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Further studies in behaviour        Sheikh and Earn
Introduction to E.6•Natural selection extended tosocieties•Consider selfish genes as the unitof natural selection•Advanced...
The Prisoner’s Dilemma                       Sells friend out (betrayal)                                                  ...
Social structure of the eusocial Honeybees   • Honeybees organise themselves into the following      hierarchy       • Que...
Social organisation of elephants• The african elephant lives in herds or 10-20 females• The herd is lead by a matriarch fe...
Mathematics behind altruism•    Hamilton’s Law: rB > C•    r = relatedness between the recipient     and the altruist     ...
TWO EXAMPLES OF ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOUR IN NONHUMAN ANIMALS
FORAGING BEHAVIOUR• FOOD is essential (well duh)• Advantage of foraging: gaining Calories• Animals tend to optimise foragi...
Small-Mouth Bass• The bass has two main food sources.    • Minnows - easy to digest, more energy/unit, more      difficult ...
FORAGING BEHAVIOUR of the BLUEGILL FISH              daphnia aka water fleas
Male Selection leads to Exaggerated Traits•Consider the peacock•Peacocks long tail = exaggerated so female picks = more of...
Rhythmical Behaviour Patterns• Animals often show behaviour which appears rhythmic• Daily patterns are regulated by biolog...
Rhythmical Behaviour Patterns - Magicicada• Some species emerges every 17 years,  Others every 13 years or 7 years• Life i...
Rhythmical Behaviour Patterns - Fiddler Crab• Their courtship is based on the phases of the moon• The lunar cycle determin...
Blue questions             QUIZ TIMERed questions
1. Describe a drone.
1. Describe a drone.A drone is a haploid male honeybee that does  nothing but have sex with the queen bee.
2. Give an example of altruistic behaviour that was                 not discussed.
3. In high prey density conditions, what size of        Daphnias do bluegill fish prefer?
3. In high prey density conditions, what size of        Daphnias do bluegill fish prefer?                           Large
4. Identify one problem with altruistic behaviour over evolutionary time.
4. Identify one problem with altruistic   behaviour over evolutionary time.The behaviour may linger on while its benefits m...
5. How is it that peacocks are able to survive  to lay eggs even with a tail that obviously          exposes them to preda...
5. How is it that peacocks are able to surviveand lay eggs even with a tail that may expose              them to predators...
TRIVIAL CLASSMATE QUESTIONS!!!
1. What is Ms. Paige’s middle name?
1. What is Ms. Paige’s middle name?               Anne
2. What do I call my co-presenter?
2. What do I call my co-presenter?              Sheikh
3. Name one game Thon plays in class.
4. Who has longer hair? Narissa or Leena?
5. Who here is from Chennai?
5. Who here is from Chennai?           Sugan
6. Who recently changed his/her name?
6. Who recently changed his/her name?                Mint
7. Where is Ms. Paige from?
7. Where is Ms. Paige from?       Santa Fe, NM
8. Spell Perle’s last name. You have 10    seconds to spell it without error.
8. Spell Perle’s last name. You have 10    seconds to spell it without error.           Narumit - something
9. In the E.2 presentation, approximately howmany times did Thon use the word ‘basically’?       (as counted meticulously ...
9. In the E.2 presentation, approximately howmany times did Thon use the word ‘basically’?       (as counted meticulously ...
Thanks for listening.
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E6- Further studies of Behavior

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  • Transcript of "E6- Further studies of Behavior"

    1. 1. Further studies in behaviour Sheikh and Earn
    2. 2. Introduction to E.6•Natural selection extended tosocieties•Consider selfish genes as the unitof natural selection•Advanced social structures arebased on kin selection •Consider the game known as the prisoner’s dilemma
    3. 3. The Prisoner’s Dilemma Sells friend out (betrayal) A Keeps quiet (cooperation)Sells friend out A is jailed for life, B (betrayal) Both are jailed for life gets releasedB Both are jailed for a(cooperation) Keeps quiet B is jailed for life, A year and remain gets released friends :-)
    4. 4. Social structure of the eusocial Honeybees • Honeybees organise themselves into the following hierarchy • Queen - Diploid, fertile, lays eggs, female (quite obviously) • Workers - Diploid, female, workers • Drones - Haploid, male, useless except for sex
    5. 5. Social organisation of elephants• The african elephant lives in herds or 10-20 females• The herd is lead by a matriarch female• Any calf may suckle on any nursing cow
    6. 6. Mathematics behind altruism• Hamilton’s Law: rB > C• r = relatedness between the recipient and the altruist • e.g. r = 0.5 between a parent and a child• B = reproductive benefit(s)• C = reproductive costs
    7. 7. TWO EXAMPLES OF ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOUR IN NONHUMAN ANIMALS
    8. 8. FORAGING BEHAVIOUR• FOOD is essential (well duh)• Advantage of foraging: gaining Calories• Animals tend to optimise foraging • Such that energy gained > energy spent• Consider the cost-benefit analysis
    9. 9. Small-Mouth Bass• The bass has two main food sources. • Minnows - easy to digest, more energy/unit, more difficult to catch • Crayfish - more difficult to digest, less energy/unit, easy to catch
    10. 10. FORAGING BEHAVIOUR of the BLUEGILL FISH daphnia aka water fleas
    11. 11. Male Selection leads to Exaggerated Traits•Consider the peacock•Peacocks long tail = exaggerated so female picks = more offspring but too much isn’t good = extreme = attract predator.
    12. 12. Rhythmical Behaviour Patterns• Animals often show behaviour which appears rhythmic• Daily patterns are regulated by biological clocks or external environmental clues
    13. 13. Rhythmical Behaviour Patterns - Magicicada• Some species emerges every 17 years, Others every 13 years or 7 years• Life is spent underground as a nymph, with a few days after emergence as an adult to breed• Advantageous because of predator’s inability to coordinate their own cyclic behaviour to a prime number
    14. 14. Rhythmical Behaviour Patterns - Fiddler Crab• Their courtship is based on the phases of the moon• The lunar cycle determines the best tidal periods for the release of crab eggs• Advantageous because the crab eggs need the tide to be transferred to the open ocean, where crab larvae thrive
    15. 15. Blue questions QUIZ TIMERed questions
    16. 16. 1. Describe a drone.
    17. 17. 1. Describe a drone.A drone is a haploid male honeybee that does nothing but have sex with the queen bee.
    18. 18. 2. Give an example of altruistic behaviour that was not discussed.
    19. 19. 3. In high prey density conditions, what size of Daphnias do bluegill fish prefer?
    20. 20. 3. In high prey density conditions, what size of Daphnias do bluegill fish prefer? Large
    21. 21. 4. Identify one problem with altruistic behaviour over evolutionary time.
    22. 22. 4. Identify one problem with altruistic behaviour over evolutionary time.The behaviour may linger on while its benefits may no longer be there (e.g. dolphins helping whales, our own tendency to donate to places like Africa)
    23. 23. 5. How is it that peacocks are able to survive to lay eggs even with a tail that obviously exposes them to predators?
    24. 24. 5. How is it that peacocks are able to surviveand lay eggs even with a tail that may expose them to predators? Lame joke alert... only peahens lay eggs
    25. 25. TRIVIAL CLASSMATE QUESTIONS!!!
    26. 26. 1. What is Ms. Paige’s middle name?
    27. 27. 1. What is Ms. Paige’s middle name? Anne
    28. 28. 2. What do I call my co-presenter?
    29. 29. 2. What do I call my co-presenter? Sheikh
    30. 30. 3. Name one game Thon plays in class.
    31. 31. 4. Who has longer hair? Narissa or Leena?
    32. 32. 5. Who here is from Chennai?
    33. 33. 5. Who here is from Chennai? Sugan
    34. 34. 6. Who recently changed his/her name?
    35. 35. 6. Who recently changed his/her name? Mint
    36. 36. 7. Where is Ms. Paige from?
    37. 37. 7. Where is Ms. Paige from? Santa Fe, NM
    38. 38. 8. Spell Perle’s last name. You have 10 seconds to spell it without error.
    39. 39. 8. Spell Perle’s last name. You have 10 seconds to spell it without error. Narumit - something
    40. 40. 9. In the E.2 presentation, approximately howmany times did Thon use the word ‘basically’? (as counted meticulously by Earn)
    41. 41. 9. In the E.2 presentation, approximately howmany times did Thon use the word ‘basically’? (as counted meticulously by Earn) ~23
    42. 42. Thanks for listening.
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