The Web map stack on Django

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My EuroDjangoCon talk about how EveryBlock has used Mapnik and GeoDjango to create our own maps.

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The Web map stack on Django

  1. The Web map stack on Django Paul Smith http://www.pauladamsmith.com/ @paulsmith EveryBlock EuroDjangoCon ‘09
  2. Data types
  3. 11 metros Boston Philadelphia ● ● Charlotte San Francisco ● ● Chicago San Jose ● ● Los Angeles Seattle ● ● Miami Washington, DC ● ● New York … and growing ●
  4. Open source This summer
  5. Why?
  6. Control design
  7. Prioritize visualizations
  8. The Web map stack
  9. The Web map stack
  10. The Web map stack
  11. The Web map stack
  12. The Web map stack
  13. GeoDjango + Mapnik example app “Your Political Footprint”
  14. Mapnik overview
  15. # models.py from django.contrib.gis.db import models class CongressionalDistrict(models.Model): state = models.ForeignKey(State) name = models.CharField(max_length=32) # ex. 1st, 25th, at-large number = models.IntegerField() # 0 if at-large district = models.MultiPolygonField(srid=4326) objects = models.GeoManager() def __unicode__(self): return '%s %s' % (self.state.name, self.name) class Footprint(models.Model): location = models.CharField(max_length=200) point = models.PointField(srid=4326) cong_dist = models.ForeignKey(CongressionalDistrict) objects = models.GeoManager() def __unicode__(self): return '%s in %s' % (self.location, self.cong_dist)
  16. GET /tile/?bbox=-112.5,22.5,-90,45
  17. # urls.py from django.conf import settings from django.conf.urls.defaults import * from edc_demo.footprint import views urlpatterns = patterns('', (r'^footprint/', views.political_footprint), (r'^tile/', views.map_tile) )
  18. # views.py from mapnik import * from django.http import HttpResponse, Http404 from django.conf import settings from edc_demo.footprint.models import CongressionalDistrict TILE_WIDTH = TILE_HEIGHT = 256 TILE_MIMETYPE = 'image/png' LIGHT_GREY = '#C0CCC4' PGIS_DB_CONN = dict( host=settings.DATABASE_HOST, dbname=settings.DATABASE_NAME, user=settings.DATABASE_USER, password=settings.DATABASE_PASSWORD) def map_tile(request): if request.GET.has_key('bbox'): bbox = [float(x) for x in request.GET['bbox'].split(',')] tile = Map(TILE_WIDTH, TILE_HEIGHT) rule = Rule() rule.symbols.append(LineSymbolizer(Color(LIGHT_GREY), 1.0)) style = Style() style.rules.append(rule) tile.append_style('cong_dist', style) layer = Layer('cong_dists') db_table = CongressionalDistrict._meta.db_table layer.datasource = PostGIS(table=db_table, **PGIS_DB_CONN) layer.styles.append('cong_dist') tile.layers.append(layer) tile.zoom_to_box(Envelope(*bbox)) img = Image(tile.width, tile.height) render(tile, img) img_bytes = img.tostring(TILE_MIMETYPE.split('/')[1]) return HttpResponse(img_bytes, mimetype=TILE_MIMETYPE) else: raise Http404()
  19. # views.py cont'd from django.shortcuts import render_to_response from edc_demo.footprint.geocoder import geocode def political_footprint(request): context = {} if request.GET.has_key('location'): point = geocode(request.GET['location']) cd = CongressionalDistrict.objects.get(district__contains=point) footprint = Footprint.objects.create( location = request.GET['location'], point = point, cong_dist = cd ) context['footprint'] = footprint context['cd_bbox'] = cong_dist.district.extent return render_to_response('footprint.html', context)
  20. // footprint.html <script type=quot;text/javascriptquot;> var map; var TileLayerClass = OpenLayers.Class(OpenLayers.Layer.TMS, { initialize: function(footprint_id) { var name = quot;tilesquot;; var url = quot;http://127.0.0.1:8000/tile/quot;; var args = []; args.push(name, url, {}, {}); OpenLayers.Layer.Grid.prototype.initialize.apply(this, args); this.footprint_id = footprint_id; }, getURL: function(bounds) { var url = this.url + quot;?bbox=quot; + bounds.toBBOX(); if (this.footprint_id) url += quot;&fp_id=quot; + this.footprint_id; return url; } }); function onload() { var options = { minScale: 19660800, numZoomLevels: 14, units: quot;degreesquot; }; map = new OpenLayers.Map(quot;mapquot;); {% if not footprint %} var bbox = new OpenLayers.Bounds(-126.298828, 17.578125, -64.775391, 57.128906); var tileLayer = new TileLayerClass(); {% else %} var bbox = new OpenLayers.Bounds({{ cd_bbox|join:quot;, quot; }}); var tileLayer = new TileLayerClass({{ footprint.id }}); {% endif %} map.addLayer(tileLayer); map.zoomToExtent(bbox); }
  21. # views.py from edc_demo.footprint.models import Footprint def map_tile(request): if request.GET.has_key('bbox'): bbox = [float(x) for x in request.GET['bbox'].split(',')] tile = Map(TILE_WIDTH, TILE_HEIGHT) rule = Rule() rule.symbols.append(LineSymbolizer(Color(LIGHT_GREY), 1.0)) style = Style() style.rules.append(rule) if request.GET.has_key('fp_id'): footprint = Footprint.objects.get(pk=request.GET['fp_id']) rule = Rule() rule.symbols.append(LineSymbolizer(Color(GREEN), 1.0)) rule.symbols.append(PolygonSymbolizer(Color(LIGHT_GREEN))) rule.filter = Filter('[id] = ' + str(footprint.cong_dist.id)) style.rules.append(rule) tile.append_style('cong_dist', style) layer = Layer('cong_dists') db_table = CongressionalDistrict._meta.db_table layer.datasource = PostGIS(table=db_table, **PGIS_DB_CONN) layer.styles.append('cong_dist') tile.layers.append(layer) if request.GET.has_key('fp_id'): add_footprint_layer(tile, footprint) tile.zoom_to_box(Envelope(*bbox)) img = Image(tile.width, tile.height) render(tile, img) img_bytes = img.tostring(TILE_MIMETYPE.split('/')[1]) return HttpResponse(img_bytes, mimetype=TILE_MIMETYPE) else: raise Http404()
  22. # views.py cont'd def add_footprint_layer(tile, footprint): rule = Rule() rule.symbols.append( PointSymbolizer( os.path.join(settings.STATIC_MEDIA_DIR, 'img', 'footprint.png'), 'png', 46, 46) ) rule.filter = Filter('[id] = ' + str(footprint.id)) style = Style() style.rules.append(rule) tile.append_style('footprint', style) layer = Layer('footprint') layer.datasource = PostGIS(table=Footprint._meta.db_table, **PGIS_DB_CONN) layer.styles.append('footprint') tile.layers.append(layer)
  23. Serving tiles
  24. Zoom levels
  25. Tile example z: 5, x: 2384, y: 1352
  26. TileCache pro con Cache population Python overhead ● ● integrated with (rendering, serving) request/response cycle Flexible storage ●
  27. Pre-render + custom nginx mod pro con Fast responses Render everything in ● ● advance Parallelizable, offline ● rendering C module inflexibility ● (esp. storage backends)
  28. Tile rendering for each zoom level z: for each column x: for each row y: render tile (x, y, z)
  29. Tile rendering for each zoom level z: for each column x: for each row y: render tile (x, y, z)
  30. Tile rendering for each zoom level z: for each column x: for each row y: render tile (x, y, z)
  31. Tile rendering for each zoom level z: for each column x: for each row y: render tile (x, y, z)
  32. # nginx.conf server { server_name tile.example.com root /var/www/maptiles; expires max; location ~* ^/[^/]+/w+/d+/d+,d+.(jpg|gif|png)$ { tilecache; } }
  33. // ngx_tilecache_mod.c /* * This struct holds the attributes that uniquely identify a map tile. */ typedef struct { u_char *version; u_char *name; int x; int y; int z; u_char *ext; } tilecache_tile_t; /* * The following regex pattern matches the request URI for a tile and * creates capture groups for the tile attributes. Example request URI: * * /1.0/main/8/654,23.png * * would map to the following attributes: * * version: 1.0 * name: main * z: 8 * x: 654 * y: 23 * extension: png */ static ngx_str_t tile_request_pat = ngx_string(quot;^/([^/]+)/([^/]+)/([0-9]+)/([0-9]+),([0-9]+).([a-z]+)$quot;);
  34. // ngx_tilecache_mod.c u_char * get_disk_key(u_char *s, u_char *name, int x, int y, int z, u_char *ext) { u_int a, b, c, d, e, f; a = x / 100000; b = (x / 1000) % 1000; c = x % 1000; d = y / 100000; e = (y / 1000) % 1000; f = y % 1000; return ngx_sprintf(s, quot;/%s/%02d/%03d/%03d/%03d/%03d/%03d/%03d.%squot;, name, z, a, b, c, d, e, f, ext); } static ngx_int_t ngx_tilecache_handler(ngx_http_request_t *r) { // ... snip ... sub_uri.data = ngx_pcalloc(r->pool, len + 1); if (sub_uri.data == NULL) { return NGX_ERROR; } get_disk_key(sub_uri.data, tile->name, tile->x, tile->y, tile->z, tile->ext); sub_uri.len = ngx_strlen(sub_uri.data); return ngx_http_internal_redirect(r, &sub_uri, &r->args); }
  35. Custom tile cache technique responsibility Far-future expiry Tile versions for cache ● ● header expires max; invalidation
  36. // everyblock.js eb.TileLayer = OpenLayers.Class(OpenLayers.Layer.TMS, { version: null, // see eb.TILE_VERSION layername: null, // lower-cased: quot;mainquot;, quot;locatorquot; type: null, // i.e., mime-type extension: quot;pngquot;, quot;jpgquot;, quot;gifquot; initialize: function(name, url, options) { var args = []; args.push(name, url, {}, options); OpenLayers.Layer.TMS.prototype.initialize.apply(this, args); }, // Returns an object with the x, y, and z of a tile for a given bounds getCoordinate: function(bounds) { bounds = this.adjustBounds(bounds); var res = this.map.getResolution(); var x = Math.round((bounds.left - this.tileOrigin.lon) / (res * this.tileSize.w)); var y = Math.round((bounds.bottom - this.tileOrigin.lat) / (res * this.tileSize.h)); var z = this.map.getZoom(); return {x: x, y: y, z: z}; }, getPath: function(x, y, z) { return this.version + quot;/quot; + this.layername + quot;/quot; + z + quot;/quot; + x + quot;,quot; + y + quot;.quot; + this.type; }, getURL: function(bounds) { var coord = this.getCoordinate(bounds); var path = this.getPath(coord.x, coord.y, coord.z); var url = this.url; if (url instanceof Array) url = this.selectUrl(path, url); return url + path; }, CLASS_NAME: quot;eb.TileLayerquot; });
  37. Clustering
  38. # cluster.py import math from everyblock.maps.clustering.models import Bunch def euclidean_distance(a, b): return math.hypot(a[0] - b[0], a[1] - b[1]) def buffer_cluster(objects, radius, dist_fn=euclidean_distance): bunches = [] buffer_ = radius for key, point in objects.iteritems(): bunched = False for bunch in bunches: if dist_fn(point, bunch.center) <= buffer_: bunch.add_obj(key, point) bunched = True break if not bunched: bunches.append(Bunch(key, point)) return bunches
  39. # bunch.py class Bunch(object): def __init__(self, obj, point): self.objects = [] self.points = [] self.center = (0, 0) self.add_obj(obj, point) def add_obj(self, obj, point): self.objects.append(obj) self.points.append(point) self.update_center(point) def update_center(self, point): xs = [p[0] for p in self.points] ys = [p[1] for p in self.points] self.center = (sum(xs) * 1.0 / len(self.objects), sum(ys) * 1.0 / len(self.objects))
  40. # cluster_scale.py from everyblock.maps import utils from everyblock.maps.clustering import cluster def cluster_by_scale(objs, radius, scale, extent=(-180, -90, 180, 90)): resolution = utils.get_resolution(scale) # Translate from lng/lat into coordinate system of the display. objs = dict([(k, utils.px_from_lnglat(v, resolution, extent)) for k, v in objs.iteritems()]) bunches = [] for bunch in cluster.buffer_cluster(objs, radius): # Translate back into lng/lat. bunch.center = utils.lnglat_from_px(bunch.center, resolution, extent) bunches.append(bunch) return bunches
  41. Sneak peek
  42. Sneak peek
  43. Sneak peek
  44. Thank you http://www.pauladamsmith.com/ @paulsmith paulsmith@gmail.com Further exploration: “How to Lie with Maps” Mark Monmonier
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