rpm -ivh http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/i386/RPMS.dag/rpmforge-release-0.3.6-1.el5.rf.i386.rpm4.2.2 PriorityNow lets set a low priority (high number > 10) for this repository.vi /etc/yum.repos.d/rpmforge.repoChange the content that it looks like this:# Name: RPMforge RPM Repository for Red HatEnterprise 5 - dag# URL: http://rpmforge.net/[rpmforge]name = Red Hat Enterprise $releasever - RPMforge.net- dag#baseurl =http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/$basearch/dagmirrorlist = http://apt.sw.be/redhat/el5/en/mirrors-rpmforge#mirrorlist = file:///etc/yum.repos.d/mirrors-rpmforgeenabled = 1protect = 0gpgkey = file:///etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-rpmforge-daggpgcheck = 1priority=11 45
  • 46. 4.3 Remove SoftwareBefore you are going to update the system for the first time you should check if there issoftware installed that you dont need, or rather that you want to replace with anothersoftware. The goal should be a clean system with only the programs installed that you reallyneed.Which programs you should deinstall or replace with others is up to you - youll find asummary of already installed software at step 6 and a little assortment of additional software(including possible replacements for already installed software) at step 7.You can simply deinstall software with the Yum Extender (yumex) - have a look at step 5.4.4 ServicesSome services are enabled by default on your system - maybe some of them are needless(depending on your hardware and your needs). The deactivation of needless services will savesystem resources, so its worth to take a look on the service settings - they are available inthe gnome system menu. 46
  • 47. Enter the root password.Select "Runlevel All". 47
  • 48. 48
  • 49. 4.4.1 Enable Services • Network Manager • Network Manager Dispatcher4.4.2 Disable Services • bluetooth (disable this service if there is no bluetooth device connected to your system) • firstboot (this service is not longer needed) • mdmonitor (disable this service if you havent set up a RAID-system) • pcscd (disbale this service if there is no smart-card device connected to your system) • restorecond (disable this service if you deactivated SELinux) 49
  • 50. • sshd (disable this service if youre not planning to connect to this computer via ssh/scp/sftp etc)If you have a computer with a wlan-card I recommend to disable "network" in all runlevels -otherwise youll have a long boot-time cause the system tries to allocate a dhcp-ip to thisdevice (regardless of the configuration). The network manager will enable the networkautomatically after youve logged in. previous next upInstallation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 03Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 05 50
  • 51. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 05 ::4.5 NautilusNautilus opens a window for every single folder by default - to change this open any folder and editthe settings. Its also a good idea to enable the delete command that bypasses the trash - because ifyou delete something from external storages with the standard delete command, the things will notreally be deleted but moved to a trash on the device (.trash). This trash will not be affected when youdelete the trash on your desktop. 51
  • 52. Now its user-friendly. 52
  • 53. 4.6 FontsIn this step well make the fonts eye-friendly and change the resolution to a value that is used bymost operating systems. The font settings are available in the gnome system menu. 53
  • 54. Choose 9px as font-size for all fonts. Select "Subpixel smoothing" if youre using a LCD-monitor.Afterwards click on "Details".The resolution should be 96dpi. 54
  • 55. 4.7 System UpdateThe system will check for updates automatically and notify you if updates are available. Click on "ViewUpdates". 55
  • 56. Enter the root-password.The update information are being retrieved. 56
  • 57. Youll see a summary of available updates and their details. Click on "Apply updates" to install theupdates.The dependencies are being resolved. 57
  • 58. The updates are being downloaded ... 58
  • 59. ... and installed. 59
  • 60. Sometimes, e.g. when a new kernel was installed, its recommended to reboot the system. 60
  • 61. previous next upInstallation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 04 Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 06 61
  • 62. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 065 Yum ExtenderThe yum extender (a.k.a. yumex) is an easy to use gui for the yum package manager. Withyumex you can install, deinstall or update packages - its available in the gnome applicationsmenu.Enter the root-password. 62
  • 63. Yumex appears - make yourself familiar with the gui. 63
  • 64. 5.1 Deinstall PackagesSelect the radio-button "Installed" - now youll see all installed packages. Browse the list orenter a search term in the corresponding field to find a package.If you find a package that you want to remove simply unmark its checkbox. 64
  • 65. Alternatively you can use the group view. 65
  • 66. This is the package queue - here you can see all the packages that you selected fordeinstallation. If you made a mistake you can remove one or more packages from this list. Ifyou agree to your selection click on "Process Queue" in the bottom right corner. 66
  • 67. If the packages that you want to deinstall have dependencies, theyll also be marked fordeinstallation. Proceed if you agree. 67
  • 68. The packages are being deinstalled. 68
  • 69. Deinstallation finished. Quit yumex or proceed to reload yumex.5.2 Install PackagesSelect the radio-button "Available" - now youll see all installed packages. Browse the list orenter a search term in the corresponding field to find a package. If you find a package thatyou want to install simply mark its checkbox. 69
  • 70. Alternatively you can use the group view. 70
  • 71. The package queue contains all packages that you selected for installation. If you made amistake you can remove one or more packages from this list. 71
  • 72. The dependencies are being resolved, theyll also be marked for installation. 72
  • 73. Proceed if you agree. 73
  • 74. The packages are being downloaded... 74
  • 75. ...checked... 75
  • 76. ...and installed. 76
  • 77. Installation finished. Quit yumex or proceed to reload yumex.6 By Default Installed Software6.1 Multimedia • Rhythmbox (audio player) • Totem (video player)6.2 Graphics 77
  • 78. • Gimp (edit images/photos)6.3 Office • OpenOffice.org (office suite)6.4 Internet • Firefox (web browser) • Evolution (email client) • Ekiga (internet telephony)previous next upInstallation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 05 Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 07 78
  • 79. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 07.7 Additional Software7.1 Recommended7.1.1 Adobe Acrobat ReaderHomepage: http://www.adobe.com/products/reader/With the Adobe Reader you can open PDF-documents.If you want to use the acrobat reader, openhttp://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2_allversions.htm within firefox and choose yourlanguage. 79
  • 80. Click on "Download now" and install the package with the software installer.The plugin for firefox will be installed automatically. If you want to check it, restart firefox and enter 80
  • 81. about:plugins into the url-field. Afterwards you should see this:7.1.2 Adobe Flash PlayerHomepage: http://www.adobe.com/products/flashplayer/Adobe provides an own repository - install the repository-package (root privileges needed):rpm -ivh http://linuxdownload.adobe.com/adobe-release/adobe-release-i386-1.0-1.noarch.rpmAfterwards install the following package: • flash-pluginThe plugin for firefox will be installed automatically. If you want to check it, open firefox and enterabout:plugins into the url-field. Afterwards you should see this:7.1.3 Sun Java JRE 81
  • 82. Homepage: http://java.sun.com/Suns JAVA JRE adds full Java support to your system. If you want to use Suns JAVA, openhttp://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index.jsp within firefox and download the Linux self-extracting file - NOT the Linux RPM in self-extracting file.The following steps require root privileges. Please note that you have to edit the followingcommands if your Java version is newer than the one I downloaded.mv /home/%your_username%/Desktop/jre-6u3-linux-i586.bin /opt/cd /opt/chmod +x jre-6u3-linux-i586.bin./jre-6u3-linux-i586.binAccept the license agreement and proceed.rm -f jre-6u3-linux-i586.binln -s /opt/jre1.6.0_03/plugin/i386/ns7/libjavaplugin_oji.so /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/gedit /etc/profile.d/java.shIt should look like this:export J2RE_HOME=/opt/jre1.6.0_03export PATH=$J2RE_HOME/bin:$PATHNote: You have to add an empty line at the end of the file!source /etc/profile.d/java.shalternatives --install /usr/bin/java java /opt/jre1.6.0_03/bin/java 2/usr/sbin/alternatives --config javaSelect the new Java JRE2Now lets check if all went ok./usr/sbin/alternatives --display javaThe first two lines of the output should look like this:java - status is manual.link currently points to /opt/jre1.6.0_03/bin/java 82
  • 83. Additionally you have to install the following package to ensure that the firefox-plugin will workproper. • compat-libstdc++-33Open firefox and enter about:plugins into the url-field. Afterwards you should see this: 83
  • 84. 7.1.4 NTFS-3GHomepage: http://www.ntfs-3g.org/The NTFS-3G driver provides ntfs read/write support.If you want to use the ntfs-3g driver, install the following packages: • fuse • fuse-ntfs-3g • dkms • dkms-fuse7.1.5 Microsofts True Type Core FontsSome fonts, including Arial, Times New Roman and Verdana for example.If you want to use these fonts, open http://www.mjmwired.net/resources/mjm-fedora-fc6.html#ttfwithin your browser and install the package with the software installer (simply click on it).7.1.6 W32codecs & OthersCodecs needed to play MS and some other video formats.If you want to use these codecs open a terminal and enter (root privileges needed):cd /tmp/wget http://www.mplayerhq.hu/MPlayer/releases/codecs/all-20071007.tar.bz2tar xfvj all-20071007.tar.bz2mkdir /usr/lib/codecs/cp all-20071007/* /usr/lib/codecs/ln -s /usr/lib/codecs/ /usr/lib/win327.2 Replacements 84
  • 85. 7.2.1 MPlayer (possible replacement for totem)Homepage: http://www.mplayerhq.huMPlayer is a video player with many features - supporting nearly every known video format, e.g.MPEG/VOB, AVI, Ogg/OGM, VIVO, ASF/WMA/WMV, QT/MOV/MP4, RealMedia, Matroska, NUT,NuppelVideo, FLI, YUV4MPEG, FILM, RoQ and PVA (the codecs from step 7.1.6 are needed tosupport some of the listed formats).If you want to use the mplayer, deinstall the following package... • totem...and install these packages: • mplayer • mplayer-fonts 85
  • 86. • mplayer-skins • mplayerplug-in7.2.2 Xmms (possible replacement for rhythmbox)Homepage: http://www.xmms.org/Xmms is a lean audio-player.If you want to use xmms, deinstall the following package... • rhythmbox...and install these packages: • xmms • xmms-mp3 • xmms-skins 86
  • 87. 7.3 Optional7.3.1 UnrarWith this package youll be able to unpack rar-files. If you want to use unrar, install the followingpackage: • unrar7.3.2 Network Traffic AppletWith this applet you can monitor the speed of your network devices.If you want to use the network traffic applet, install the following package: • gnome-applet-netspeedAfterwards add the applet to the gnome-panel. Right click on the panel, choose "Add to panel" andselect the applet. 87
  • 88. 7.3.3 Bittorrent (bittorrent client)Bittorrent is an easy to use bittorrent client.If you want to use bittorrent, install the following package: 88
  • 89. • bittorrent • bittorrent-gui7.3.4 K3BHomepage: http://www.k3b.org/K3B is a burning suite with a lot of features.If you want to use K3B, install the following packages: • k3b • k3b-extras • transcode • vcdimagerprevious next up 89
  • 90. Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 06 Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 08Installation Guide: CentOS 5.1 Desktop - Page 08Do you like HowtoForge? Please consider to support us bybecoming a subscriber. Submitted by o.meyer (Contact Author) (Forums) on Wed, 2007-12-12 18:53. ::7.3.5 Skype (only beta for CentOS 5.x at the moment)Homepage: http://www.skype.com/Skype is a software for internet telephony, instant messaging etc.If you want to use skype, open a terminal and enter (root privileges needed):cd /tmp/wget http://www.skype.com/go/getskype-linux-beta-centoswget http://www.skype.com/products/skype/linux/rpm-public-key.ascrpm --import rpm-public-key.ascyum localinstall skype-<version>-centos.i586.rpmNote: If the gpg-key is not available, you have to disable the gpg-check in the yum 90
  • 91. configuration (vi /etc/yum.conf) before you do the localinstall. Keep in mind that you turn it on again afterwards.7.3.6 AudacityHomepage: http://audacity.sourceforge.net/Audacity is a software to edit audio files.If you want to use Audacity, install the following package: • audacity7.3.7 Streamtuner 91
  • 92. Homepage: http://www.nongnu.org/streamtuner/Streamtuner is a stream directory browser. With Streamtuner you can listen toSHOUTcast-streams etc.If you want to use Streamtuner, install the following package: • streamtuner7.3.8 FireFTPHomepage: http://fireftp.mozdev.org/FireFTP is an extension for Firefox. It provides an easy to use, full featured ftp client. Itcan be startet without firefox from the gnome applications menu. 92
  • 93. If you want to use FireFTP, open https://addons.mozilla.org/en-US/firefox/addon/684within Firefox and click on "Install Now". 93
  • 94. Accept the installation: 94
  • 95. After the installation is finished restart Firefox. FireFTP is available in the upper menu orwhen you right click on an ftp-link. 95
  • 96. Create a new launcher in the gnome applications menu to start FireFTP without Firefox.Open the main menu editor.Click on "Internet" on the left side and afterwards on "New item" on the right side.Insert/select the following in the launcher-window:Name: FireFTPCommand: firefox -chrome chrome://fireftp/content/Comment: FTP ClientOptional choose an icon for the new launcher. 96
  • 97. 7.3.9 GpartedHomepage: http://gparted.sourceforge.net/With gparted you are able to resize, move and format partitions - many file systems aresupported. 97
  • 98. If you want to use gparted, install the following packages: • gparted • xfsprogs • hfsutils7.3.10 XChatHomepage: http://www.xchat.org/With XChat you can join multiple IRC channels (Internet Relay Chat). File transfer issupported. You can customize XChat with various scripts and plugins. 98
  • 99. If you want to use xchat, install the following package: • xchat7.3.11 WineHomepage: http://www.winehq.org/Taken from the Wine Homepage: "Wine is an Open Source implementation of the WindowsAPI on top of X, OpenGL, and Unix".With wine you can run a lot of Windows software on Linux. A list of software that is knownto work on wine can be found on http://appdb.winehq.org/. 99
  • 100. If you want to use wine, install the following package: • wine7.3.12 VMware ServerHomepage: http://www.vmware.com/products/server/With VMware Server you can install guest operating systems as Windows, Linux, NetWareor Solaris. 100
  • 101. 101
  • 102. If you want to use the VMware-Server, install the following packages: • kernel-devel • xinetd • gcc • gcc-c++Afterwards open http://www.vmware.com/download/server/ within your browser. Installthe latest version with the software-installer and register to get a serial number. 102
  • 103. Install it with the software installer.Next configure the VMware Server (root privileges needed).vmware-config.plAnswer all the questions with "yes" and accept the license agreement (if you agree withit). After that youll be asked a few questions about install paths etc. - simply hit enter forevery question. The VMware Server is now available in the gnome applications menu.8 LinksCentOS: http://www.centos.org/CentOS Wiki: http://wiki.centos.org/ 103