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EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native
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EFL: Unlocking Learner Motivation In The Age Of The Digital Native

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In terms of teaching teens and young adults, we live in a bi-polar EFL world: Digital Immigrants teaching Digital Natives. We need to adapt our approach to today's realities (and expanded …

In terms of teaching teens and young adults, we live in a bi-polar EFL world: Digital Immigrants teaching Digital Natives. We need to adapt our approach to today's realities (and expanded possibilities) if these learners are to reach their full potential.
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  • 1. Unlocking Learner Mo/va/on In The Age Of The   Digital Na/ve  Paul Maglione                Co‐founder  TESOL France  27 November 2010 
  • 2. The internet  is now  20 years old 
  • 3. 1910  2010 
  • 4. “A subordina,ng conjunc,on always comes at  the beginning of a subordinate clause. It  "introduces" a subordinate clause. However, a  subordinate clause can some,mes come a>er  and some,mes before a main clause….” 
  • 5.  It’s high Fme we put these four things  together and came up with a more effecFve  way of moFvaFng learning and teaching  English to teens and young adults.  
  • 6. Who Are Teens?    What’s going on with their lives?   -  hormones / sexual development  -  independence / autonomy  -  quesFoning of authority / rebellion  -  social hyperacFvity / peer pressure    What’s going on with their future?   -  pressure over educaFon, career  prospects, type of friends, values    What are their cultural references?    What is their relaFonship with  educaFon?     English: how do they see it as  relevant to them? 
  • 7. What else do we know about teens?   Their brains  are in a very  specific      state of  development. 
  • 8. last  1st  Prefrontal  Cortex  Limbic  System  • Physical     Coordina/on    • Emo/on  • Mo/va/on  • Reasoning  • Organizing,  priori/zing  informa/on      • Control of  Impulses  Not fully mature  un.l age 25!  Teen Brain  Development   Phenomenon #1 
  • 9. Maturing of brain as  Grey MaUer is lost   Adolescent Pruning Of Brain Cells  The brain selecFvely strengthens or  prunes neurons based on acFvity.   Synapses conFnually used will flourish;  those that are not used will wither away.      Teen Brain  Development   Phenomenon #2 
  • 10. Teen Brain  Development   Phenomenon #3  Mylena/on (increase in White MaTer)  Speeds the   brain’s  informaFon‐ processing  capacity  equivalent to   3,000 X  increase in  computer  bandwidth 
  • 11. The Teen Brain: UNDER CONSTRUCTION  A framework, not an empty structure wai/ng to be filled 
  • 12. EFL teaching implica/ons  Phased teenage brain development 
  • 13.          video, music,  movement, news,  games, anecdotes      worksheets, lectures,  objecFve texts  +  ‐  Use teen craving for  NOVELTY and EXCITEMENT  to get their ATTENTION   
  • 14.  Break large, long‐term  assignments down into  short‐term objec/ves        Remind them of  concepts, objec/ves  and deadlines  frequently. 
  • 15.  Teens can only focus  on someone talking for  15 minutes at a Fme   they need a change  in state of mind every  20 minutes.  Use short formats
  • 16. For young  (13 – 16)   teens, don’t  make topics  too abstract  Keep It Real 
  • 17.   INTEGRATE THIS  into Communica/ve  Task Work  The teenage brain   NEEDS to CONNECT   
  • 18. EFL teaching implica/ons  “Use it or lose it” brain cell pruning 
  • 19. Focus material on what  they see as relevant and  useful to them  •  RelaFonships  •  The environment  •  Racism / Diversity  •  JusFce  •  Jobs / Careers  •  Independence 
  • 20.  Get them to not just read a vocabulary item,  but also…    use it in a sentence use it in a story  see a photo of it  play a game based on it   hear it in a song unjumble it  hear it spoken by a famous actor  Repe//on with varia/on 
  • 21. EFL teaching implica/ons  Explosion in brain processing power 
  • 22. Exposure             Input                      Intake                  
  • 23.  MulFple exposures  to language items in  different but similar  contexts reinforces  retenFon.   Manageable chunks,   always in a context 
  • 24.  Ask :     How       What       Why  Provide ANALYTICAL   CHALLENGES that s/mulate   higher‐order thinking 
  • 25. Don’t forget: male and female  adolescents mature at different rates  Grey cell  pruning  starts at age  10 – 12     Grey cell pruning  starts at age 14 – 16     Boys and girls may  be ready to absorb  challenging material  at different stages. 
  • 26. …also don’t forget: the average teen is  SLEEP DEPRIVED Physiologically,  teens require  9.25 hours of  sleep.   Most teens  report sleeping   5 hours or less  per 24‐hour  period.   Sleep  deprivaFon  makes it more  difficult for most  students to  learn, remember  and think  crea/vely.  
  • 27. WHAT ABOUT EFL PEDAGOGY?             What have we learned these past 20 years? 
  • 28. MOST of these match up with Cogni/ve Neuroscience‐based  principles for engaging teens and young adults  NEW EFL  Approaches 
  • 29.    One of the things they really enjoy, even  seem addicted to, is VIDEOGAMES. Why?  What else do we know about teens? 
  • 30. What can we learn (and adopt) from  Video Games?  •  Failure is part of the game  •  Try and try again without sFgma   •  RepeFFon breeds competence  •  PosiFve reinforcement all the ,me  •  PosiFve vs. negaFve stress  •  Level design: progress to next level is  always a challenge, but achievable  •  Progress = status enhancement  •  Social (mulFplayer gaming; leader boards;  in‐game chat; challenge‐a‐friend) 
  • 31. Where it all comes together for teens:  MOTIVATION
  • 32. Understanding Learner MoFvaFon  •  The “neglected heart” of our understanding of  how to design instrucFon.   •  ParFcularly an issue for teens, due to:   ZZZZZZZ 
  • 33. Learner MoFvaFon For Teens   Exploit learners’ natural curiosity to explore the  world, which is at its most powerful during  teenage and young adult years    
  • 34. Learner MoFvaFon For Teens   Make the  input material  relevant to  them.    Do they  believe that  what they are  learning will  be useful to  them soon?  
  • 35. Learner MoFvaFon  for Teens   “The simplest  way to ensure  that people  value what  they are doing  is to maximise  their free  choice and  autonomy”                    ‐ Good & Brophy, 2004 
  • 36. Learner MoFvaFon for Teens   Three strategies* to encourage posiFve  self‐evaluaFon:    Promote / Reward  Effort   rather than   Ability    Provide  Mo/va/onal  Feedback  Increase  MoFvaFon   via   Rewards,   not Grades              *Dornyei, 2001 
  • 37.  A word about   technology… 
  • 38. Class Time Is Precious Time:   Technology Can Op/mize It  •  Exposure / input and repeFFon:   outside the classroom as much  as possible.                 •  Use precious class Fme for:  •  discussion  •  interac/on  •  group work  •  tasks requiring teacher  supervision  •  face‐to‐face intelligent error  correc/on 
  • 39. The Web allows learners to go beyond  learning: to create 
  • 40. #efl  #esl  #elt  #edtech  #iatefl  #tesol #eltchat   Some Ed‐Tech Gurus 
  • 41. Some final points about teens and EFL 
  • 42.  Language is part of one’s iden/ty and is used to  convey this idenFty to others.  
  • 43.  Teens’ idenFty is in  full‐swing evoluFon,  so both L1  sophisFcaFon and L2  learning have a  significant impact on  the social being of  the learner.  *Thanasoulas, 2007 
  • 44.  If we can integrate  English into teens’  idea of self, we  turbo‐charge their  learning, retenFon,  and enjoyment of the  process.   *Thanasoulas, 2007 
  • 45. Unlocking Learner Mo/va/on   In The Age Of The Digital Na/ve      TwiTer:     @paulmaglione         @englishaTack    Web:       www.english‐aTack.com  Blog:      hTp://blog.english‐aTack.com    E‐mail:     paul.maglione@english‐aTack.com  LinkedIn:    Paul Maglione     

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